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Here we review the potential of ILB 938 (IG 12132 – doi: 10.18730/60FD2), a unique faba bean accession originating from the Andean region of Colombia and Ecuador, maintained at ICARDA – International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, with resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses and carrying some useful morphological markers. It has been used as a donor of leaf-related drought adaptation traits and chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) resistance genes in faba bean breeding programmes worldwide. From generated populations of recombinant inbred lines, quantitative traits loci associated with these useful traits have been mapped. Other markers, such as a lack of stipule-spot pigmentation and clinging pod wall, show the presence of unusual changes in biochemical pathways that may have economic value in the future.
Victimisation by the police is purported to be widespread in cities in the USA, but there is limited data on police–public encounters from community samples. This is partly due to an absence of measures for assessing police violence exposure from the standpoint of civilians. As such, the demographic distribution and mental health correlates of police victimisation are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to present community-based prevalence estimates of positive policing and police victimisation based on assessment with two novel measures, and to test the hypotheses that (1) exposure to police victimisation would vary across demographic groups and (2) would be associated with depression and psychological distress.
The Survey of Police–Public Encounters study surveyed adults residing in four US cities to examine the prevalence, demographic distribution and psychological correlates of police victimisation. Participants (N = 1615) completed measures of psychological distress (K-6 scale), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9) and two newly constructed measures of civilian-reported police–public encounters. Both measures were developed to assess police victimisation based on the WHO domains of violence, which include physical violence (with and without a weapon, assessed separately), sexual violence (inappropriate sexual contact, including public strip searches), psychological violence (e.g., threatening, intimidating, stopping without cause, or using discriminatory slurs) and neglect (police not responding when called or responding too late). The Police Practices Inventory assesses lifetime history of exposure to positive policing and police victimisation, and the Expectations of Police Practices Scale assesses the perceived likelihood of future incidents of police victimisation. Linear regression models were used to test for associations between police–public encounters and psychological distress and depression.
Psychological violence (18.6%) and police neglect (18.8%) were commonly reported in this sample and a substantial minority of respondents also reported more severe forms of violence, specifically physical (6.1%), sexual (2.8%) and physical with a weapon (3.3%). Police victimisation was more frequently reported by racial/ethnic minorities, males, transgender respondents and younger adults. Nearly all forms of victimisation (but not positive policing) were associated with psychological distress and depression in adjusted linear regression models.
Victimisation by police appears to be widespread, inequitably distributed across demographic groups and psychologically impactful. These findings suggest that public health efforts to both reduce the prevalence of police violence and to alleviate its psychological impact may be needed, particularly in disadvantaged urban communities.
Psychosocial interventions directed to couples where one has advanced cancer can reduce distress, enhance communication, and provide an opportunity for relational growth. The present study aimed to develop an intervention to facilitate communication about living with advanced cancer using the Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI) as the focus of a clinical interview with couples toward the end of life.
Couples were recruited from oncology and palliative care services at a Sydney hospital. After the PDI was developed and manualized as an intervention for couples, the PDI–Couple Interview (PDI–CI) was delivered by a clinical psychologist and comprised the following: (1) the patient completed the PDI; (2) the patient's identified partner completed the PDI about how they thought the patient was feeling; and (3) the clinician reviewed the results with the couple, summarizing areas of concurrence and discordance and facilitating discussion.
Some 34 couples were referred, of which 12 consented, 9 of whom completed the clinical interview. Reported benefits included enabling couples to express their concerns together, identifying differences in understanding, and giving “permission to speak” with each other. The focus of the interview around the PDI provided a structure that was particularly acceptable for men. Most couples confirmed that they were “on the same page,” and where differences were identified, it provided a forum for discussion and a mutual understanding of the challenges in managing advanced cancer within a supportive context.
Significance of Results:
Participant couples' experiences of the PDI–CI provide valuable insight into the benefits of this intervention. This preliminary study indicates that the intervention is a relatively simple means of enhancing closer communication and connection between couples where one has advanced cancer and may be an important adjunct in helping prepare couples for the challenges inherent toward the end of life. Further investigation of feasibility with a larger sample is recommended.
Composites of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and polyaniline (PAni) were synthesized using different approaches. SWNT/PAni nanocomposite with controlled core/shell morphology was achieved. Our chemical sensing tests showed that such core/shell morphology resulted in superior sensor performance, with an increased sensitivity to acetone vapors, and a reversible detection of hydrazine vapors. The reversible detection of parts-per-billion concentrations of hydrazine offers promise for a portable solid-state detector that has potential application in aerospace.
We present comparative studies of optical properties of GaN nanowires (NWs) obtained by two different self-formation techniques: Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy (PAMBE) growth; and plasma etching of GaN layers deposited by Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE). The effects of the coalescence process on grown NW and plasma-induced defects in etched NWs have been studied by photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering. In MBE grown NWs, the coalescence-associated defects are extended toward the NW top for intermediate Ga flux. Using High Resolution Electron Microscopy of reactive plasma etching (RIE) NWs, it was found that NWs obtained with an optimal combination of inductive (ICP) and capacitive (RF) plasma are free of extended structural defects. The PL efficiency is strongly increased in plasma etched NWs. However, plasma-induced point defects have to be taken into account for explaining the changes of the PL spectra. Less plasma-induced degradation is observed for high ICP/RF power ratios.
SiGe nanowires of different Ge atomic fractions up to 15% were grown and ex-situ n-type doped by diffusion from a solid source in contact with the sample. The phenomenon of dielectrophoresis was used to locate single nanowires between pairs of electrodes in order to carry out electrical measurements. The measured resistance of the as-grown nanowires is very high, but it decreases more than three orders of magnitude upon doping, indicating that the doping procedure used has been effective.
Silicon and Germanium nanowires (NWs) have shown a strong ability to enhance both the absorption and scattering of light. Tailoring the optical properties of Si or Ge NWs can be obtained by adjusting the nanowire diameter. Another parameter that can be used is the chemical composition of silicon-germanium (Si1-xGex-NWs) alloys. In this work, we perform a numerical study on the optical properties of single Si1-xGex-NWs based on the Lorenz-Mie theory. The effects of Ge composition, light polarization and angle of incidence on the nanowire optical properties are investigated.
The use of semiconductor nanowires as new material building blocks for developing original devices is conditioned by the controllability of their growth. An important challenge is to form nanowires which include heterostructures of predictable dimensions. This objective requires a precise knowledge of the growth kinetics which appears much more complex for nanowires than for standard two-dimensional layers. Here, we present a method which provides detailed information on nanowire formation. The method is implemented with InP1-xAsx nanowires grown by Au-catalyzed molecular beam epitaxy. Controlled and periodic modulations of the incident vapor phase are generated. Due to these modulations, the nanowires show small and short oscillations of composition along their growth axis. These oscillations furnish a time scale which is recorded in the nanowire solid phase. The instantaneous growth rate and the total length of individual nanowires at any time of the growth are accessible. Moreover, the distribution of the oscillation lengths contains the nucleation statistics. This statistics is shown to be strongly sub-Poissonian, which indicates that some regulation mechanism operates. The rapid depletion of group V atoms in the catalyst drop which follows the growth of each ML could explain the self-regulation of nucleation events.
Metal-assisted chemical etching is a simple and low-cost silicon nanowire fabrication method which allows control of nanowire diameter, length, shape and orientation. In this work, we fabricated well-ordered silicon nanowire array by patterning gold thin film by nanosphere lithography and etching single crystalline silicon wafer by metal-assisted chemical etching technique. We investigated relation between etched solution concentration and nanowire morphology, wafer crystal orientation, etching rate. This well-ordered silicon nanowires arrays have the potential applications in many fields but especially next generation energy related applications from solar cells to lithium-ion batteries.
Thermally activated axial intrusion of nickel silicides into the silicon nanowire (NW) from pre-patterned Ni reservoirs is used in formation of nickel silicide/silicon contacts in SiNW field effect transistors. This intrusion consists usually of different nickel silicide phases which grow simultaneously during thermal annealing (TA). The growth is often accompanied by local thickening and tapering of the NW, up to full disintegration of segments adjacent to the silicon. In the present work this process was investigated in SiNWs of 30-60 nm in diameters with pre-patterned Ni electrodes after a TA at 420-440°C and times up to 15 s. The process was analyzed in the framework of a model taking into account simultaneous formation of two silicide phases in the NW. Additional flux of atoms caused by the NW curvature gradients due to different radii of different silicides was taken into account as well. For a certain set of parameters thickening of the nickel-rich silicide intrusion and tapering of the monosilicide part of intrusion were obtained.
Al2O3 and AlN nanotubes were fabricated by depositing conformal thin films via atomic layer deposition (ALD) on electrospun nylon 66 (PA66) nanofiber templates. Depositions were carried out at 200°C, using trimethylaluminum (TMAl), water (H2O), and ammonia (NH3) as the aluminum, oxygen, and nitrogen precursors, respectively. Deposition rates of Al2O3 and AlN at this temperature were ∼1.05 and 0.86 Å/cycle. After the depositions, Al2O3- and AlN-coated nanofibers were calcinated at 500°C for 2 h in order to remove organic components. Nanotubes were characterized by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AlN nanotubes were polycrystalline as determined by high resolution TEM (HR-TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). TEM images of all the samples reported in this study indicated uniform wall thicknesses.
The oscillating piezoelectric field of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) is employed to transport photoexcited electrons and holes in GaAs nanowires (NWs) transferred to a SAW beam line on a LiNbO3 crystal. We show that carriers generated in the NW by a focused light spot can be acoustically transported to a second location, where they recombine emitting short light pulses. The results presented here demonstrate the high-frequency manipulation of carriers in NWs without the use of electrical contacts, which opens new perspectives for applications in opto-electronic devices operating at GHz frequencies.
The selective formation of porous silicon in nanowires is observed in Si/Ge epitaxial layers along Ge layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a Si(100) substrate after metal-assisted chemical etching in aqueous HF-H2O2 solution. We assume that Ge layers serve as channels for a hole current out of the semiconductor to sustain the dissolution reaction. The tunnelling of holes through the potential barrier at the semiconductor surface is assumed to be the dominating mechanism of the hole transfer to the electrolyte.
Silicon nanowires (NWs) are promising thermoelectric materials as they offer large reductions in thermal conductivity over bulk Si without a significant decrease in the Seebeck coefficient or electrical conductivity. In this work, interference lithography was used to pattern a square lattice photoresist template over 2 cm x 2 cm Si substrates. The resulting vertical Si NW arrays were 1 μm tall with a packing density of ~15%, and the diameter of the Si NWs were 80 - 90 nm. The Si NW arrays were then embedded in spin-on glass (SOG) to form a dense composite material with a measured thermal conductivity of 1.45 W/m-K at 300 K. Devices were fabricated for cross-plane Seebeck coefficient measurements and the Si NW/SOG composite was found to have a Seebeck coefficient of roughly -284 μV/K, which is similar to bulk Si with the same doping. We also report a combined power generation of 29.3 μW from both the Si NW array and Si substrate with a temperature difference of 56 K and 50 μm x 50 μm device area.
Water-splitting to form hydrogen was examined by using strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanofibers as photocatalysts. SrTiO3 nanofibers were fabricated by hydrothermal treatment of amorphous titanium dioxide nanofibers, which were electrospun from the mixture of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), titanium(IV) butoxide, and acetylacetone. The hydrothermal treatment involved the reaction of amorphous TiO2 nanofiber template with strontium hydroxide octahydrate (Sr(OH)2·8H2O) for 20 hours at 120 ºC. The product was calcined to form crystalline SrTiO3 nanofibers, which were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and tested their photocatalytic activities for the water splitting. The hydrogen production with the fabricated SrTiO3 nanofibers was found to be 6.1 μmol·h-1·g-1 catalyst, which is twice that of commercially available SrTiO3 nanoparticles (3.0 μmol·h-1·g-1 catalyst).
A hybrid assembly was built using ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays and colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) stabilized by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The QDs were chemically linked to the nanowires through the bonds formed between the outgoing carboxyl groups of the QD stabilizers and the zinc ions on the nanowire surface. An efficient clustering attachment of the QDs was achieved via partial removal of the stabilizers of the QDs. The photoconductivity of the NW/QD assembly was investigated by selective excitation of the CdSe QDs. Oxygen desorption from the nanowire surface enhances the photoconductivity and a model involving electron transfer between the QDs and the nanowires is proposed to explain the experimental results.