The present study investigated the presence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (G > T) at base −8 upstream of ATG in 5′ untranslated region of cytochrome b5 (CYB5A) gene in Swedish pig populations and evaluated the significance of this polymorphism for androstenone and skatole levels, sexual development and performance parameters in pigs. Frequencies of the T allele were 6.7% for Swedish Yorkshire × Landrace crossbred pigs (n = 245), 6.5% for Swedish Yorkshire (n = 99) and 12.8% for Landrace breed (n = 74). No deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were observed in the investigated populations. In Swedish Yorkshire × Landrace crossbred entire male pigs (n = 193), plasma samples were analysed for skatole, androstenone, testosterone and oestrone sulphate, and fat samples were analysed for androstenone, skatole and free oestrone. Additionally, testis weight and bulbourethral gland length for crossbred pigs were recorded. Plasma androstenone levels were significantly lower in the G/T genotype at 90 kg live weight compared with the wild G/G genotype at the same live weight (P = 0.006). In heavier pigs, plasma androstenone levels did not differ between genotypes (P = 0.382). Fat androstenone levels were not affected by CYB5A genotype (P = 0.252). Skatole levels in the G/T genotype at 115 kg live weight were lower compared with those in the G/G genotype in plasma (P = 0.048) and fat (P = 0.028), although no differences were observed in lighter pigs. Testis weight, bulbourethral gland length, testosterone and oestrone sulphate levels in plasma, and oestrone levels in fat were not affected by genotype. We concluded that the presence of the T allele in the CYB5A gene resulted in lower androstenone levels in plasma, and lower skatole levels in fat and plasma; this reduction, however, was dependent on the live weight of the animals. Reproductive hormones and growth rate did not differ between the pigs of different genotypes, whereas a higher lean meat content was found in the G/T genotype in comparison with the G/G genotype. The practical application of those results in Sweden is doubtful because of lack of the effect on androstenone in fat and the low frequency of the T allele in the studied Swedish pig populations.