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In this paper, the robustness of the dynamic instability mitigation mechanism is first examined, and then the instability mitigation phenomenon is demonstrated in a deuterium–tritium (DT) fuel target implosion by wobbling heavy-ion beams (HIBs). The results presented here show that the mechanism of the dynamic instability mitigation is rather robust against changes in the phase, the amplitude and the wavelength of the wobbling perturbation applied. In general instability would emerge from the perturbation of the physical quantity. Normally the perturbation phase is unknown, so that the instability growth rate is discussed. However, if the perturbation phase is known, the instability growth can be controlled by a superposition of perturbations imposed actively: if the perturbation is induced by, for example, a driving beam axis oscillation or wobbling, the perturbation phase could be controlled and the instability growth is mitigated by the superposition of the growing perturbations. In this paper, we realize the superposition of the perturbation by the wobbling HIBs’ illumination onto a DT fuel target in heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF). Our numerical fluid implosion simulations present that the implosion non-uniformity is mitigated successfully by the wobbling HIBs illumination in HIF.
In this paper, a study on a fusion reactor core is presented in heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF), including the heavy-ion beam (HIB) transport in a fusion reactor, an HIB interaction with a background gas, the reactor cavity gas dynamics, the reactor gas backflow to the beam lines, and an HIB fusion reactor design. The HIB has remarkable preferable features to release the fusion energy in inertial fusion: in particle accelerators HIBs are generated with a high driver efficiency of about 30–40%, and the HIB ions deposit their energy inside of materials. Therefore, a requirement for the fusion target energy gain is relatively low, that would be ~50 to operate an HIF fusion reactor with a standard energy output of 1 GW of electricity. In a fusion reactor, the HIB charge neutralization is needed for a ballistic HIB transport. Multiple mechanical shutters would be installed at each HIB port at the reactor wall to stop the blast waves and the chamber gas backflow, so that the accelerator final elements would be protected from the reactor gas contaminant. The essential fusion reactor components are discussed in this paper.
In inertial fusion, one of scientific issues is to reduce an implosion non-uniformity of a spherical fuel target. The implosion non-uniformity is caused by several factors, including the driver beam illumination non-uniformity, the Rayleigh–Taylor instability (RTI) growth, etc. In this paper, we propose a new control method to reduce the implosion non-uniformity; the oscillating implosion acceleration δg(t) is created by pulsating and dephasing heavy-ion beams (HIBs) in heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF). The δg(t) would reduce the RTI growth effectively. The original concept of the non-uniformity control in inertial fusion was proposed in [Laser Part. Beams (1993) 11, 757–768]. In this paper, it was found that the pulsating and dephasing HIBs illumination provide successfully the controlled δg(t) and that δg(t) induced by the pulsating HIBs reduces well the implosion non-uniformity. Consequently the pulsating HIBs improve a pellet gain remarkably in HIF.
We are carrying out the study of the evolution of radial surface brightness profiles of galaxies from z = 0 to 2 by stacking analysis using data corrected by the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program (SSP). This will allow us to constrain the large scale average profiles of various galaxy populations at high redshift. From the stacking analysis of galaxies selected based on their photometric redshifts, we successfully detected the outer components of galaxies at z > 1 extending to at least ~80 kpc, which imply an early formation for the galaxy outskirts.
During the last years it has become evident that blazar class of AGN emit a lot of energy in the gamma-ray regime. It is generally thought that the non-thermal emission from blazars, observed from radio to GeV/TeV 7-rays, is radiation of very energetic particles via both synchrotron and Compton processes. This underlines the importance of high-energy emission for models of the blazar class of active galactic nuclei. Most of the gamma-bright AGN are variable, and flares with time scales as short as a day have been observed. This suggests that the site of gamma-ray emission is very compact and situated in a fluid which moves relativistically at a small angle towards the observer. It is generally assumed that the emission originates from the jet of these objects.
Our aim was to determine if stapes surgery is useful for treating inflammatory ear diseases.
Materials and methods:
Thirteen patients underwent single-stage or staged surgery for stapes fixation due to tympanosclerosis alone or with cholesteatoma. Operative criteria were: no tympanic membrane retraction, perforation or adhesion; middle-ear cavity with aeration >1 year; a fixed stapes. Computed tomography was used to analyse the relation between operative success and pre-operative pneumatisation.
Success rate at six months was 75 per cent. Hearing results were stable with little deterioration and no complications. Patients with poor pneumatisation had good results (with improved air–bone gap) only after staged surgery. Well-aerated ears heard better even with single-stage surgery.
Pre-operative computed tomography and intra-operative findings are necessary to determine the pneumatisation status of tympanic mastoid cavities. If criteria approved, poorly pneumatised patients underwent staged surgery. Stapedectomy achieved good hearing results for inflammatory middle-ear disease with stapes fixation.
We investigated electronic structure of one-dimensional biradical molecular chain which is constructed by exploiting the covalency between organic molecules of a diphenyl derivative of s-indacenodiphenalene (Ph2-IDPL). To control the crystallinity, we used gas deposition method. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) revealed developed band structure with wide dispersion of the one-dimensional biradical molecular chain.
NEWAGE is a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment with a gaseous
time-projection chamber. We improved the direction-sensitive dark matter limits by our
underground measurement. In this paper, R&D activities sinse the first underground
measurement are described.
Relaxation of internal stress for micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) using SiO2 / Al2O3 / SiO2 membrane has been studied. The aluminum oxide thin films were formed by electron beam evaporation at room temperature. No peaks were observed in the X-ray diffraction pattern of the films. The ratio of Al and O in aluminum oxide was stoichiometric compared with Al2O3 target material. The internal stress was tensile at about 300-400 MPa. Bottom SiO2 thin film was formed by thermal oxidation and the top one by RF magnetron sputtering method. The internal stress of thermally oxidized SiO2 film was compressive at about 440 MPa, while that of the films deposited by sputtering, was compressive at about 100 MPa. The ratio of Si and O in each SiO2 thin films remained stoichiometric. The total stress of the membrane was controlled by optimizing the thickness of each film for relaxing the total stress of the membrane. The total stress of the membrane became almost zero under optimum conditions of SiO2 and Al2O3 films.
The electrical properties of epitaxial La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 films on a SrTiO3(STO) substrate prepared by changing the laser fluence, the irradiation time and the film thickness using excimer laser metal organic deposition(ELMOD) at 500/cm2, the film showed a 3.9 % maximum temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR: defined as 1/R•dR/dT) which was obtained by the ArF laser irradiation at 80mJ/cm2 for 10min. At a constant fluence of 80mJ/cm2, the Tm (temperature of the maximum TCR) of the La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 films increased from 225K to near 250K with an increase in the irradiation time to 90min at which the TCR was almost 3.9%. The La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 film that showed the maximum TCR of 4.0% at 275K was obtained by the ELMOD process at 500°C using the optimum conditions (Flence:80mJ/cm2, Irradiation time: 90min, Film thickness: 80nm).
The orthorhombic-tetragonal YBa2Cu3O7-δ phase boundary in the δ-T diagram was determined by the detailed isobar TG measurement under the oxygen partial pressures of 1 to 0.01 atm. The phase boundary was found not to be located at 5 = const, but to have a slope of dδ/dT∼−4.7 × 10-4K-1. Using the same method, the transformation temperatures of a series of lanthanide substituted systems were measured at 1 atm. O2. The transformation temperature increased with increasing the atomic number of the lanthanide element. All these experimental results are well explained in terms of the order-disorder transformation caused by the repulsion energy between the nearest neighbor oxygen atoms on the Cu plane sandwiched by Ba planes.
Tc variations observed in some Tl-based superconductors were studied. Clear correlations were found between Tc, carrier concentration, and c-axis length. In particular, for Tl2Ba2CuO6, a decrease in oxygen content of about 0.1 per formula unit, which corresponded to a decrease in hole concentration of about 0.2, increased Tc up to about 80K from a metallic non-superconductor, and elongated the c axis by about 0.4%. In addition, as Tc values increased systematic changes in metal-sheet separations were observed. Tc variations caused by a change in oxygen content were also observed in Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 and Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10. It was demonstrated that superconductivity appears in a certain appropriate range of carrier concentration similar to those observed in other high-Tc superconductors.
Sr1−xNdxCuOy thin films are grown on SrTiO3 substrates by rf-magnetron sputtering and pulsed-laser deposition. The sputter-deposited film with x=0 has an “infinite-layer” structure whose lattice constants are: α=0.390 nm and c=0.347 nm. When x is larger than 0.1, the films contain a phase of the Sr14CuO24O41 structure. The laser-deposited films of Sr1−xNdxCuOy with x≤.075 were single phase of the “infinite-layer” structure. The lattice parameter c decreased and the lattice parameter αincreased, as the Nd content, x, increased. The films with α=0.10 and 0.125 exhibited superconducting onset temperatures around 26 K. Weak Meissner signals were observed for these films at temperatures below 30 K.
Ba1-xSrxTiO3 thin films have been deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substra by the pulsed ArF laser deposition method. Deposition conditions, such as ambient gas and substrt temperatze, have been optmized to rrxove crystallinepropesty. Fe oelectric p e phasehasbeenobtainod ithe BSTthin filns deposited above 500°C in Q2 gas havingpressure ofabout 13Pa. Using N2O gas instead of O2 gas improved the crystallinity, because highly chemical active oxygen radicals produced due to ultraviolet inadiation of the laser. Doping of Bi ranging around 2% fills of the role of decrease leakage current of BST thin films. Temperature dependence of the dielectric constant (εr) shows a sharp change, peaking aroumd room temperature. The peak point exists below 25°C in the ratio of Ba/Sr=1.1 film, and shills above 50°C in Ba/Sr=5.7 film. When the Ba/Sr ratio is 1.4 the dielectric peak exists near 27°C and is very sharp. The maxinium differentW rate of dielectric constanttversus temperature is the largest in Ba/Sr=1.4 film and is about 100K-1. This value is equivalent to apyroelectric coefficient of 1.8 × 10-7 C/cm2K, which is almost the same as that of LiTaO3 single crystl, a typical pyroelectric material.
The prospect of lattice structure and ferroelectricity of SnTiO3 have been studied by first-principles calculations within local density approximation. The results showed that the SnTiO3 has the minimum total energy within almost tetragonal perovskite structure of a=b=3.80 Å, c=4.09 Å. The calculated electronic structure of SnTiO3 resembles that of PbTiO3 because the Ti 3d states, Sn 5s and 5p states hybridize with the O 2p orbitals. The moment of spontaneous polarization of SnTiO3 was estimated as 73 μ C/cm2, which is as large as that of PbTiO3.
Structural and ferroelectric properties of stoichiometric SrBi2Ta2O9 and Sr-deficient-and-Bi-excess Sr0.8Bi2.2Ta2O9 bulk ceramics materials are studied. The ferroelectric Curie temperatures for SrBi2Ta2O9 and Sr0.8Bi2.2Ta2O9 are 300 and 400°C, respectively. Structure analysis by neutron powder diffraction reveals that Bi2O2 layer and TaO6 octahedra are considerably distorted and that atomic displacement along the a-axis causes ferroelectric spontaneous polarization. In Sro8Bi22Ta2O9, both Bi-substitution and cation-vacancies exist at the Sr-site. The calculated polarization of Sr0.8Bi2.2Ta2O9 is higher than that of the stoichiometric sample, which is consistent with observations of remanent polarization in thin-film capacitors. The Bi-substitution and the cation-vacancies at the Sr site enhance structural distortion in the TaO6 octahedron and lead to the higher Curie temperature and the higher ferroelectric spontaneous polarization.