The effects of intentional metal contamination on silicon charge-coupled device imagers are reported. Such imagers are both sensitive to and provide sensitive measures of the presence of metals in the fabrication process. High-purity iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, palladium, and gold were deliberately introduced into the device wafers just before the last high temperature step. Metals were found to cause both electrical defects and distinctive imaging defects.
We find that transition metals can be effectively removed from device regions by internal gettering, but that this gettering can be defeated by a fast cool-down. Gold, however, is poorly gettered.