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To characterise the dissemination patterns of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in a community, we conducted a study utilising molecular and fundamental descriptive epidemiology. The subjects, consisted of women having community-acquired acute urinary tract infection (UTI), were enrolled in the study from 2011 to 2012. UPEC isolates were subjected to antibacterial-susceptibility testing, O serogrouping, phylotyping, multilocus-sequence typing with phylogenetic-tree analysis and pulsed-field-gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From the 209 unique positive urinary samples 166 UPEC were isolated, of which 129 were fully susceptible to the tested antibiotics. Of the 53 sequence types (STs), the four most prevalent STs (ST95, ST131, ST73 and ST357) accounted for 60% of all UPEC strains. Antimicrobial resistance was less frequently observed for ST95 and ST73 than for the others. A majority of rare STs and a few common STs constituted the diversity pattern within the population structure, which was composed of the two phylogenetically distinct clades. Eleven genetically closely related groups were determined by PFGE, which accounted for 42 of the 166 UPEC isolates, without overt geo-temporal clustering. Our results indicate that a few major lineages of UPEC, selected by unidentified factors, are disseminated in this community and contribute to a large fraction of acute UTIs.
Recently reported infrared galaxy number counts and cosmic infrared background (CIRB) measures all suggest that galaxies have experienced a strong evolutionary phase. We statistically estimated the galaxy evolution history from these data. We treated the evolution of galaxy luminosity as a stepwise nonparametric form, in order to explore the most suitable evolutionary history which satisfies the constraint from the CIRB. We found that an order of magnitude increase of the far infrared luminosity at redshift z = 0.75 - 1.0 was necessary to reproduce the very high CIRB intensity at ~ 150 μm reported by Hauser et al. (1998). We note that too large an evolutionary factor at high z overpredicts the CIRB intensity around 1 mm. The evolutionary history also satisfies the constraints from galaxy number counts obtained by IRAS, ISO and SCUBA. The rapid evolution of the IR luminosity density required from the CIRB well reproduces the very steep slope of galaxy number counts obtained by ISO. Based on this result and the evolution of optical luminosity density, we quantitatively discuss the contribution of starburst galaxies. In addition, we present the performance of the Japanese IRIS galaxy survey.
We studied the evolution of an active region and its relation with flare activities in order to solve the physical mechanism of solar flare occurrence. We investigated the evolutionary characteristics of the active region NOAA 8948 (April 2000) and found that the newly flux emergence caused the flares in this active region.
The Munich Dust Counter (MDC) is a scientific experiment on board of the MUSES-A mission of Japan. It is the result of a cooperation between the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) of Japan and the Chair of Astronautics of the Technische Universität München (TUM) of Germany. The MDC is an impact ionization detector designed to determine mass and velocity of cosmic dust. Here a short overview over the MUSES-A mission is given to show the measurement situation of the MDC experiment. The measurement principle of the instrument together with a discussion of the scientific objectives and the design of the experiment is summarized.
The Munich Dust Counter (MDC) is a scientific experiment on board the MUSES-A mission of Japan measuring cosmic dust. The satellite HITEN of this mission has been launched on January 24th, 1990 from Kagoshima Space Center. Here the present status of the MDC experiment is summarized. The number of dust particles measured so far is presented together with first and preliminary results of flux calculations and spatial as well as directional distributions of cosmic dust particles measured until July 25, 1990. A clear evidence of particles coming from the inner solar system (beta-meteoroids) already has been found. These are compared to particles coming from the apex direction.
The recomputation of the past ILS observations has been carried out at Mizusawa and partly at Cagliari. Preliminary reduction of the observations at the northern stations has been completed. The coordinates of the pole were calculated preliminarily and were compared with those by Vicente and Yumi (1969, 1970). It is known that the coordinates of the pole in the past ILS reports require considerable corrections which are probably mainly due to errors of the micrometer values. Magnetic tapes of the original observational records and of the individual latitudes are now available on request.
In order to evaluate the long-term behaviour of the engineered barriers in geological disposal sites for transuranic element-bearing (TRU) waste, an evaluation by numerical analysis is required. Although chemical and hydraulic/mechanical analyses have been conducted independently until now, essentially both type of phenomena occur simultaneously and produce synergistic effects. Therefore, we focused attention on the buffer (bentonite) engineered barrier and conducted a study of which involved incorporating hydraulic/mechanical phenomena into the chemical analysis of bentonite alteration. The simulations employed weakly-coupled chemical and hydraulic/mechanical effects to study the behaviour in one dimension.
The results showed that the dissolution of the montmorillonite is suppressed in the buffer section nearest the cement material. Moreover, in order to achieve a fully coupled analysis in future, the present study also identifies issues that need to be resolved.
In situ measurements were carried out to quantify montmorillonite dissolution rates at a compaction pressure ranging from 0.04 to 10.00 MPa and temperature of 70°C in 0.3 M NaOH solution (pH 12.1 at 70°C) using vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) and an auto-compaction cell. Ex situ measurements of the reacted samples using atomic force microscopy (AFM) were performed to quantify the ratio of edge surface area (ESA) to total surface area (TSA) (XESA = ESA/TSA). Accordingly, the actual ESA for the montmorillonite examined by in situ VSI could be estimated. The XESA value increases as a function of run duration or compaction pressure. At atmospheric pressure, XESA is approximately 0.0054 and converges to ∼0.0107 at 10 MPa, An expression that relates reactive surface area and montmorillonite compaction (XESA/XESA initial = kXESA, k: variable factor) is kXESA = 1.0 + 0.64628 P0.1527 where P is in MPa. Using the calculated XESA, dissolution rates from the in situ VSI measurements are obtained. The early dissolution (<1500 min) at less compaction pressure tends to show faster rates (>1.0 × 10-11 mol/m2/s) than that at higher compaction pressure. The rates after >1500 min are slower, with values of less than 3×6 10-12 mol/m2/s, but there is no significant dependency on the density in the range from 1.0 to 1.7 Mg/m3. These observed rates for compacted montmorillonite are two-orders of magnitude slower (2.63×10-13 mol/m2/s) than dissolution rates in the suspended state.
The effect of Re addition on microstructure and hardness of the Ni3Al (L12) and Ni3V (D022) dual two-phase intermetallic alloys was investigated as functions of alloying (substituting) method of Re and aging condition (temperature and time). Re was added to the base alloy composition by three methods: Re was substituted for Ni, Al and V, respectively. The Re-added alloys were solution-treated at 1553 K and then aged at lower temperatures of 1123 K-1248 K. Apparent age hardening occurred in the alloy where Re was substituted for Ni while no age hardening was observed in the alloys where Re was substituted for Al or V. In the case of the latter two alloys, the hardness was unchanged or reduced with a progression of aging time. These results were discussed in terms of phase separation and ordering in the channel region, and hardening due to Re-rich phase precipitation.
An inductor in standard CMOS process having an inductance of 52 nH and a quality factor of 1.5 at frequency equal to 80 Mhz was fabricated. The polymer passivation layer of the standard CMOS inductor was etched out. The silicon substrate under the inductor, having a thickness of 280 μm was also etched out by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). Ferrite material ZnFe2O4 and amorphous material Fe4.7Co70.3Si15B10 was then sputtered on top of the inductor sequentially. The same sputtering procedure was also performed into the bottom of the inductor. The result is an inductor that is sandwiched by multiple ferromagnetic layers. The inductance of the new ferromagnetic inductor has increased by 15% from 52 nH to 60 nH. The quality factor has also increased by 20% from 1.5 to 1.8.
It is difficult to get a real scale image of the solar system through lecture. A scale model is a classical and one of good solutions (e.g. Handa et al.2003, Handa et al.2008). Through this model, people living in or visiting to the city can physically understand the scale of the solar system. This scale gives 1 cm for Earth's diameter and 115 m for 1 AU. However, some gadget is required to make it attractive for public citizens.
For appropriate safety assessment of TRU waste disposal, the dominant chemical species of 14C-gas was studied. [1,2-14C] sodium acetate was added to flooded paddy soil samples, and the content of 14C in the soil, solution, and the emitted CO2 gas during incubation period was determined. Recovery ratios of the total 14C activity to the initial 14C activity were 97.9% at day 1, 86.4% at day 3, and 83.5% at day 7 of incubation. The result of the day 1 means that the emitted 14C-gas was almost 14CO2. At day 7 of incubation, about 16.5% of 14C was failed to recover. Even if the unknown 14C was gases other than 14CO2, the dominant chemical species of the emitted 14C-gas will be 14CO2, because the recovery ratio of the 14CO2 was 48.9% (¿16.5%). Sodium 2-bromoethane-sulfonate was used to ensure the emission of CH4, but there was no effect of the regent to the recovery ratio of 14CO2. Methane emission may be little under our experimental conditions. These results suggest that the dominant chemical species of the emitted 14C-gas from the flooded paddy soil samples was 14CO2.
An AlGaN/GaN hetero field effect transistor (HFET) was operated at 20 A. Its on-state resistance was lower than that of a Si-based FET. GaN and related materials were grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE). Sapphire substrates were used for GaN growth. An undoped GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8N heterostructure wasgrown on the substrate. The sheet carrier density of two dimensional electron gas was 1x1013 cm2 and the mobility was 1200 cm2/Vs at room temperature. The breakdown field of undoped high resistive GaN layer was about 2.0 MV/cm. Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN HFET for a large current operation was fabricated. The gate width was 20 cm and thegate length was 2000 nm. The electrode material of the source and the drain was Al/Ti/Au and the Schottky electrodes were Pt/Au. The distance between the source and the drain was 6000 nm. The maximum breakdown voltage of gate and source was 600 V. The on-state resistance of the HFET was about 2 mohm•cm2 at 100 V. The transconductance (gm) of this HFET was about 120 mS/mm. It was confirmed that the HFET with a gate width of20 cm could be operated at the condition of a large current operation.
Metal deposition on a p-sexiphenyl (6P) film was studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), metastable atom electron spectroscopy (MAES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The deposited metals were Au, Mg, and several alkali metals (K, Na, Rb, and Cs). No chemical reaction between 6P and Au or Mg was observed in the measured spectra, while additional gap states appeared in the UPS and MAES spectra by deposition of the alkali metals. The diffusion of Au and Mg atoms into the 6P film was observed in the MAES spectra. We found the trend of the vacuum level shift is different between the systems of the 6P on the Au and its reversed systems (Au on the 6P film), suggesting the different formation of the interface depending on the deposition sequence.
Two-phase intermetallic alloys composed of geometrically close packed (GCP) Ni3Al (L12 phase) and Ni3V (D022 phase) have attractive mechanical properties at high temperature, and are therefore considered to be used as high temperature structural materials. In this study, the effect of Ta and Re addition on the microstructure and hardness of two-phase intermetallic alloys was investigated. The addition of Ta remarkably enhanced the hardness due to solid solution hardening of the constituent phases. On the other hand, the addition of Re retarded the formation of the two-phase microstructure, resulting in the lowest hardness in the solution treated condition. By aging at 1223 K, the Ni solid solution in the Re added alloy decomposed to Ni3Al and Ni3V, accompanied by precipitates of a Re-rich phase. Consequently, the hardness rapidly increased with increasing aging time. Simultaneous addition of Ta and Re induced very fine precipitates of a Re-rich phase after aging, and consequently resulted in a higher hardness than by the addition of Ta or Re alone.
The fundamental problems of applying high-Tc superconductors to power transmission lines were studied, and prototypes of multilayer-wound conductors were fabricated and evaluated.
Multifilamentary silver sheathed wires have good anti-strain. properties. A 61-filament bismuth(2223) wire proved to maintain 90% of initial transport current property after 150 cycles of bending (bent-straightened-bent reversely-straightened) with 0.18% strain. A 61-filament wire of 114m unit-length was produced and proved to have a Jc of 9,700 A/cm2 with an Ic of 9.34A for the whole length at 77.3K.
Using these multifilamentary wires, prototypes of multilayer-wound conductors were produced by the react-and-wind technique. A 1.4m long three layer-wound conductor could carry 590A (Jc=7.020A/cm2) in liquid nitrogen.
These results indicate that the basic problems of high-Tc superconductor application to power transmission lines will be overcome using this technology.