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Here we review the potential of ILB 938 (IG 12132 – doi: 10.18730/60FD2), a unique faba bean accession originating from the Andean region of Colombia and Ecuador, maintained at ICARDA – International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, with resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses and carrying some useful morphological markers. It has been used as a donor of leaf-related drought adaptation traits and chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) resistance genes in faba bean breeding programmes worldwide. From generated populations of recombinant inbred lines, quantitative traits loci associated with these useful traits have been mapped. Other markers, such as a lack of stipule-spot pigmentation and clinging pod wall, show the presence of unusual changes in biochemical pathways that may have economic value in the future.
Victimisation by the police is purported to be widespread in cities in the USA, but there is limited data on police–public encounters from community samples. This is partly due to an absence of measures for assessing police violence exposure from the standpoint of civilians. As such, the demographic distribution and mental health correlates of police victimisation are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to present community-based prevalence estimates of positive policing and police victimisation based on assessment with two novel measures, and to test the hypotheses that (1) exposure to police victimisation would vary across demographic groups and (2) would be associated with depression and psychological distress.
The Survey of Police–Public Encounters study surveyed adults residing in four US cities to examine the prevalence, demographic distribution and psychological correlates of police victimisation. Participants (N = 1615) completed measures of psychological distress (K-6 scale), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9) and two newly constructed measures of civilian-reported police–public encounters. Both measures were developed to assess police victimisation based on the WHO domains of violence, which include physical violence (with and without a weapon, assessed separately), sexual violence (inappropriate sexual contact, including public strip searches), psychological violence (e.g., threatening, intimidating, stopping without cause, or using discriminatory slurs) and neglect (police not responding when called or responding too late). The Police Practices Inventory assesses lifetime history of exposure to positive policing and police victimisation, and the Expectations of Police Practices Scale assesses the perceived likelihood of future incidents of police victimisation. Linear regression models were used to test for associations between police–public encounters and psychological distress and depression.
Psychological violence (18.6%) and police neglect (18.8%) were commonly reported in this sample and a substantial minority of respondents also reported more severe forms of violence, specifically physical (6.1%), sexual (2.8%) and physical with a weapon (3.3%). Police victimisation was more frequently reported by racial/ethnic minorities, males, transgender respondents and younger adults. Nearly all forms of victimisation (but not positive policing) were associated with psychological distress and depression in adjusted linear regression models.
Victimisation by police appears to be widespread, inequitably distributed across demographic groups and psychologically impactful. These findings suggest that public health efforts to both reduce the prevalence of police violence and to alleviate its psychological impact may be needed, particularly in disadvantaged urban communities.
Depuis la dernière Assemblée générale, notre commission a eu le regret de perdre deux de ses membres les plus éminents: M. Paul Stroobant, directeur de l’Observatoire Royal de Belgique et M. W. H. Pickering, ancien directeur des succursales de l’Observatoire de Harvard à Arequipa (Pérou) et Mandeville (Jamaïque). Les recherches de M. Paul Stroobant se rapportent pour une grande partie aux planètes, notamment Mercure, Vénus, les petites planètes et Saturne dont il étudia pendant des années les anneaux. Il faisait partie de notre Union comme président de la 5e commission et membre de beaucoup d’autres.
The Z.L. experiment consists of 3 photometers which are mounted rigidly into the s/c with orientations of about 15°, 30° and 90° south of the s/c – XY-plane, which coincides in orbit with the ecliptic plane (see Fig.1). Helios is spinning uith 1 Hz, and the integration time of the experiment is 513 revolutions. The 90° – photometer always looks to the south ecliptic pole and one revolution of the s/c is divided into 8 sectors to get information on the polarization of Z.L. The polarization is measured by a fixed polaroid foil within the photometer which is rotated by the s/c. In the other two photometers one revolution is split into 32 sectors with different angular resolution. Near the antisun where the gradient in Z.L. intensity is small, the sector length is 4 times the length near the sun (see Fig.2). In these 2 photometers the polarization is obtained by 3 differently oriented polarization foils moved by stepping motors. Intensity and polarization of Z.L. is measured in 3 different colors, which are near the international UBV – system (Ažusienis and Straižs 1969), the effective wavelength shifted by about 100 Å to the blue end.
Helios A was launched on December 10, 1974 into a highly elliptical orbit with a perihelion of 0.31 A.U., which was reached on March 15, 1975. The zodiacal light experiment on Helios, described in the preceding paper, worked flawlessly and provided the first observations of the zodiacal light from inside the Earth’ orbit. A typical example from the raw data of the 15° – photometer is shown in Fig.1. There is a strong intensity increase towards the sun and a remarkably flat intensity distribution at large elongations. The Milky way is superimposed on the zodiacal light at longitudes 135° to 180° and 315° to 360°. Due to the orbital motion of Helios the star background is being shifted with respect to the zodiacal light, which will facilitate its separation from the total observed intensity. The peak at the right side of Fig.1 is due to the star α CMi, which we intend to use for the calibration of the instrument in addition to the ground calibrations. A preliminary evaluation showed less than 20% difference between the two calibrations. This is typical for other stars and for the other photometers, too, and gives a safe upper limit for the accuracy of the absolute calibration. Temperature effects are comparatively small and have not been corrected so far.
Psychosocial interventions directed to couples where one has advanced cancer can reduce distress, enhance communication, and provide an opportunity for relational growth. The present study aimed to develop an intervention to facilitate communication about living with advanced cancer using the Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI) as the focus of a clinical interview with couples toward the end of life.
Couples were recruited from oncology and palliative care services at a Sydney hospital. After the PDI was developed and manualized as an intervention for couples, the PDI–Couple Interview (PDI–CI) was delivered by a clinical psychologist and comprised the following: (1) the patient completed the PDI; (2) the patient's identified partner completed the PDI about how they thought the patient was feeling; and (3) the clinician reviewed the results with the couple, summarizing areas of concurrence and discordance and facilitating discussion.
Some 34 couples were referred, of which 12 consented, 9 of whom completed the clinical interview. Reported benefits included enabling couples to express their concerns together, identifying differences in understanding, and giving “permission to speak” with each other. The focus of the interview around the PDI provided a structure that was particularly acceptable for men. Most couples confirmed that they were “on the same page,” and where differences were identified, it provided a forum for discussion and a mutual understanding of the challenges in managing advanced cancer within a supportive context.
Significance of Results:
Participant couples' experiences of the PDI–CI provide valuable insight into the benefits of this intervention. This preliminary study indicates that the intervention is a relatively simple means of enhancing closer communication and connection between couples where one has advanced cancer and may be an important adjunct in helping prepare couples for the challenges inherent toward the end of life. Further investigation of feasibility with a larger sample is recommended.
Silicon Nanowires (Si-NWs) are obtained by vapor-liquid-solid growth using an inductively coupled chemical vapor deposition system which works at temperatures lower than 400 °C. Gold nanodots are used as metal catalyst. The selective growth of Si-NWs on the gold nanodots is obtained by controlling the contribution coming from the uncatalyzed growth on the bare Si substrate. In this way the final NW length can be controlled, and it is not influenced by the thickness of the uncatalyzed layer. The important parameter ruling the NW growth is found to be the plasma power which governs the dissociation of the Si precursor gas. Final NW lengths of 1 μm are obtained at temperatures of 380 °C with a thickness of uncatalyzed layer equal to zero. Also the NW density is addressed in this work and it is optimised by increasing the gold equivalent thickness. The NW density is increased from 2.9×108 to 1.3×1010 cm-2, when the gold equivalent thickness passes from 1.8 nm to 2.2 nm.
The selective formation of porous silicon in nanowires is observed in Si/Ge epitaxial layers along Ge layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a Si(100) substrate after metal-assisted chemical etching in aqueous HF-H2O2 solution. We assume that Ge layers serve as channels for a hole current out of the semiconductor to sustain the dissolution reaction. The tunnelling of holes through the potential barrier at the semiconductor surface is assumed to be the dominating mechanism of the hole transfer to the electrolyte.
Water-splitting to form hydrogen was examined by using strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanofibers as photocatalysts. SrTiO3 nanofibers were fabricated by hydrothermal treatment of amorphous titanium dioxide nanofibers, which were electrospun from the mixture of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), titanium(IV) butoxide, and acetylacetone. The hydrothermal treatment involved the reaction of amorphous TiO2 nanofiber template with strontium hydroxide octahydrate (Sr(OH)2·8H2O) for 20 hours at 120 ºC. The product was calcined to form crystalline SrTiO3 nanofibers, which were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and tested their photocatalytic activities for the water splitting. The hydrogen production with the fabricated SrTiO3 nanofibers was found to be 6.1 μmol·h-1·g-1 catalyst, which is twice that of commercially available SrTiO3 nanoparticles (3.0 μmol·h-1·g-1 catalyst).
The use of semiconductor nanowires as new material building blocks for developing original devices is conditioned by the controllability of their growth. An important challenge is to form nanowires which include heterostructures of predictable dimensions. This objective requires a precise knowledge of the growth kinetics which appears much more complex for nanowires than for standard two-dimensional layers. Here, we present a method which provides detailed information on nanowire formation. The method is implemented with InP1-xAsx nanowires grown by Au-catalyzed molecular beam epitaxy. Controlled and periodic modulations of the incident vapor phase are generated. Due to these modulations, the nanowires show small and short oscillations of composition along their growth axis. These oscillations furnish a time scale which is recorded in the nanowire solid phase. The instantaneous growth rate and the total length of individual nanowires at any time of the growth are accessible. Moreover, the distribution of the oscillation lengths contains the nucleation statistics. This statistics is shown to be strongly sub-Poissonian, which indicates that some regulation mechanism operates. The rapid depletion of group V atoms in the catalyst drop which follows the growth of each ML could explain the self-regulation of nucleation events.
Spinel cobalt ferrite nanotubes and nanowires of about five micrometers in length were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates of 20 – 200 nm pore diameters and sol-gel processing. A cobalt ferrite sol was prepared by mixing the acetic acid solution of cobalt (II) acetate and ethanol solution of iron (III) acetylacetonate. The templates filled with precursor were obtained after they were dipped into the sol and dried in air. The template/precursor composites were sintered in air at 500 ºC to form cobalt ferrite phase, which was verified by XRD. The morphology of the nanostructures determined by SEM revealed that the cobalt ferrite nanotubes were formed in the channels of 100 nm and 200 nm diameters in the templates, whereas the nanowires were formed in the 20 nm channels of the templates. The magnetic measurement of cobalt ferrite nanowires by a SQUID magnetometer showed that the nanowires are superparamagnetic at room temperature. The room temperature measurement of magnetization versus the applied field on the nanowire arrays in 20 nm channels of templates showed that the coercivity is 1.57 kOe and 1.47 kOe for the nanowire axis parallel and perpendicular to the applied field, respectively, indicating that the nanowire arrays are nearly magnetically isotropic. However, the coercivity of cobalt ferrite nanowires fabricated in this work is much larger than those in the similar systems reported in the literatures.
We present comparative studies of optical properties of GaN nanowires (NWs) obtained by two different self-formation techniques: Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy (PAMBE) growth; and plasma etching of GaN layers deposited by Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE). The effects of the coalescence process on grown NW and plasma-induced defects in etched NWs have been studied by photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering. In MBE grown NWs, the coalescence-associated defects are extended toward the NW top for intermediate Ga flux. Using High Resolution Electron Microscopy of reactive plasma etching (RIE) NWs, it was found that NWs obtained with an optimal combination of inductive (ICP) and capacitive (RF) plasma are free of extended structural defects. The PL efficiency is strongly increased in plasma etched NWs. However, plasma-induced point defects have to be taken into account for explaining the changes of the PL spectra. Less plasma-induced degradation is observed for high ICP/RF power ratios.
Metal-assisted chemical etching is a simple and low-cost silicon nanowire fabrication method which allows control of nanowire diameter, length, shape and orientation. In this work, we fabricated well-ordered silicon nanowire array by patterning gold thin film by nanosphere lithography and etching single crystalline silicon wafer by metal-assisted chemical etching technique. We investigated relation between etched solution concentration and nanowire morphology, wafer crystal orientation, etching rate. This well-ordered silicon nanowires arrays have the potential applications in many fields but especially next generation energy related applications from solar cells to lithium-ion batteries.
Silicon nanowires (NWs) are promising thermoelectric materials as they offer large reductions in thermal conductivity over bulk Si without a significant decrease in the Seebeck coefficient or electrical conductivity. In this work, interference lithography was used to pattern a square lattice photoresist template over 2 cm x 2 cm Si substrates. The resulting vertical Si NW arrays were 1 μm tall with a packing density of ~15%, and the diameter of the Si NWs were 80 - 90 nm. The Si NW arrays were then embedded in spin-on glass (SOG) to form a dense composite material with a measured thermal conductivity of 1.45 W/m-K at 300 K. Devices were fabricated for cross-plane Seebeck coefficient measurements and the Si NW/SOG composite was found to have a Seebeck coefficient of roughly -284 μV/K, which is similar to bulk Si with the same doping. We also report a combined power generation of 29.3 μW from both the Si NW array and Si substrate with a temperature difference of 56 K and 50 μm x 50 μm device area.