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Co-ingestion of almonds with carbohydrate prevents excessive increase in plasma glucose level (PGL), but information about the functional fraction is limited. Identifying the functional fraction is necessary to use almonds more efficiently in terms of controlling postprandial glycaemia after a high-carbohydrate meal. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of almond skin, oil, water-soluble fraction and water-insoluble fraction on both postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia. The effect of almond skin was tested by comparing the effect of whole almonds with the effect of skinless almonds. Male ICR mice were administered dextrin and 4 g/kg body weight test samples. After the administration, 2-h postprandial changes in glycaemia and insulinaemia were measured. Oil was the only fraction being able to blunt postprandial glycaemia. Interestingly, when co-ingesting with dextrin, almond oil did not change the insulin level compared with the control but whole almonds or skinless almonds triggered a 4-fold increase in insulin level. The co-ingestion of whole almonds or skinless almonds similarly suppressed the PGL at 15 and 30 min (P < 0·05), which means almond skin has no effect on postprandial glycaemia. Neither soluble nor insoluble fractions lead to any significant changes in postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia. In conclusion, oil is the main functional component accounting for the glycaemia-lowering effect without altering insulin level.
Diabetes mellitus is a global epidemic, characterised as a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders associated with high risk of CVD. Green banana biomass, which is composed of resistant starches (RS) and cannot be hydrolysed by amylases, delays gastric emptying and modulates insulin sensitivity, thus contributing to improve metabolic disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of consumption of RS from green banana biomass on body composition, fasting plasma glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in subjects with pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes on top of treatment. Middle-aged subjects (n 113) of both sexes with pre-diabetes (HbA1c: 5·7–6·4 %) or diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 6·5 %) were randomised to receive nutritional support plus green banana biomass (40 g) (RS: approximately 4·5 g, G1, n 62) or diet alone (G2, n 51) for 24 weeks. Body composition, biochemical analyses and dietary intake were evaluated at the beginning and end of the study. In the experimental group (G1), consumption of RS was associated with reduction in HbA1c (P = 0·0001), fasting glucose (P = 0·021), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0·010), body weight (P = 0·002), BMI (P = 0·006), waist and hip circumferences (P < 0·01), fat mass percentage (P = 0·001) and increase in lean mass percentage (P = 0·011). In controls (G2), reductions were observed in waist and hip circumferences (P < 0·01), HbA1c (P = 0·002) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P = 0·020). In pre-diabetes or diabetes, non-significant differences were observed in the percentage reduction in HbA1c and fasting glucose in exploratory analyses. Our results indicate that the consumption of bioactive starches is a good dietary strategy to improve metabolic control and body composition.
The naturalization of alien Reeves's muntjacs (Muntiacus reevesi) on Izu-Oshima Island, Tokyo, Japan, has proceeded intensively over the last five decades. To clarify whether the gastrointestinal helminths of these animals were brought from their original endemic area or were newly acquired in Japan, 32 Reeves's muntjacs trapped on the island were parasitologically examined. In addition to Gongylonema pulchrum in the oesophagus (34.4% prevalence), Chabaudstrongylus ninhae (Dróżdż, 1967) (Trichostrongylidae: Cooperiinae) and Oesophagostomum muntiacum Jian, 1989 (Chabertiidae: Oesophagostominae) were prevalent in the small (28.1%) and large (46.9%) intestines, respectively. For the first time, these trichostrongylid or chabertiid worms were genetically characterized based on partial nucleotide sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox-1), and the phylogenetic relationships with other members of their family were explored. Since these two intestinal nematode species are inherent in muntjacs, this study demonstrates a new distribution of exotic helminth species in Japan in accordance with the naturalization of alien mammalian hosts. The molecular genetic data collected here could assist the taxonomic assessment of morphological variants in different Muntiacus spp. and/or of different geographical origins. Furthermore, our data may help to define the phylogenetic relationships among such isolates.
The number of tests performed is an important surveillance indicator. We illustrate this point using HIV surveillance data, focusing on Tokyo and Okinawa, two prefectures with high HIV notification rates in Japan. Restricting to data reported from local public health centres and affiliate centres where testing data are accessible, we assessed HIV surveillance data during 2007–2014, based on the annual HIV notification rate (per 100 000 population), HIV testing rate (per 100 000 population) and proportion testing HIV-positive (positivity). Nationally, testing activity and positivity showed an inverse relationship; in 2008, the testing rate peaked, but positivity was lowest. While notification rates were higher for Tokyo (median = 0.98, range = 0.89–1.33) than Okinawa (median = 0.61, range = 0.42–1.09), Okinawa had slightly higher testing rates (median = 187, range = 158–274) relative to Tokyo (median = 172, range = 163–210). Positivity was substantially lower in Okinawa (median = 0.34%, range = 0.24–0.45%) compared with Tokyo (median = 0.57%, range = 0.46–0.67%). Relative to the national testing rate (median = 85, range = 80–115) and positivity (median = 0.34%, range = 0.28–0.36%), Tokyo had higher positivity, despite more testing. In 2014 in Okinawa, all three indicators increased, providing a strong reason to be concerned as positivity increased despite more testing. Together with other information, accounting for testing and positivity improve interpretation of surveillance data to guide public health assessments.
We calculate the blue-red-blue evolution of the progenitor of SN 1987A in the HR diagram by adopting the Schwarzschild criterion for convection and by choosing appropriate parameters for mass loss and mixing [Fig. 1 (left) where metallicity is Z = 0.005]. During helium burning, the star moves from the blue to the red due to mass loss from 23 M⊙ to 16 M⊙. Figure 2 (right) shows the lifetime in effective temperature bins normalized to unity (solid) compared with the number of supergiants with −8 < Mboi < � 9 in the LMC, which is also normalized to unity (dashed). The model is qualitatively consistent with the observed histogram.
The Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) is composed by four ground cosmic ray detectors distributed around the Earth: Nagoya (Japan), Hobart (Australia), Sao Martinho da Serra (Brazil) and Kuwait city (Kuwait). The network has operated since March 2006. It has been upgraded a few times, increasing its detection area. Each detector is sensitive to muons produced by the interactions of ~50 GeV Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) with the Earth′s atmosphere. At these energies, GCR are known to be affected by interplanetary disturbances in the vicinity of the earth. Of special interest are the interplanetary counterparts of coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and their driven shocks because they are known to be the main origins of geomagnetic storms. It has been observed that these ICMEs produce changes in the cosmic ray gradient, which can be measured by GMDN observations. In terms of applications for space weather, some attempts have been made to use GMDN for forecasting ICME arrival at the earth with lead times of the order of few hours. Scientific space weather studies benefit the most from the GMDN network. As an example, studies have been able to determine ICME orientation at the earth using cosmic ray gradient. Such determinations are of crucial importance for southward interplanetary magnetic field estimates, as well as ICME rotation.
We report on the formation of shallow junctions with high activation in both n+/p and p+/n Ge junctions using ion implantation and Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA). The shallowest junction depths (Xj) formed for the n+/p and p+/n junctions were 7.6 nm and 6.1 nm with sheet resistances (Rs) of 860 ohms/sq. and 704 ohms/sq., respectively. By reducing knocked-on oxygen during ion implantation in the n+/p junctions, Rs was decreased by between 5% and 15%. The lowest Rs observed was 235 ohms/sq. with a junction depth of 21.5 nm. Hall measurements clearly revealed that knocked-on oxygen degraded phosphorus activation (carrier concentration). In the p+/n Ge junctions, we show that ion implantation damage induced high boron activation. Using this technique, Rs can be reduced from 475 ohms/sq. to 349 ohms/sq. These results indicate that the potential for forming ultra-shallow n+/p and p+/n junctions in the nanometer range in Ge devices using FLA is very high, leading to realistic monolithically-integrated Ge CMOS devices that can take us beyond Si technology.
In this paper, the robustness of the dynamic instability mitigation mechanism is first examined, and then the instability mitigation phenomenon is demonstrated in a deuterium–tritium (DT) fuel target implosion by wobbling heavy-ion beams (HIBs). The results presented here show that the mechanism of the dynamic instability mitigation is rather robust against changes in the phase, the amplitude and the wavelength of the wobbling perturbation applied. In general instability would emerge from the perturbation of the physical quantity. Normally the perturbation phase is unknown, so that the instability growth rate is discussed. However, if the perturbation phase is known, the instability growth can be controlled by a superposition of perturbations imposed actively: if the perturbation is induced by, for example, a driving beam axis oscillation or wobbling, the perturbation phase could be controlled and the instability growth is mitigated by the superposition of the growing perturbations. In this paper, we realize the superposition of the perturbation by the wobbling HIBs’ illumination onto a DT fuel target in heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF). Our numerical fluid implosion simulations present that the implosion non-uniformity is mitigated successfully by the wobbling HIBs illumination in HIF.
In this paper, a study on a fusion reactor core is presented in heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF), including the heavy-ion beam (HIB) transport in a fusion reactor, an HIB interaction with a background gas, the reactor cavity gas dynamics, the reactor gas backflow to the beam lines, and an HIB fusion reactor design. The HIB has remarkable preferable features to release the fusion energy in inertial fusion: in particle accelerators HIBs are generated with a high driver efficiency of about 30–40%, and the HIB ions deposit their energy inside of materials. Therefore, a requirement for the fusion target energy gain is relatively low, that would be ~50 to operate an HIF fusion reactor with a standard energy output of 1 GW of electricity. In a fusion reactor, the HIB charge neutralization is needed for a ballistic HIB transport. Multiple mechanical shutters would be installed at each HIB port at the reactor wall to stop the blast waves and the chamber gas backflow, so that the accelerator final elements would be protected from the reactor gas contaminant. The essential fusion reactor components are discussed in this paper.
In inertial fusion, one of scientific issues is to reduce an implosion non-uniformity of a spherical fuel target. The implosion non-uniformity is caused by several factors, including the driver beam illumination non-uniformity, the Rayleigh–Taylor instability (RTI) growth, etc. In this paper, we propose a new control method to reduce the implosion non-uniformity; the oscillating implosion acceleration δg(t) is created by pulsating and dephasing heavy-ion beams (HIBs) in heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF). The δg(t) would reduce the RTI growth effectively. The original concept of the non-uniformity control in inertial fusion was proposed in [Laser Part. Beams (1993) 11, 757–768]. In this paper, it was found that the pulsating and dephasing HIBs illumination provide successfully the controlled δg(t) and that δg(t) induced by the pulsating HIBs reduces well the implosion non-uniformity. Consequently the pulsating HIBs improve a pellet gain remarkably in HIF.
In order to investigate the distinguishability about the progenitors of FeCCSNe and ECSNe, we calculate the luminosities and spectra of their pre-SN neutrinos and estimate the number of events at neutrino detectors.
Polarization measurements of the radio Arc were made with the VLA at 15 GHz. High frequency polarimetry made with high spatial resolution minimizes Faraday depolarization and reveals polarized filaments which correspond to the predominant filaments of the radio Arc. We notice a peculiar linear feature in the polarization map (“thorns”) which suggests the presence of a second magnetic field system. The total intensity maps show no evidence for an interaction between the two field systems, so the thorns may be foreground magnetized structures. However, if the two magnetic field systems do interact, it would allow a model in which the acceleration of relativistic particles takes place at their intersection. The accelerated particles would flow toward both ends of the radio Arc, and account for the intrinsic polarization observed along the entire length of the system. Thermal electrons responsible for the Faraday depolarization occuring at longer wavelengths may be supplied by the interaction of the streams of relativistic particles with relatively dense, ambient thermal clouds.
We present 22 and 49 GHz interferometric observations of Hyd A (3C218). The source was found to have a very large Faraday rotation measure (RM) (Kato et al. 1987), and to be a dominant member of a luminous X-ray cluster with a large cooling flow (David et al. 1988). These characteristics are very similar to those of Cyg A which is suggested to produce a large RM within a dense sheath around the radio lobes as a result of somehow an interaction between dense intracluster medium (ICM) and radio jets and/or lobes (Dreher et al. 1987). Hyd A is the second example of Cyg A type source. In case of Cyg A, hot spots are the place where the interaction between jets and ICM occurs (Carilli et al. 1988). We then expect in Hyd A that similar interaction also occurs to form hot spots, and consequently that high frequency observations reveal structures of the interaction.
We are currently conducting three kinds of IR surveys of star forming regions (SFRs) in order to seek for very low-mass young stellar populations. First is a deep JHKs-bands (simultaneous) survey with the SIRIUS camera on the IRSF 1.4m or the UH 2.2m telescopes. Second is a very deep JHKs survey with the CISCO IR camera on the Subaru 8.2m telescope. Third is a high resolution companion search around nearby YSOs with the CIAO adaptive optics coronagraph IR camera on the Subaru. In this contribution, we describe our SIRIUS camera and present preliminary results of the ongoing surveys with this new instrument.
We have made a 12CO(J = 1−0) survey of the LMC with NANTEN. A sample of 55 giant molecular clouds has been identified and comparisons with stellar clusters, HII regions and SNRs are presented. The connection between the clouds and cluster formation is discussed.
We have made 12CO(J=1−0) observations of the LMC with NANTEN. We report the results of a comparison between CO clouds and SNRs in the LMC. Among the 35 known SNRs, only 10 are possibly associated with CO clouds. These 10 CO clouds and SNRs deserve follow-up studies for possible interactions. We present overlays of CO clouds on the optical images of some of these SNRs.
We have made 12CO(J=1-0) observations in the LMC with NANTEN, and compared the detected giant molecular clouds (GMCs) with HII regions and stellar clusters. It is found that ~ 80% of the GMCs are associated with HII regions. The results of comparisons of the GMCs with the HII regions and the stellar clusters are presented.
We have made 12CO(J=1−0) observations of the LMC with the NANTEN millimeter-wave telescope and identified about 100 distinct giant molecular clouds (GMCs). A detailed comparison of the GMCs with stellar clusters and a UV image is discussed.
Fully sampled 12CO(J=1−0) observations of the whole extent of the LMC have been made with a linear resolution of ~ 30 pc at a detection limit of N(H2) = 2 × 1021 cm−2. In addition, several selected regions have been mapped with higher sensitivity corresponding to a detection limit of 1 × 1021 cm−2. Based on these results, a new estimate of the molecular mass in the LMC is presented.
The Commission has, since its inception, been devoted to the continually increasing needs of astronomy and astrophysics for reliable atomic and molecular data a) for diagnostic interpretation of astronomical observations, and b) for support of theoretical modelling of astrophysical situations. At the 1985 Delhi General Assembly, the Commission reviewed the scope of its subject matter, and considered whether it should be extended to include higher energy physical processes than are commonly treated by atomic and molecular data. It was concluded that there was no strong demand for this change, which, if implemented, would make the work of the Commission too diffuse. The appropriateness of the past working group structure was also carefully reviewed in the light of contemporary needs. The following working groups, which have evolved from those of past years, together with their chairmen was approved:
1:Atomic Spectra and Wavelength Standards (excluding primary standards): W.C. Martin
2:Atomic Transition Probabilities: W.L Wiese
3:Collision Processes: A. Dalgarno
4:Line Broadening: N. Feautrier
5:Molecular Structure and Transition Data: W.H. Parkinson