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In endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy, surgeons sometimes have concerns about performing an adequate incision with only a narrow intra-cavital view from one direction. In order to overcome these issues, fluoroscopic radiography was used during endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy.
Peri-operative fluoroscopic radiography was utilised to check the position of the diverticuloscope, and to confirm the extent of the incision during surgery. A balloon catheter was used to determine whether the cricopharyngeal muscle was sufficiently resected. Blood loss, peri-operative complications, and functional oral swallowing scale and penetration aspiration scale scores were evaluated.
In 12 out of 15 patients, intra-operative fluoroscopic radiography showed the diverticuloscope positioned in the post-cricoid area, and the cricopharyngeal muscle was raised and the surgery completed without adverse effect. Swallowing functions improved following surgery.
Intra-operative fluoroscopy might improve endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy by allowing surgeons to confirm the extent of resection, and by reducing peri-operative morbidity and complication rates.
Japan is still a medium-burden tuberculosis (TB) country. We aimed to examine trends in newly notified active TB incidence and TB-related mortality in the last two decades in Japan. This is a population-based study using Japanese Vital Statistics and Japan Tuberculosis Surveillance from 1997 to 2016. We determined active TB incidence and mortality rates (per 100 000 population) by sex, age and disease categories. Joinpoint regression was applied to calculate the annual percentage change (APC) in age-adjusted mortality rates and to identify the years showing significant trend changes. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates reduced from 33.9 to 13.9 and 37.3 to 11.3 per 100 000 population, respectively. Also, crude and age-adjusted mortality rates reduced from 2.2 to 1.5 and 2.8 to 1.0 per 100 000 population, respectively. Average APC in the incidence and mortality rates showed significant decline both in men (−6.2% and −5.4%, respectively) and women (−5.7% and −4.6%, respectively). Age-specific analysis demonstrated decreases in incidence and mortality rates for every age category, except for the incidence trend in the younger population. Although trends in active TB incidence and mortality rates in Japan have favourably decreased, the rate of decline is far from achieving TB elimination by 2035.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
The region south of the reflection nebula NGC1333 in Perseus is an active star forming region including numerous Herbig-Haro objects and at least 5 protostar candidates with molecular outflows and far-infrared emission. It has been actively studied in various wave bands (e.g. Aspin et al 1994 and references therein). We observed this region with ASCA with the primary objective to detect X-rays from the protostars embedded deep in the molecular cloud.
The complex radio source Sgr A is embedded in a region near our Galactic Center. The dynamical center of our Galaxy is considered to be Sgr A*, the compact non-thermal radio source. Dynamical mass within ~0.1 pc from Sgr A* has been estimated to be ~ 3×106 M⊙. This places Sgr A* to be a candidate of a massive blackhole (Eckart and Genzel, 1997 and reference therein).
One major objective of our ASCA Galactic Plane Survey Project (AGPSP) is, utilizing the wide and high energy band (up to 10 keV) X-ray imaging capability and the high spectral resolving power of ASCA, to search possible X-ray SNRs in the Galactic inner disk. The observation of the field including G352.7-0.1 reported in this paper, was performed on 1996 March 14 during the first AO4 survey. We report on the X-ray SNR G352.7-0.1 found in AGPSP. G352.7-0.1 is one of the radio SNRs (Green 1996), and is classified as a shell-like SNR with the size of 8' x 6'.
The preliminary results of an mm-VLBI survey of spectral index on active galactic nuclei (AGN) are presented which suggest that their activities are only in the central regions. The difference in central activities may correspond to their different stages of evolution. We found a strong concentration to α = 0 for quasar and a spread distribution for HPQ.
A high performance VLBI recorder project using advanced digital technology started in 1995. TOSHIBA GBR 1000 and VLBI interface define 32 parallel, 32 MHz clock standard digital interface and support transparent recording/play-back to extremely high-speed digital bit stream. This is the formatter independent scientific recording bind the UTC to observed data. This highly reliable, low-bit-error-rate (10−16) recording system is also expected to be used in other scientific field. For the first example to examine the recorder performance in VLBI, we had been prepared 1024 Mbps sampler (256/512/1024 MSps, 2 bit, 4/2/1 ch). And here, an experimental giga-bit correlator specification for these VLBI acquisition system is introduced.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
The nearby radio galaxy M87 offers a unique opportunity for exploring the connection between γ-ray production and jet formation at an unprecedented linear resolution. However, the origin and location of the γ-rays in this source is still elusive. Based on previous radio/TeV correlation events, the unresolved jet base (radio core) and the peculiar knot HST-1 at >120 pc from the nucleus are proposed as candidate site(s) of γ-ray production. Here we report our intensive, high-resolution radio monitoring observations of the M87 jet with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) and the European VLBI Network (EVN) from February 2011 to October 2012. During this period, an elevated level of the M87 flux is reported at TeV with VERITAS. We detected a remarkable flux increase in the radio core with VERA at 22/43 GHz coincident with the VHE activity. Meanwhile, HST-1 remained quiescent in terms of its flux density and structure at radio. These results strongly suggest that the TeV γ-ray activity in 2012 originates in the jet base within 0.03 pc (projected) from the central supermassive black hole.
We have estimated the characteristic temperature T0 of GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. The density matrix theory including intraband relaxation broadening has been taken into account. The estimated T0 is about 300 K, which suggests a good temperature characteristic in GaN-based lasers.
We present the discovery of out-flow like plasma emissions with the Suzaku and ASCA data. Those plasmas have a size of ∼150 pc. Remarkably, the southern plasma is in a recombination dominant phase, which is not predicted by standard shock heating. A plausible scenario is either photoionization due to strong jet-like X-rays from Sgr A* or rapid cooling due to adiabatic expansion of a blowout plasma from the Galactic center about 105 years ago.
We examined the influence of momentary annealing on the nanoscale surface morphology of NiO(111) epitaxial thin films deposited on atomically stepped sapphire (0001) substrates at room temperature in O2 at 1.3 × 10−3 and 1.3 × 10−6 Pa using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The NiO films have atomically flat surfaces (RMS roughness: approximately 0.1–0.2 nm) reflecting the step-and-terrace structures of the substrates, regardless of the O2 deposition pressure. After rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of the NiO(111) epitaxial film deposited at 1.3 × 10−3 Pa O2, a periodic straight nanogroove array related to the atomic steps of the substrate was formed on the film surface for 60 s. In contrast, the fabrication of a transient state in the nanogroove array formation was achieved with RTA of less than 1 s. However, when the O2 atmosphere during PLD was 1.3 × 10−6 Pa, random crystal growth was observed and resulted in a disordered rough surface nanostructure after RTA.
Light emitting devices (LEDs) based on porous polysilicon (PPS) have been fabricated on a transparent quartz substrate. Several structures have been developed, each consisting of a backside contact (ITO or p+ polysilicon), a light emitting PPS layer, a capping layer, and a metal top contact. Photoluminescence (PL) from PPS is similar to that of etched crystalline Si, peaking near 750 nn and showing degradation during 515 nm laser excitation with intensity <100 mW/cm2. This degradation disappears if PPS is oxidized after formation. Visible electroluminescence (EL) has been achieved in both oxidized and non-oxidized PPS devices with voltages under 10 V and current densities <200 mA/cm2.
Infrared photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) from erbium-doped porous silicon (PSi) structures are studied. The PL and EL from the Er-doped PSi structures and the absence of silicon band edge recombination, point defect, and dislocation luminescence bands suggest that the Er-complex centers are the most efficient recombination sites. PSi multilayers with very high reflectivity (R ≥ 90%) in the 1.5 gim range have been incorporated in the structures resulting in a PL enhancement of over 100%. Stable and intense EL is obtained from the Er-doped structures. The EL spectrum is similar to that of the PL, but shifted towards higher energy. The unexpected shift in emission opens up the possibility for erbium related luminescence to encompass a larger part of the optimal wavelength window for fiber optic communications.
The optical properties of oxidized free-standing porous silicon films excited by a cw laser have been investigated. It is found that samples oxidized at 800–950 °C show a strongly superlinear light emission at an excitation intensity of ∼10 W/cm2. This emission has a peak at 900–1100 nm and shows a blueshift as the oxidation temperature is increased. These samples also show a very large induced absorption, where the transmittance is found to decrease reversibly by ≤99.7 %.The induced absorption increases linearly with increasing pump laser intensity. Both the superlinear emission and the large induced absorption are quenched when the samples are attached to materials with a higher thermal conductivity, suggesting that laser-induced thermal effects are responsible for these phenomena.
In this paper, boron diffusivities in HfSiON high-k gate dielectric films are systematically investigated for a wide range of the film composition. Boron diffusivities in HfSiON (1000°C) change from 3X10−17cm2/sec to 3X10−15cm2/sec according to the change in the chemical composition of the films. These diffusivity values are higher than that in SiON but lower than that in HfO2. We found that higher Hf/(Hf+Si) results in great increase of diffusivities. On the other hand, higher nitrogen concentration in the film leads to the reduction in diffusivity, in the case of the same Hf/(Hf+Si). In addition, crystallization of HfSiON with the same chemical composition gives rise to an anomalous increase in diffusivities, indicating that the micro-crystallized film structure of HfSiON critically affects the microscopic mechanism of boron diffusion in this material.
Some optoelectronic effects in porous Si (PS) have been investigated in relation to the visible luminescence mechanism. As regards photoluminescence (PL), particular emphasis is placed on the relationship between photoconduction (PC) and PL excitation (PLE) spectra, the interaction of external electric field and PL emission, and polarization properties of PL Main subjects of electroluminescence (EL) studies reported here are the dynamic behavior of EL operation and the formation of a large-area contact by a conducting polymer (polypyrrole: PP). The observed experimental results (almost complete coincidence of PC spectra with PLE ones, linear polarization memory of PL definite correlation between the polarization degree and the PL efficiency, and comparable response time of electrical PL quenching and EL to the PL decay time) are consistent with our hypothesis that the major process of PL takes place within Si nanocrystallites. The electrical characterization of light-emitting PS diodes with PP contacts ensures the usefulness of the contact formation by electropolymerization as a technique for uniform and efficient carrier injection into PS.