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With brown adipose tissue (BAT) becoming a possible therapeutic target to counteract obesity, the prenatal environment could represent a critical window to modify BAT function and browning of white AT. We investigated if levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and UCP1-mediated thermogenesis are altered in offspring exposed to prenatal obesity. Female CD-1 mice were fed a high-fat (HF) or standard-fat (SF) diet for 3 months before breeding. After weaning, all pups were placed on SF. UCP1 mRNA and protein levels were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively, in brown (BAT), subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissues at 6 months of age. Total and UCP1-dependent mitochondrial respiration were determined by high-resolution respirometry. A Student’s t-test and Mann–Whitney test were used (significance: P<0.05). UCP1 mRNA levels were not different between the HF and SF offspring. UCP1 protein levels, total mitochondrial respiration and UCP1-dependent respiration were significantly higher in BAT from HF males (P=0.02, P=0.04, P=0.005, respectively) and females (P=0.01, P=0.04, P=0.02, respectively). In SAT, the UCP1 protein was significantly lower in HF females (P=0.03), and the UCP1-dependent thermogenesis was significantly lower from HF males (P=0.04). In VAT, UCP1 protein levels and UCP1-dependent respiration were significantly lower only in HF females (P=0.03, P=0.04, respectively). There were no differences in total respiration in SAT and VAT. Prenatal exposure to maternal obesity leads to significant increases in UCP1 levels and function in BAT in offspring with little impact on UCP1 levels and function in SAT and VAT.
The purpose of this study was to determine if season or weather affected the objectively measured trip distances of older drivers (≥ 70 years; n = 279) at seven Canadian sites. During winter, for all trips taken, trip distance was 7 per cent shorter when controlling for site and whether the trip occurred during the day. In addition, for trips taken within city limits, trip distance was 1 per cent shorter during winter and 5 per cent longer during rain when compared to no precipitation when controlling for weather (or season respectively), time of day, and site. At night, trip distance was about 30 per cent longer when controlling for season and site (and weather), contrary to expectations. Together, these results suggest that older Canadian drivers alter their trip distances based on season, weather conditions, and time of day, although not always in the expected direction.
A multi-faceted, multi-institutional laboratory astrophysics program is carried out at the Livermore electron beam ion trap facility, which is a mature spectroscopic source with unsurpassed controls and capabilities, and an unparalleled assortment of spectroscopic equipment, including a full complement of grating and crystal spectrometers and a 6x6 micro-calorimeter array. Recent results range from the calibration of x-ray diagnostics, including the Fe XVII and Fe XXV emission lines, extensive lists of L-shell ions, the first laboratory simulation and fit of a cometary x-ray emission spectrum, and the discovery of new spectral diagnostics for measuring magnetic field strengths.
Evidence shows that the health of the work environment impacts staff satisfaction, interdisciplinary communication, and patient outcomes. Utilising the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses’ Healthy Work Environment standards, we developed a daily assessment tool.
The Relative Environment Assessment Lens (REAL) Indicator was developed using a consensus-based method to evaluate the health of the work environment and to identify opportunities for improvement from the front-line staff. A visual scale using images that resemble emoticons was linked with a written description of feelings about their work environment that day, with the highest number corresponding to the most positive experience. Face validity was established by seeking staff feedback and goals were set.
Over 10 months, results from the REAL Indicator in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory indicated an overall good work environment. The goal of 80% of the respondents reporting their work environment to be “Great”, “Good”, or “Satisfactory” was met each month. During the same time frame, this goal was met four times in the cardiovascular operating room. On average, 72.7% of cardiovascular operating room respondents reported their work environment to be “Satisfactory” or better.
The REAL Indicator has become a valuable tool in assessing the specific issues of the clinical area and identifying opportunities for improvement. Given the feasibility of and positive response to this tool in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory, it has been adopted in other patient-care areas where staff and leaders believe that they need to understand the health of the environment in a more specific and frequent time frame.
Acinetobacter is a well-recognized nosocomial pathogen. Previous reports of community-associated Acinetobacter infections have lacked clear case definitions and assessment of healthcare-associated (HCA) risk factors. We identified Acinetobacter bacteraemia cases from blood cultures obtained <3 days after hospitalization in rural Thailand and performed medical record reviews to assess HCA risk factors in the previous year and compare clinical and microbiological characteristics between cases with and without HCA risk factors. Of 72 Acinetobacter cases, 32 (44%) had no HCA risk factors. Compared to HCA infections, non-HCA infections were more often caused by Acinetobacter species other than calcoaceticus–baumannii complex species and by antibiotic-susceptible organisms. Despite similar symptoms, the case-fatality proportion was lower in non-HCA than HCA cases (9% vs. 45%, P < 0·01). Clinicians should be aware of Acinetobacter as a potential cause of community-associated infections in Thailand; prospective studies are needed to improve understanding of associated risk factors and disease burden.
Optical reflectance spectra in the range 30–35000 cm-1 and 4–300 K are presented on several YBa2CuxOy phases, as well as different forms of the superconducting YBa2CuxO7−x (polycrystalline pellets, textured pellets with ab-plane oriented surface, and single crystals).
Thin films of titanium, platinum, and hafnium were deposited on single crystal n-type, (0001) 6H-SiC at room temperature in UHV. Microstructure and chemistry of their interfaces were analyzed by high spatial resolution TEM imaging and spectroscopy. Ti5Si3 and TiC were the two phases found in the reaction zone of Ti/SiC specimens annealed at 700°C. A carbon-containing amorphous layer formed between Pt and SiC when the annealing temperature went up to 750°C. There was no apparent reaction zone in Hf/SiC specimens annealed at 700°C for 60 min‥ The change of electrical properties of metal/6H-SiC devices was attributed to these new product phases.
A description is given of the profiling of CVD grown 3C SiC on undulant (001) Si using low temperature photoluminescence (LTPL). Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and X-ray Raman scattering (XRS) are compared for acoustical modes of 4H SiC. Schottky barrier heights are obtained for 4H and 6H SiC on different crystal faces using three different measuring techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to display a variety of porous SiC morphologies achieved in n-type and p-type SiC.
This paper is intended to be the introduction to the “CHARACTERIZATION” section of this volume. To serve this purpose we illustrate the subject matter with new results using four distinct experimental techniques.
Epitaxial films of undoped ZnOxTe(1-x) have been prepared on double-side polished c-axis oriented sapphire substrates with pulsed laser deposition. The method of epitaxial growth is expected to have the same domain matching epitaxial relationship with sapphire as does pure ZnO, where six lattice planes of ZnOxTe(1-x) match with seven lattice planes of sapphire [1,2]. High quality, single crystal, epitaxial alloys with around 4% Te have been grown that demonstrate excellent optical properties and a pronounced, sharp excitonic peak, in optical transmission. The incorporation of Te makes the compound more covalent, and less ionic than pure ZnO. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrates single-crystal growth with a sharp interface. The low-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of ZnOxTe(1-x) films is almost indistinguishable from those of pure ZnO, except a usually diminished intensity of the (0004) peak. The incorporation of Te in ZnO was verified by a shift in excitonic peak position in absorption, and through a shift in cathodoluminescence (CL) peak. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data verifies incorporation of telluride chemical state of tellurium atoms. Rutherford backscattering/channeling (RBS/C) confirmed crystal quality for the pure ZnO films. Hot-point probe measurements indicate as-grown, undoped films to be somewhat higher in resistivity than pure ZnO with inconclusive carrier type, as compared to the naturally n-type ZnO. This may be a consequence of the more covalent bonding between Zn and Te and suggests a possible strategy for p-type doping.
A series of epitaxial single crystal ZnO samples were grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) on c-axis, double-side polished sapphire at temperatures ranging from 600°C to 800°C. A comprehensive optical study, consisting of cathodoluminescence (CL) and transmission spectroscopy measurements, was performed before and after annealing the samples in air and oxygen environments. The structural characteristics of the films were observed by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Using these measurements, the data revealed that annealing significantly improved the luminescence and exciton line-width of the better material grown at the higher end of the temperature range. In lower quality samples grown at the lower end of the temperature range, the optical quality of the material was degraded. In the samples grown at higher temperatures, annealing improved the optical qualities. An increase in the below band-gap, green band emission was also observed under some annealing conditions.