To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Children with somatic complaints are at increased risk for emotional disorders during childhood. Whether this elevated risk extends into young adulthood – and to which specific disorders – has rarely been tested with long-term prospective-longitudinal community samples. Here we test whether frequent and recurring stomach aches, headaches, and muscle aches during childhood predict emotional disorders in adulthood after accounting for childhood psychiatric and physical health status and psychosocial adversity.
The Great Smoky Mountains Study is a community representative sample with 1420 participants. Children/adolescents were assessed 4–7 times between ages 9–16 years. They were assessed again up to three times between ages 19–26 years. Childhood somatic complaints were coded when subjects or their parents reported frequent and recurrent headaches, stomach aches, or muscular/joint aches at some point when children were aged 9–16 years. Psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment and the Young Adult Psychiatric Assessment.
Frequent and recurrent somatic complaints in childhood predicted adulthood emotional disorders. After controlling for potential confounders, predictions from childhood somatic complaints were specific to later depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Long-term predictions did not differ by sex. Somatic complaints that persisted across developmental periods were associated with the highest risk for young adult emotional distress disorders.
Children from the community with frequent and recurrent physical distress are at substantially increased risk for emotional distress disorders during young adulthood. Preventions and interventions for somatic complaints could help alleviate this risk.
The photographs displayed above show the impact, spreading, and boiling history of n-heptane droplets on a stainless steel surface. The impact velocity, Weber number, and initial droplet diameter are constant (values of 1 m/s, 43 and 1.5 mm respectively), and the view is looking down on the surface at an angle of about 30°. The photographs were taken using a spark flash method and the flash duration was 0.5 μs. The dynamic behavior illustrated in the photographs is a consequence of varying the initial surface temperature.
The effect of surface temperature on droplet shape may be seen by reading across any row; the evolution of droplet shape at various temperatures may be seen by reading down any column. An entrapped air bubble can be seen in the drop when the surface temperature is 24°C. At higher temperatures vigorous bubbling, rather like that of a droplet sizzling on a frying pan, is seen (the boiling point of n-heptane is 98°C) but the bubbles disappear as the Leidenfrost temperature of n-heptane (about 200°C) is exceeded because the droplet become levitated above a cushion of its own vapor and does not make direct contact with the surface. The droplet shape is unaffected by surface temperature in the early stage of the impact process (t≤0.8 ms) but is affected by temperature at later time (cf. t≥ 1.6 ms) because of the progressive influence of intermittent solid-liquid contact as temperature is increased.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.