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The thickness of glaciers in High-Mountain Asia (HMA) is critical in determining when the ice reserve will be lost as these glaciers thin but is remarkably poorly known because very few measurements have been made. Through a series of ground-based and airborne field tests, we have adapted a low-frequency ice-penetrating radar developed originally for Antarctic over-snow surveys, for deployment as a helicopter-borne system to increase the number of measurements. The manoeuvrability provided by helicopters and the ability of our system to detect glacier beds through thick, dirty, temperate ice makes it well suited to increase greatly the sample of measurements available for calibrating ice thickness models on the regional and global scale. The Bedmap Himalayas radar-survey system can reduce the uncertainty in present-day ice volumes and therefore in projections of when HMA's river catchments will lose this hydrological buffer against drought.
The relationship between the subtypes of psychotic experiences (PEs) and common mental health symptoms remains unclear. The current study aims to establish the 12-month prevalence of PEs in a representative sample of community-dwelling Chinese population in Hong Kong and explore the relationship of types of PEs and common mental health symptoms.
This is a population-based two-phase household survey of Chinese population in Hong Kong aged 16–75 (N = 5719) conducted between 2010 and 2013 and a 2-year follow-up study of PEs positive subjects (N = 152). PEs were measured with Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) and subjects who endorsed any item on the PSQ without a clinical diagnosis of psychotic disorder were considered as PE-positive. Types of PEs were characterized using a number of PEs (single v. multiple) and latent class analysis. All PE-positive subjects were assessed with common mental health symptoms and suicidal ideations at baseline and 2-year follow-up. PE status was also assessed at 2-year follow-up.
The 12-month prevalence of PEs in Hong Kong was 2.7% with 21.1% had multiple PEs. Three latent classes of PEs were identified: hallucination, paranoia and mixed. Multiple PEs and hallucination latent class of PEs were associated with higher levels of common mental health symptoms. PE persistent rate at 2-year follow-up was 15.1%. Multiple PEs was associated with poorer mental health at 2-year follow-up.
Results highlighted the transient and heterogeneous nature of PEs, and that multiple PEs and hallucination subtype of PEs may be specific indices of poorer common mental health.
Although there is growing interest in mental health problems in university students there is limited understanding of the scope of need and determinants to inform intervention efforts.
To longitudinally examine the extent and persistence of mental health symptoms and the importance of psychosocial and lifestyle factors for student mental health and academic outcomes.
Undergraduates at a Canadian university were invited to complete electronic surveys at entry and completion of their first year. The baseline survey measured important distal and proximal risk factors and the follow-up assessed mental health and well-being. Surveys were linked to academic grades. Multivariable models of risk factors and mental health and academic outcomes were fit and adjusted for confounders.
In 1530 students surveyed at entry to university 28% and 33% screened positive for clinically significant depressive and anxiety symptoms respectively, which increased to 36% and 39% at the completion of first year. Over the academic year, 14% of students reported suicidal thoughts and 1.6% suicide attempts. Moreover, there was persistence and overlap in these mental health outcomes. Modifiable psychosocial and lifestyle factors at entry were associated with positive screens for mental health outcomes at completion of first year, while anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with lower grades and university well-being.
Clinically significant mental health symptoms are common and persistent among first-year university students and have a negative impact on academic performance and well-being. A comprehensive mental health strategy that includes a whole university approach to prevention and targeted early-intervention measures and associated research is justified.
Introduction: Distal radial fractures (DRF) remain the most commonly encountered fracture in the Emergency Department (ED). The initial management of displaced DRFs by Emergency Physicians (EP) poses considerable resource allocation. We wished to determine the adequacy of reduction, both initially and at follow up. This data updates previously presented high level findings. Methods: We performed a mixed-methods study including patients who underwent procedural sedation and manipulation by an EP for a DRF. Radiological images performed at initial assessment, post-reduction, and clinic follow up were reviewed by a panel of orthopedic surgeons and radiologists blinded to outcomes, and assessed for evidence of displacement. Demographic data were pooled from patient records and included in statistical analysis. Results: Seventy patients were included and had follow-up completed. Initial reduction was deemed to be adequate in 37 patients (53%; 95% CI 41.32 to 64.10%). At clinic follow-up assessment, 26 reductions remained adequate; a slippage rate of 30% (95% CI of 17.37 to 45.90). Overall 7 patients (10%; 95% CI 4.65 to 19.51%) required revision of the initial reduction in the operating room. Agreement on adequacy of reduction on post-reduction radiographs between radiologists and orthopedic surgeons was 38.6% (95% CI -38.3 to -7.4, Kappa -0.229). The statistical strength of this agreement is worse than what would be expected by chance alone. There was no association found between age, sex, or of time of initial presentation and final outcomes. Conclusion: Although blinded review by specialists determined only half of initial EP DRF reductions to be radiographically adequate, only 10 percent actually required further intervention. Agreement between specialists on adequacy was poor. The majority of DRFs reduced by EPs do not require further surgical intervention.
To develop a toolkit (QuIRC) for assessing the living conditions, care and human rights of people with long term mental illness in psychiatric and social care facilities.
The QuIRC was developed by research partners across ten countries: UK; Germany; Spain; Czech Republic; Bulgaria; Italy; Netherlands; Poland; Greece and Portugal. Its content was informed by triangulation of the evidence on critical components of care collated from: a review of care standards in each country; an international literature review; and Delphi exercises with service users, carers, advocates and mental health professionals in each country. Its final format was agreed by an international panel of rehabilitation and recovery experts.
The toolkit includes 154 questions which assess seven domains of care provided in units for people with longer term mental health problems (living environment; therapeutic environment; treatments and interventions; self-management and autonomy; social inclusion; human rights; Recovery-orientated practice). It is completed by a senior clinician and takes around 90 minutes. Domain ratings can be used to assess and review the quality of care provided locally, regionally, nationally and internationally. A web-based version is under development that provides the unit with a report of its performance on these domains, compared to similar units in the same country. This will increase its accessibility for the review of care standard performance.
To develop a toolkit to assess the quality of institutionalised care, in both hospital and community settings, for individuals with long-term mental illness.
The toolkit was developed by the UK research teams. Items were included to assess the six domains (Living Environment; Therapeutic Environment; Treatments and Interventions; Self-management and Autonomy; Social Policy, Citizenship and Advocacy; Clinical Governance) and three cross-cutting themes (Social Inclusion; Human Rights; Recovery-based Model) which emerged from the international literature review, Delphi exercises and cross-country care standards. Following translation and piloting in each country, the toolkit was refined and tested for reliability in 20 units in each country (a total of 200 units).
Test-retest reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations and Cohen's Kappa coefficients. Factors with low reliability or extreme response biases were dropped. Remaining items were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis to test the allocation of items to domains and cross-cutting themes and improve their internal consistency. Correlations between domains were explored to determine whether or not domains could be combined.
In the next phase of the study,the toolkit domain ratings will be analysed for associations with standardised assessments of service users' quality of life, autonomy and markers of recovery to investigate whether the toolkit can provide a proxy measurement of the institution's promotion of human rights and recovery.
To determine the clinical effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) delivered in primary care for older people with depression and evaluation of a talking control (TC).
A single-blind, randomized, controlled trial with 4- and 10-month follow-up. 204 people, aged 65 years or more, with a Geriatric Mental State diagnosis of depression were recruited from primary care. The interventions were: treatment as usual (TAU), TAU plus TC, or TAU plus CBT. The TC and CBT were offered over 4 months. The TC was to control for common effects in therapy. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was the main outcome. Subsidiary measures were the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Social Functioning Questionnaire, and Euroqol. Intention to treat analysis (ITT) and Compliance Average Causal Effect (CACE) analyses was employed. The Cognitive therapy scale (CTS) evaluated common and specific factors in therapy.
A mean of 7 sessions of TC or CBT were delivered. ITT analysis found improvements of −3.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], −5.73 to −0.42) and −3.65 (95% CI, −6.18 to −1.12) in BDI-II scores in favour of CBT vs TAU and TC respectively. CACE analysis found a benefit of 0.4 points (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.72) per therapy session of CBT over TC. Ratings for CBT on the CTS were high (mean [SD], 54.2 [4.1]) and showed no difference for nonspecific, but significant differences for specific factors in therapy.
CBT is an effective treatment for depressed older people. Improvement appears to be associated with specific factors in CBT.
The process of deinstitutionalization (community-based care) has been shown to be associated with better quality of life for those with longer-term mental health problems compared to long stay hospitals. This project aimed to investigate the relationship between national progress towards deinstitutionalization and (1) quality of longer-term mental health care (2) service users’ ratings of that care in nine European countries.
Quality of care was assessed in 193 longer-term hospital- and community-based facilities in Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain and the UK. Data on users’ ratings of care were collected from 1579 users of these services. Country level variables were compiled from publicly available data. Multilevel models were fit to assess associations with quality of care and service user experiences of care.
Significant positive associations were found between deinstitutionalization and (1) five of seven quality of care domains; and (2) service user autonomy. A 10% increase in expenditure was associated with projected clinically important improvements in quality of care.
Greater deinstitutionalization of mental health mental health services is associated with higher quality of care and better service user autonomy.
B vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism have been implicated in the development of inflammation- and angiogenesis-related chronic diseases, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). Yet, the role of one-carbon metabolism in inflammation and angiogenesis among CRC patients remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of components of one-carbon metabolism with inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers among newly diagnosed CRC patients (n 238) in the prospective ColoCare Study, Heidelberg. We cross-sectionally analysed associations between twelve B vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and ten inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers from pre-surgery serum samples using multivariable linear regression models. We further explored associations among novel biomarkers in these pathways with Spearman partial correlation analyses. We hypothesised that pyridoxal-5’-phosphate (PLP) is inversely associated with inflammatory biomarkers. We observed that PLP was inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) (r –0·33, Plinear < 0·0001), serum amyloid A (SAA) (r –0·23, Plinear = 0·003), IL-6 (r –0·39, Plinear < 0·0001), IL-8 (r –0·20, Plinear = 0·02) and TNFα (r –0·12, Plinear = 0·045). Similar findings were observed for 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate and CRP (r –0·14), SAA (r –0·14) and TNFα (r –0·15) among CRC patients. Folate catabolite acetyl-para-aminobenzoylglutamic acid (pABG) was positively correlated with IL-6 (r 0·27, Plinear < 0·0001), and pABG was positively correlated with IL-8 (r 0·21, Plinear < 0·0001), indicating higher folate utilisation during inflammation. Our data support the hypothesis of inverse associations between PLP and inflammatory biomarkers among CRC patients. A better understanding of the role and inter-relation of PLP and other one-carbon metabolites with inflammatory processes among colorectal carcinogenesis and prognosis could identify targets for future dietary guidance for CRC patients.
Early life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for the development of depression in adolescence; the mediating neurobiological mechanisms, however, are unknown. In this study, we examined in early pubertal youth the associations among ELS, cortisol stress responsivity, and white matter microstructure of the uncinate fasciculus and the fornix, two key frontolimbic tracts; we also tested whether and how these variables predicted depressive symptoms in later puberty. A total of 208 participants (117 females; M age = 11.37 years; M Tanner stage = 2.03) provided data across two or more assessment modalities: ELS; salivary cortisol levels during a psychosocial stress task; diffusion magnetic resonance imaging; and depressive symptoms. In early puberty there were significant associations between higher ELS and decreased cortisol production, and between decreased cortisol production and increased fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus. Further, increased fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus predicted higher depressive symptoms in later puberty, above and beyond earlier symptoms. In post hoc analyses, we found that sex moderated several additional associations. We discuss these findings within a broader conceptual model linking ELS, emotion dysregulation, and depression across the transition through puberty, and contend that brain circuits implicated in the control of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis function should be a focus of continued research.
Neuropsychological dysfunction is a well-established finding in individuals with bipolar disorder type I (BP-I), even during euthymic periods; however, it is less clear whether this also pertains to bipolar disorder type II (BP-II) or those with subthreshold states (SBP; subthreshold bipolar disorder), such as bipolar not otherwise specified (BP-NOS). Herein, we compare the literature regarding neuropsychological performance in BP-II vs BP-I to determine the extent of relative impairment, and we present and review all related studies on cognition in SBP. After systematically searching PubMed, Medline, PsycINFO, and The Cochrane Library, we found 17 papers that comprise all the published studies relevant for this review. The areas that are consistently found to be impaired in BP are executive function, verbal memory, visual spatial working memory, and attention. More studies than not show no significant difference between BP-I and BP-II, particularly in euthymic samples. Preliminary evidence suggests that patients experiencing major depressive episodes who also meet criteria for SBP show similar profiles to BP-II; however, these results pertain only to a depressed sample. SBP were found to perform significantly better than both MDD and healthy controls in a euthymic sample. A consensus on mood state, patient selection, and neuropsychological testing needs to be agreed on for future research. Furthermore, no studies have used the most recent DSM-5 criteria for SBP; future studies should address this. Finally, the underlying bases of cognitive dysfunction in these diagnostic groups need to be further investigated. We suggest recommendations on all of the above current research challenges.
Filamentary structures can form within the beam of protons accelerated during the interaction of an intense laser pulse with an ultrathin foil target. Such behaviour is shown to be dependent upon the formation time of quasi-static magnetic field structures throughout the target volume and the extent of the rear surface proton expansion over the same period. This is observed via both numerical and experimental investigations. By controlling the intensity profile of the laser drive, via the use of two temporally separated pulses, both the initial rear surface proton expansion and magnetic field formation time can be varied, resulting in modification to the degree of filamentary structure present within the laser-driven proton beam.
Researchers are becoming increasingly interested in linking specific forms of early life stress (ELS) to specific neurobiological markers, including alterations in the morphology of stress-sensitive brain regions. We used a person-centered, multi-informant approach to investigate the associations of specific constellations of ELS with hippocampal and amygdala volume in a community sample of 211 9- to 13-year-old early adolescents. Further, we compared this approach to a cumulative risk model of ELS, in which ELS was quantified by the total number of stressors reported. Using latent class analysis, we identified three classes of ELS (labeled typical/low, family instability, and direct victimization) that were distinguished by experiences of family instability and victimization. Adolescents in the direct victimization class had significantly smaller hippocampal volume than did adolescents in the typical/low class; ELS classes were not significantly associated with amygdala volume. The cumulative risk model of ELS had a poorer fit than did the person-centered model; moreover, cumulative ELS was not significantly associated with hippocampal or amygdala volume. Our results underscore the utility of taking a person-centered approach to identify alterations in stress-sensitive brain regions based on constellations of ELS, and suggest victimization is specifically associated with hippocampal hypotrophy observed in early adolescence.
Philip Rieff's (1922– 2006) intellectual and cultural inheritance derives from a variety of sources. For example, he was not a religious Jew and mentions of the Holocaust hardly make an appearance in his early work. Yet increasingly “Auschwitz” takes on great moral and cultural significance in his late writings. Rieff made his intellectual name with an intellectual biography of Sigmund Freud, co- written with his first wife Susan Sontag. It still stands as a major achievement, even if his own attitude toward Freud moved from admiration to disapproval over the years. As a sociologist, Rieff was influenced by Emile Durkheim's emphasis on the relationship between a society's cohesion and its religious ethos, not to mention Max Weber's writings on authority and his idea of modernity as intertwined with secularization, a special preoccupation of modern German thought. The philosophy of culture hammered out by Friedrich Nietzsche was also of fundamental importance for Rieff's later work, particularly, of course, for his “death of God” anti- theology. Besides that Rieff was steeped in the advanced art and culture of the twentieth century. In this he was a product of an eclectic and pluralist modernist culture.
But as a theorist of culture, Rieff was indifferent to the philosophical tradition of Greece as it has shaped modern thought, particularly German thought. There's no evidence that Rieff accepted Martin Heidegger's version of Western thought as Seinsvergessenheit (the forgetting of Being). Though he admired Hannah Arendt as “one of the most trustworthy guides to our time and its past,” he never really responded to her claim that the history of Western political ideas was the story of the loss of authentic political thinking. And unlike another (adopted) American conservative, Leo Strauss, with whom he is sometimes compared, Rieff did not choose Athens over Jerusalem, rationality over revelation, natural law over God's commandments. Unlike both Strauss and Arendt, he was largely dismissive of politics, which he considered to be the pursuit of crass material interests and power grabbing. Still, in his late writings, he identified the Hellenic origins of the West with what he called the “first world,” one founded on “taboo” and guided by “fate.” The third world, which we the living allegedly now inhabit, sees the world in terms of the “primacy of possibility” (aka POP), and it is guided by “rules” that regulate the roles the self continually tries on and sheds.