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This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Description: Semiconductor physics contains a rich body of theory and working designs. However, their material properties seem to be reaching their limits. Perovskite oxides on the other hand have abundant physical properties, but are still under active investigation. The advent of RHEED-monitoring of pulsed laser deposition allows for the fabrication of structures with single unit cell (4 Å) thick layers. In this way we may be able to fabricate quantum well structures for both applications and fundamental investigations. Superlattices of the Mott insulator LaTiO3 (LTO) and the band gap insulator SrTiO3 (STO) form such a structure. The superlattices are metallic, both as-grown and post-annealed . This has been attributed to the existence of metallic states at the interfaces between LTO and STO . At these interfaces the electron density is found to extend about 10 Å into the STO. However, theoretically, the required length scale for quantum confinement is of the order of 4 Å. A possible way to increase this confinement is to use a buffer material with a larger band gap than that of LTO (similar to semiconductor band gap engineering) and/or with a lower dielectric constant . LaAlO3 (LAO) is such a material (ΔELAO = 5.6 eV vs. ΔESTO = 3.2 eV, εLAO = 24 vs. εSTO = 300). Here we report on the growth of LTO/LAO superlattices on STO substrates. As-grown superlattices of LTO/LAO are metallic, while post-annealing turns them insulating. This may be explained from a disorder-order transition in a 2D Mott-Hubbard model . XPS and EELS measurements of the titanium valence show interesting differences for LTO layers close to and far away from the sample surface. The former, for thin LAO capping layers, show the presence of Ti4+ while the latter only have Ti3+. Hard XPS of samples with varying capping layer thickness shows an exponential dependence of the Ti3+ contents on a length scale of about 5 unit cells.  A. Ohtomo et al., Nature 419, 378-380 (2002).  S. Okamoto & A.J. Millis, Phys. Rev. B 70, 075101 (2004).  D. Heidarian & N. Trivedi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 126401 (2004).
We report the investigation on the properties of a novel Te precursor (i-C3H7)2Te and its effectiveness in fabricating MoTe2. The vapor pressure of the precursor was obtained by measuring the pressure as a function of its temperature in a sealed chamber. As a result it showed a high vapor pressure of 552.1 Pa at room temperature. The decomposition of the precursor was also investigated using DFT calculation. It was shown that the most likely reaction during the course of the decomposition of (i-C3H7)2Te is (i-C3H7)2Te → H2Te + 2 C3H7. The effectiveness of the precursor on the fabrication of MoTe2 was also investigated. Sputter-deposited MoO3 was tellurized in a quartz-tube furnace at the temperature up to 440°C. The resulting film showed that the 80% of the original MoO3 was tellurized to form MoTe2. It was also shown that further optimization of tellurization is required in order to prevent formation of metal Mo and elemental Te.
We have made a preliminary map of the Horsehead nebula in CO (J=1-0) using the NRO 45-m telescope. The HPBW is 15″, the grid spacing 10″, and the velocity resolution is ∼0.1km/s. Figure 1 shows the integrated intensity with a velocity interval 10-11.5 km/s, which we found represents well the shape of the dark globule of the Horsehead. The coincidence of the CO feature and the dark nebulocity is strikingly well, especially at the sharp edges in the south and in the west (from the neck to the ears). The quality of the data are not satisfactory, though. The typical noise level is 1 K rms in TA, and the accuracies of the pointing and the intensity calibration is rather low due to the bad weather during the observation. Some scanning effects in the intensities can be recognized in Figure 1. One of the reason why the gap obtically seen beneath the jaw is not clear in the CO map may be attributed to the pointing errors.
We report the synthesis of MoS2(1-x)Te2x by co-sputtering deposition and effect of mixture on its bandgap. The deposition was carried out at room temperature, and the sputtering power on individual MoS2 and MoTe2 targets were varied to obtain films with different compositions. Investigation with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the formation of Mo-Te and Mo-S bonds after post-deposition annealing (PDA), and one of the samples exhibited composition ratio of Mo:S:Te = 1:1.2:0.8 and 1:1.9:0.1 achieving 1:2 ratio of metal to chalcogen. Bandgap of MoS1.2Te0.8 and MoS1.9Te0.1 was evaluated with Tauc plot analysis from the extinction coefficient obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. The obtained bandgaps were 1.0 eV and 1.3 eV. The resulting bandgap was lower than that of bulk MoS2 and higher than that of bulk MoTe2 suggesting mixture of both materials was achieved by co-sputtering.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin films were fabricated by two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using (t-C4H9)2S2 and the effects of temperature, gas flow rate, and atmosphere on the formation were investigated in order to achieve high-speed low-temperature MoS2 film formation. From the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations, it was confirmed that c-axis orientation of the pre-deposited Mo film has a significant involvement in the crystal orientation after the reaction low temperature sulfurization annealing and we successfully obtained 3 nm c-axis oriented MoS2 thin film. From the S/Mo ratios in the films, it was revealed that the sulfurization reaction proceeds faster with increase in the sulfurization temperature and the gas flow rate. Moreover, the sulfurization under the H2 atmosphere promotes decomposition reaction of (t-C4H9)2S2, which were confirmed by XPS and density functional theory (DFT) simulation.
Although presently classified as a SU UMa-type dwarf nova, WZ Sge is well known as one of the most peculiar objects in that it shows only superoutbursts with exceptional duration and amplitude, and no normal outbursts. Furthermore, on its decline from the 1978 outburst, WZ Sge showed a deep temporal dip. All of these characteristics have puzzled both theoreticians and observers.
The dwarf nova AL Com was photometrically observed during the outburst in 1995 April, which occurred for the first time since 1975. The striking similarity of AL Com to WZ Sge, as demonstrated by the present observation (Fig. 1), provides plenty of material in interpreting the enigmatic nature of WZ Sge-type dwarf novae.
The aim of this study is to estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and treatment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders in Japan based on the final data set of the World Mental Health Japan Survey conducted in 2002–2006.
Face-to-face household interviews of 4130 respondents who were randomly selected from Japanese-speaking residents aged 20 years or older were conducted from 2002 to 2006 in 11 community populations in Japan (overall response rate, 56%). The World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), a fully structured, lay administered psychiatric diagnostic interview, was used for diagnostic assessment.
Lifetime/12-month prevalence of any DSM-IV common mental disorders in Japan was estimated to be 20.3/7.6%. Rank-order of four classes of mental disorders was anxiety disorders (8.1/4.9%), substance disorders (7.4/1.0%), mood disorders (6.5/2.3%) and impulse control disorders (2.0/0.7%). The most common individual disorders were alcohol abuse/dependence (7.3/0.9%), major depressive disorder (6.1/2.2%), specific phobia (3.4/2.3%) and generalized anxiety disorder (2.6/1.3%). While the lifetime prevalence of any mental disorder was greater for males and the middle-aged, the persistence (proportion of 12-month cases among lifetime cases) of any mental disorder was greater for females and younger respondents. Among those with any 12-month disorder, 15.3% were classified as severe, 44.1% moderate and 40.6% mild. Although a strong association between severity and service use was found, only 21.9% of respondents with any 12-month disorder sought treatment within the last 12 months; only 37.0% of severe cases received medical care. The mental health specialty sector was the most common resource used in Japan. Although the prevalence of mental disorders were quite low, mental disorders were the second most prevalent cause of severe role impairment among chronic physical and mental disorders.
These results suggest lower prevalence of mental disorders in Japan than that in Western countries, although the general pattern of disorders, risk factors and unmet need for treatment were similar to those in other countries. Greater lifetime prevalence for males and greater persistence for females seems a unique feature of Japan, suggesting a cultural difference in gender-related etiology and course of disorders. The treatment rate in Japan was lower than that in most other high-income countries in WMH surveys.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), one of the transition-metal dichalcogenides, is a 2-dimensional semiconducting material that has a layered structure. Owing to excellent optical and electronic properties, the ultra-thin MoS2 film is expected to be used for various devices, such as transistors and flexible displays. In this study, we investigated the physical and chemical properties of sputtered-MoS2 film in the sub-10-nm region by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As the results of Raman spectroscopy investigations, we observed two Raman modes, E12g and A1g, in the 2-dimensional MoS2 films. As the thickness of the MoS2 film decreased, the peak frequency difference between E12g and A1g modes increased. From the XPS investigations, we confirmed sulfur reductions from the 2-dimensional MoS2 films. Therefore, we considered that the sulfur vacancies in the MoS2 film affected the Raman peak positions. Moreover, we performed the additional sulfurization of sputtered-MoS2 films. From the XPS and Raman investigations, the quality of the sputtered-MoS2 films was improved by the additional sulfurization.
A fully coherent free electron laser (FEL) seeded with a higher-order harmonic (HH) pulse from high-order harmonic generation (HHG) is successfully operated for a sufficiently prolonged time in pilot user experiments by using a timing drift feedback. For HHG-seeded FELs, the seeding laser pulses have to be synchronized with electron bunches. Despite seeded FELs being non-chaotic light sources in principle, external laser-seeded FELs are often unstable in practice because of a timing jitter and a drift between the seeding laser pulses and the accelerated electron bunches. Accordingly, we constructed a relative arrival-timing monitor based on non-invasive electro-optic sampling (EOS). The EOS monitor made uninterrupted shot-to-shot monitoring possible even during the seeded FEL operation. The EOS system was then used for arrival-timing feedback with an adjustability of 100 fs for continual operation of the HHG-seeded FEL. Using the EOS-based beam drift controlling system, the HHG-seeded FEL was operated over half a day with an effective hit rate of 20%–30%. The output pulse energy was
at the 61.2 nm wavelength. Towards seeded FELs in the water window region, we investigated our upgrade plan to seed high-power FELs with HH photon energy of 30–100 eV and lase at shorter wavelengths of up to 2 nm through high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) at the energy-upgraded SPring-8 Compact SASE Source (SCSS) accelerator. We studied a benefit as well as the feasibility of the next HHG-seeded FEL machine with single-stage HGHG with tunability of a lasing wavelength.
KNbO3 thick films were deposited on (100)c SrRuO3//(100)SrTiO3 substrates at 240 °C for 3 h by hydrothermal method. Film thickness increased linearly with increasing the deposition number of times and 130 μm thickness was achieved by the 6 time deposition. XRD analysis showed the growth of epitaxial orthorhombic films with the mixture orientation of (100), (010) and (001). Cross-sectional SEM observation showed that the 130 μm-thick film was dense and no obvious voids inside the film. In addition, the crystal structure change along film thickness direction was not detected from the cross-sectional Raman spectral observation.
The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study was designed to clarify the incidence of and predictive and immunological factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based Japanese population. As part of this series, a total of 5683 residents aged ⩾50 years received a varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin test with VZV antigen, and 48 h later, the erythema and oedema were assessed by measuring the longest diameter. The diameters of both the erythema and oedema decreased with the increasing age of the subject. Sixty-three subjects contracted herpes zoster within a year after receiving the VZV skin test. Analysis of the herpes zoster incidence rate vs. the skin test reaction revealed that the shorter the diameter of erythema or oedema, the greater the likelihood of herpes zoster. These results demonstrated that the VZV skin test is an excellent surrogate marker for predicting the risk of herpes zoster.
Most of the research on silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits has been focused on applications for telecommunication. By using the large refractive index of silicon, compact complex photonic functions have been integrated on a silicon chip. However, the transparency of silicon up to 8.5 μm enables the use of the platform for the mid infrared wavelength region, albeit limited by the absorption in silicon oxide from 4 μm on. This could lead to a whole new set of integrated photonics circuits for sensing, given the distinct absorption bands of many molecules in this wavelength region. These long wavelength integrated photonic circuits would preferably need broadband or widely tunable sources to probe these absorption bands.
We propose the use of nonlinear optics in silicon wire waveguides to generate light in this wavelength range. Nonlinear interactions in just a few cm of silicon wire waveguides can be very efficient as a result of both the high nonlinear index of silicon and the high optical confinement obtained in these waveguides. We demonstrate the generation of a supercontinuum spanning from 1.53 μm up to 2.55 μm in a 2 cm dispersion engineered silicon nanowire waveguide by pumping the waveguide with strong picoseconds pulses at 2.12 μm . Furthermore we demonstrate broadband nonlinear optical amplification in the mid infrared up to 50 dB  in these silicon waveguides. By using this broadband parametric gain a silicon-based synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is constructed . This OPO is tunable over 70 nm around a central wavelength of 2080 nm.
Finally, we also demonstrate the use of higher order dispersion terms to get phase matching between optical signals at very different optical frequencies in silicon wire waveguides. In this way we demonstrate conversion of signals at 2.44 μm to the telecommunication band with efficiencies up to +19.5 dB . One particularly attractive application of such wide conversion is the possibility of converting weak signals in the mid-IR to the telecom window after which they can be detected by a high-sensitivity telecom-band optical receiver.
Semiconductor-based thermistors are very attractive sensor materials for uncooled thermal infrared (IR) bolometers. Very large scale heterogeneous integration of MEMS is an emerging technology that allows the integration of epitaxially grown, high-performance IR bolometer thermistor materials with pre-processed CMOS-based integrated circuits for the sensor read-out. Thermistor materials based on alternating silicon (Si) and silicon-germanium (SiGe) epitaxial layers have been demonstrated and their performance is continuously increasing. Compared to a single layer of silicon or SiGe, the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) can be strongly enhanced to about 3 %/K, by using thin alternating layers. In this paper we report on the optimization of alternating Si/SiGe layers by advanced physically based simulations, including quantum mechanical corrections. Our simulation framework provides reliable predictions for a wide range of SiGe layer compositions, including concentration gradients. Finally, our SiGe thermistor layers have been evaluated in terms of low-frequency noise performance, in order to optimize the bolometer detectivity.
Terahertz (THz) imaging technique has attracted much attention in recent years, because the technique can be applied to many application fields such as nondestructive analysis and imaging method through optically opaque materials. A THz real-time imaging equipment (Terahertz Camera) considered increasingly important in the future has been developed. We report a THz video rate imaging system consisting of a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) light source as a THz illuminator, and a Si-technology based un-cooled micro-bolometer focal-plane array (an infrared detector common in thermal cameras). We also describe two applications of our imaging system: stand-off imaging for search and rescue in a fire disaster, and label-free biomaterial detection.
The concept of THz detection based on excitation of plasma waves in two-dimensional electron gas in Si FETs is one of the most attractive ones, as it makes possible the development of the large-scale integrated devices based on a conventional microelectronic technology including on-chip antennas and readout devices integration. In this work we report on investigations of Terahertz detectors based on low-cost silicon technology field effect transistors. We show that detectors, consisting of a coupling antenna and a n-MOS field effect transistor as rectifying element, are efficient for THz detection and imaging. We demonstrate that in the atmospheric window around 300 GHz, these detectors can achieve a record noise equivalent power below 10 pW/Hz0.5 and a responsivity above 90 kV/W once integrated with on-chip amplifier. We show also that they can be used in a very wide frequency range: from ∼0.2 THz up to 1.1 THz. THz detection by Si FETs pave the way towards high sensitivity silicon technology based focal plane arrays for THz imaging.
In this paper recent advances in terahertz-wave generation in graphene are reviewed. First, fundamental basis of the optoelectronic properties of graphene is introduced. Second, nonequilibrium carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in optically or electrically pumped graphene is described to introduce a possibility of negative dynamic conductivity in a wide terahertz range. Third, recent theoretical advances toward the creation of current-injection graphene terahertz lasers are described. Fourth, unique terahertz dynamics of the two-dimensional plasmons in graphene are described. Finally, the advantages of graphene materials and devices for terahertz-wave generation are summarized.
We report our main results on the development of un-cooled microbolometers based on hydrogenated amorphous Germanium-Silicon (a-GexSiy:H) thermo-sensing films deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD). Our research has been conducted to improve both, the structure of the devices (pixels) and the performance characteristics of the amorphous Germanium-Silicon thermosensing films.
Our motivation is to produce microbolometers with much better performance characteristics (larger thermal coefficient of resistance, larger conductivity and better stability) than those available in commercial microbolometer arrays, based on boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H,B).
As part of our latest research, we also report the study of what we believe is the next generation of thermosensing films based on Silicon and Geranium amorphous films with embedded nanocrystals in the amorphous matrix (polymorphous films). Those materials have several advantages over amorphous, as a lower defect density, better stability and better transport properties.