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Psychotropic medication use and psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy each are associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring. Commonly, studies considering medication effects do not adequately assess symptoms, nor evaluate children when the effects are believed to occur, the fetal period. This study examined maternal serotonin reuptake inhibitor and polypharmacy use in relation to serial assessments of five indices of fetal neurobehavior and Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 12 months in N = 161 socioeconomically advantaged, non-Hispanic White women with a shared risk phenotype, diagnosed major depressive disorder. On average fetuses showed the expected development over gestation. In contrast, infant average Bayley psychomotor and mental development scores were low (M = 84.10 and M = 89.92, range of normal limits 85–114) with rates of delay more than 2–3 times what would be expected based on this measure's normative data. Controlling for prenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms, prenatal medication effects on neurobehavioral development were largely undetected in the fetus and infant. Mental health care directed primarily at symptoms may not address the additional psychosocial needs of women parenting infants. Speculatively, prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure may act as a plasticity rather than risk factor, potentially enhancing receptivity to a nonoptimal postnatal environment in some mother–infant dyads.
We provide an expanded and updated, 2-locus phylogeny (mtSSU, nuLSU) of the lichenized fungal family Trypetheliaceae, with a total of 196 ingroup OTUs, in order to further refine generic delimitations and species concepts in this family. As a result, the following 15 clades are recognized as separate genera, including five newly established genera: Aptrootia, Architrypethelium, Astrothelium (including the bulk of corticate species with astrothelioid ascospores; synonyms: Campylothelium, Cryptothelium, Laurera), Bathelium s. str. (excluding B. degenerans and relatives which fall into Astrothelium), the reinstated Bogoriella (for tropical, lichenized species previously placed in Mycomicrothelia), Constrictolumina gen. nov. (for tropical, lichenized species of Arthopyrenia), Dictyomeridium gen. nov. (for a subgroup of species with muriform ascospores previously placed in Polymeridium), Julella (provisionally, as the type species remains unsequenced), Marcelaria (Laurera purpurina complex), Nigrovothelium gen. nov. (for the Trypethelium tropicum group), Novomicrothelia gen. nov. (for an additional species previously placed in Mycomicrothelia), Polymeridium s. str., Pseudopyrenula, Trypethelium s. str. (T. eluteriae group), and Viridothelium gen. nov. (for the Trypethelium virens group). All recognized genera are phenotypically characterized and a discussion on the evolution of phenotypic features in the family is given. Based on the obtained phylogeny, species delimitations are revised and the importance of characters such as thallus morphology, hymenial inspersion, and secondary chemistry for taxonomic purposes is discussed, resulting in a refined species concept.
Current trends in the global milk market and the recent abolition of milk quotas have accelerated the trend of the European dairy industry towards larger farm sizes and higher-yielding animals. Dairy cows remain in focus, but there is a growing interest in other dairy species, whose milk is often directed to traditional and protected designation of origin and gourmet dairy products. The challenge for dairy farms in general is to achieve the best possible standards of animal health and welfare, together with high lactational performance and minimal environmental impact. For larger farms, this may need to be done with a much lower ratio of husbandry staff to animals. Recent engineering advances and the decreasing cost of electronic technologies has allowed the development of ‘sensing solutions’ that automatically collect data, such as physiological parameters, production measures and behavioural traits. Such data can potentially help the decision making process, enabling early detection of health or wellbeing problems in individual animals and hence the application of appropriate corrective husbandry practices. This review focuses on new knowledge and emerging developments in welfare biomarkers (e.g. stress and metabolic diseases), activity-based welfare assessment (e.g. oestrus and lameness detection) and sensors of temperature and pH (e.g. calving alert and rumen function) and their combination and integration into ‘smart’ husbandry support systems that will ensure optimum wellbeing for dairy animals and thereby maximise farm profitability. Use of novel sensors combined with new technologies for information handling and communication are expected to produce dramatic changes in traditional dairy farming systems.
Stress has been shown to have a causal effect on risk for depression. We investigated the role of cognitive ability as a moderator of the effect of stressful life events on depressive symptoms and whether this varied by gender. Data were analyzed in two adolescent data sets: one representative community sample aged 11–12 years (n = 460) and one at increased familial risk of depression aged 9–17 years (n = 335). In both data sets, a three-way interaction was found whereby for girls, but not boys, higher cognitive ability buffered the association between stress and greater depressive symptoms. The interaction was replicated when the outcome was a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. This buffering effect in girls was not attributable to coping efficacy. However, a small proportion of the variance was accounted for by sensitivity to environmental stressors. Results suggest that this moderating effect of cognitive ability in girls is largely attributable to greater available resources for cognitive operations that offer protection against stress-induced reductions in cognitive processing and cognitive control which in turn reduces the likelihood of depressive symptomatology.
We used a mouse model of pathogenic (Staphylococcus aureus) and non-pathogenic (teat sealing) mammary inflammation to investigate mRNA expression of several inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins (APP) in mammary tissue and liver, and the appearance of some of these factors in plasma and milk. The expression levels of IL1β and TNFα were markedly up-regulated in Staph. aureus-inoculated mammary tissue at 72 h, whilst IL6 was up-regulated to a lesser extent in a way which was not confined to the inoculated glands. APP expression was up-regulated at 48 and 72 h in both Staph. aureus-inoculated and teat-sealed mammary glands. These differences between cytokine and APP expression provide additional support for the contention that APPs are produced within the mammary tissue itself during inflammation, rather than in associated immune cells. We propose that measurement of cytokines and APP in combination might provide a tool for diagnostic discrimination between mastitis caused by pathogenic invasion and milk accumulation, and hence allow for better targeting of antibiotic therapy. In comparison with mammary expression, expression of cytokines in liver tissue was up-regulated to a similar or lesser extent, whilst expression of APP was up-regulated to a much greater extent. The first appearance of increased cytokine and APP concentrations in plasma and of milk amyloid A (MAA) in milk occurred in advance of the measurable up-regulation of expression, hence their origin cannot be stated with certainty.
Rapid rebreeding of winter- and spring-lambing ewes is essential if ewes are to lamb more than once per year, but fertility of lactating ewes is often low and early weaning of lambs may be undesirable in forage-based production systems. Selection to improve fertility in spring matings has been successful and led to development of ewes with a reduced seasonal anestrus. Potential for rapid rebreeding of lactating out-of-season breeding (OOS) ewes was tested in three studies. In Experiment 1, effects of short-term lamb removal on rebreeding was evaluated over 2 years using 71 January-lambing OOS ewes. At an average of 63 days postpartum, 36 ewes had lambs removed for 72 h, and all ewes were joined with rams. Circulating progesterone levels indicated that 74% of ewes ovulated before lamb separation; 91% of ewes mated within 5 weeks of ram exposure, 85% were diagnosed as pregnant and 75% lambed. The average interval between lambings was 225 days. In contrast to results observed in cattle, none of the measured variables was affected by lamb separation (P>0.20). Experiment 2 compared rebreeding performance of 24 OOS and 23 St. Croix ewes that lambed in January and averaged 60 days postpartum at ram introduction. More OOS ewes ovulated, mated and became pregnant during the first 21 days of ram exposure (83.3%, 58.3%, and 41.7%, respectively; P<0.001) compared with St. Croix ewes (26.1%, 0%, and 0%, respectively). After 39 days of ram exposure, pregnancy rates still favored OOS ewes (66.7% v. 39.1%; P=0.06), but the percentage of ewes that lambed did not differ (P>0.20) between OOS (47.8%) and St. Croix ewes (34.8%). In the third study, 34 March-lambing OOS ewes were exposed to rams on May 3 at an average of 40 days postpartum to characterize their reproductive performance. After 39 days of ram exposure, 52.9±8.7% of the ewes had mated, and 38.2±8.5% were diagnosed as pregnant. However, only 20.6±7.0% of the ewes produced viable lambs, suggesting a high level of uterine insufficiency. Spring fertility of lactating OOS ewes in these studies was one of the highest reported in the literature and indicated that selection for fertility in spring mating would improve reproductive performance in accelerated lambing programs. However, exposure of lactating OOS ewes to rams at 30 to 50 days postpartum was associated with high prenatal lamb mortality.