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On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall near Corpus Christi, Texas. The ensuing unprecedented flooding throughout the Texas coastal region affected millions of individuals.1 The statewide response in Texas included the sheltering of thousands of individuals at considerable distances from their homes. The Dallas area established large-scale general population sheltering as the number of evacuees to the area began to amass. Historically, the Dallas area is one familiar with “mega-sheltering,” beginning with the response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005.2 Through continued efforts and development, the Dallas area had been readying a plan for the largest general population shelter in Texas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:33–37)
Pinterest (San Francisco, CA) and Instagram (Menlo Park, CA) are 2 popular photo-sharing social media platforms among young individuals. We assessed differences between Instagram and Pinterest in relaying photographic information regarding Zika virus. Specifically, we investigated whether the percentage of Zika-virus-related photos with Spanish or Portuguese texts embedded therein was higher for Instagram than for Pinterest and whether the contents of Zika-virus-related photos shared on Pinterest were different from those shared on Instagram.
We retrieved and manually coded 616 Pinterest (key words: “zika” AND “virus”) and 616 Instagram (hashtag: #zikavirus) photos.
Among the manually coded samples, 47% (290/616) of Pinterest photos and 23% (144/616) of Instagram photos were relevant to Zika virus. Words were embedded in 57% (164/290) of relevant Pinterest photos and all 144 relevant Instagram photos. Among the photos with embedded words, photos in Spanish or Portuguese were more prevalent on Instagram (77/144, 53%) than on Pinterest (14/164, 9%). There were more Zika-virus-related photos on Instagram than on Pinterest pertinent to Zika virus prevention (59/144, 41%, versus 41/290, 14%; P<0.0001), the effects of Zika virus on pregnancy (27/144, 19%, versus 32/290, 11%; P=0.04), and Zika-virus-associated deaths (4/144, 2%, versus 0/290, 0%; P=0.01).
Pinterest and Instagram are similar platforms for Zika virus prevention communication. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:656–659)
Mental hospitals in India, as elsewhere in the world, have played an important role in the care of persons with mental illness. Since their inception, they have both been decried for gross violations of human rights and dignity as well as lauded as places of refuge and care for persons turned away by the communities. In a country where community interventions for mental health care are still fragmentary, the mental hospital still continues to be a relevant and legitimate locus of care along with other limited resources available for the care of persons with mental illness outside of the family. In India, positive changes in the infrastructure and resourcing of mental hospitals, reductions in involuntary admissions and improvements in facilities have largely occurred through judicial interventions. Recent pilot interventions for rehabilitation of long-stay patients point towards the need to develop rehabilitation and community facilities for persons with severe mental illness.
Road traffic collisions are a common cause of injuries and injury-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Basic prehospital care can be the difference between life and death for injured drivers, passengers, and pedestrians.
This study examined the challenges associated with current first response practices in Malawi.
In April 2014, focus groups were conducted in two areas of Malawi: Karonga (in the Northern Region) and Blantyre (in the Southern Region; both are along the M1 highway), and a qualitative synthesis approach was used to identify themes. All governmental and nongovernmental first response organizations identified by key informants were contacted, and a checklist was used to identify the services they offer.
Access to professional prehospital care in Malawi is almost nonexistent, aside from a few city fire departments and private ambulance services. Rapid transportation to a hospital is usually the primary goal of roadside care because of limited first aid knowledge and a lack of access to basic safety equipment. The key informants recommended: expanding community-based first aid training; emphasizing umunthu (shared humanity) to inspire bystander involvement in roadside care; empowering local leaders to coordinate on-site responses; improving emergency communication systems; equipping traffic police with road safety gear; and expanding access to ambulance services.
Prehospital care in Malawi would be improved by the creation of a formal network of community leaders, police, commercial drivers, and other lay volunteers who are trained in basic first aid and are equipped to respond to crash sites to provide roadside care to trauma patients and prepare them for safe transport to hospitals.
ChokothoL, MulwafuW, SinginiI, NjalaleY, Maliwichi-SenganimalunjeL, JacobsenKH. First Responders and Prehospital Care for Road Traffic Injuries in Malawi. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(1):14–19.
Background: Lumbar fusion for degenerative indications is associated with a great degree of practice variation. We summarize the current evidence on the comparative safety and efficacy of lumbar fusion, decompression alone, or non-operative care for degenerative indications. Methods: Literature search of electronic bibliographic databases was conducted. Comparative studies reporting validated measures of safety or efficacy were included. Treatments effects were calculated through DerSimonian and Laird random effects models. Results: We retrieved 62 studies (17 randomized controlled, 15 prospective, 15 retrospective, and 15 registries), enrolling a total 302,347 adult patients. Disability, pain, and patient satisfaction following fusion, decompression alone, or non-operative care were dependent on surgical indications and study methodology. Relative to decompression alone, the risk of reoperation following fusion was increased for spinal stenosis (relative risk [RR] 1.17, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.30, p<0.004) and decreased for spondylolisthesis (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.84, p<0.001). In all indications, complications were more frequent following fusion (RR 1.88, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.58, p<0.001). Mortality and treatment modality were not associated. Conclusions: Improvements were greatest in patients undergoing fusion for spondylolisthesis while complications limited the role of fusion for spinal stenosis. The relative safety and efficacy of fusion for chronic low back pain suggested careful patient selection is required.
This note is motivated by Blom's work in 1989. We consider a generalized Ehrenfest urn model in which a randomly-chosen ball has a positive probability of moving from one urn to the other urn. We use recursion relations between the mean transition times to derive formulas in terms of finite sums, which are shown to be equivalent to the definite integrals obtained by Blom.
We investigate the dynamical response of stellar orbits in a rotating barred galaxy potential to the perturbation by a nuclear gaseous ring. The change in 3D periodic orbit families is examined as the gas accumulates near the inner Lindblad resonance. It is found that the x2/x3 loop extends to higher Jacobi energy and a vertical instability strip forms in each family. These strips are connected by a symmetric/anti-symmetric pair of 2:2:1 3D orbital families. A significant distortion of the x1 orbits is observed in the vicinity of the ring, which leads to the intersection between orbits over a large range of the Jacobi integral. We also find that a moderately elliptical ring oblique to the stellar bar produces significant phase shifts in the x1 orbital response.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, however genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for MDD, as well as for related continuous outcomes, have not shown consistent results. Attempts to elucidate the genetic basis of MDD may be hindered by heterogeneity in diagnosis. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale provides a widely used tool for measuring depressive symptoms clustered in four different domains which can be combined together into a total score but also can be analysed as separate symptom domains.
We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS of the CES-D symptom clusters. We recruited 12 cohorts with the 20- or 10-item CES-D scale (32 528 persons).
One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs713224, located near the brain-expressed melatonin receptor (MTNR1A) gene, was associated with the somatic complaints domain of depression symptoms, with borderline genome-wide significance (pdiscovery = 3.82 × 10−8). The SNP was analysed in an additional five cohorts comprising the replication sample (6813 persons). However, the association was not consistent among the replication sample (pdiscovery+replication = 1.10 × 10−6) with evidence of heterogeneity.
Despite the effort to harmonize the phenotypes across cohorts and participants, our study is still underpowered to detect consistent association for depression, even by means of symptom classification. On the contrary, the SNP-based heritability and co-heritability estimation results suggest that a very minor part of the variation could be captured by GWAS, explaining the reason of sparse findings.
The patterns of parasite sharing among hosts have important implications for ecosystem structure and functioning, and are influenced by several ecological and evolutionary factors associated with both hosts and parasites. Here we evaluated the influence of fish diet and phylogenetic relatedness on the pattern of infection by parasites with contrasting life history strategies in a freshwater ecosystem of key ecological importance in South America. The studied network of interactions included 52 fish species, which consumed 58 food types and were infected with 303 parasite taxa. Our results show that both diet and evolutionary history of hosts significantly explained parasite sharing; phylogenetically close fish species and/or species sharing food types tend to share more parasites. However, the effect of diet was observed only for endoparasites in contrast to ectoparasites. These results are consistent with the different life history strategies and selective pressures imposed on these groups: endoparasites are in general acquired via ingestion by their intermediate hosts, whereas ectoparasites actively seek and attach to the gills, body surface or nostrils of its sole host, thus not depending directly on its feeding habits.
Reports of bloodstream infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among chronic hemodialysis patients to 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance systems (National Healthcare Safety Network Dialysis Event and Emerging Infections Program) were compared to evaluate completeness of reporting. Many methicillin-resistant S. aureus bloodstream infections identified in hospitals were not reported to National Healthcare Safety Network Dialysis Event.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):205–207
Introduction: Treatment of specific patterns of symptomatic hydrocephalus in the adult patient may be accomplished with endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) as an alternative to insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. This review examines a single center experience with ETV to treat hydrocephalus in symptomatic adult patients. Methods: Adult patients (≥18 years) with a diagnosis of hydrocephalus who were treated with ETV in Calgary between January 1994 and July 2014 were reviewed using a clinic database and registry. Results: 163 patients were identified (male=92; female=71). Mean age at the time of ETV was 46.5 years (range 18-83.4 years). 118 underwent ETV as a primary treatment and 45 patients underwent treatment after presenting with VP shunt failure (secondary ETV). 113/163 patients had a diagnosis of aqueductal stenosis, 22/163 had a diagnosis of tumor. Mean followup was 8.2 years (range 0.3-18.4 years). Symptoms in 149/163 (91.4%) of ETV patients were better or unchanged at last followup. 104/118 (88.1%) of primary ETV patients were shunt free at last followup. 39/45 (86.7%) of secondary ETV patients were shunt free at last followup. Conclusion: Endoscopic (ETV) treatment is an effective long-term treatment for a select population of adult patients with hydrocephalus.
Introduction: Colloid cysts of the third ventricle are rare, histologically benign lesions that can be associated with obstructive hydrocephalus. Endoscopic removal developed as an alternative to microsurgical craniotomy as a less invasive surgical treatment. This review examines the endoscopic surgical experience for a consecutive series of patients with colloid cyst of the third ventricle. Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of “colloid cyst of the third ventricle” who were treated in Calgary between January 1994 and July 2014 were reviewed using a clinic database and registry. Results: 95 patients were identified. 30 patients without hydrocephalus underwent serial MRI and clinical observation with one patient developing hydrocephalus leading to surgical treatment. 65 patients underwent endoscopic treatment of their colloid cyst (male=34; female=31). The mean age at diagnosis was 45.5 years. 3 patients had been previously treated with other surgical approaches. All surgically treated patients had hydrocephalus and hydrocephalus resolved in all 65 patients. 1 patient sustained an injury to the internal capsule with transient hemiparesis. Mean followup was 8.2 years (range 0.1-19.3 years). 3 patients experienced colloid cyst recurrence treated with a second endoscopic removal. Conclusion: Endoscopic treatment of third ventricle colloid cysts can be performed with low risk as an alternative to microsurgical resection.
The objective of this study was to determine if modification of the Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) system by the addition of an Orange category, intermediate between the most critically injured (Red) and the non-critical, non-ambulatory injured (Yellow), would reduce over- and under-triage rates in a simulated mass-casualty incident (MCI) exercise.
A computer-simulation exercise of identical presentations of an MCI scenario involving a 2-train collision, with 28 case scenarios, was provided for triaging to two groups: the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY; n = 1,347) using modified START, and the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers from the Eagles 2012 EMS conference (Lafayette, Louisiana USA; n = 110) using unmodified START. Percent correct by triage category was calculated for each group. Performance was then compared between the two EMS groups on the five cases where Orange was the correct answer under the modified START system.
Overall, FDNY-EMS providers correctly triaged 91.2% of cases using FDNY-START whereas non-FDNY-Eagles providers correctly triaged 87.1% of cases using unmodified START. In analysis of the five Orange cases (chest pain or dyspnea without obvious trauma), FDNY-EMS performed significantly better using FDNY-START, correctly triaging 86.3% of cases (over-triage 1.5%; under-triage 12.2%), whereas the non-FDNY-Eagles group using unmodified START correctly triaged 81.5% of cases (over-triage 17.3%; under-triage 1.3%), a difference of 4.9% (95% CI, 1.5-8.2).
The FDNY-START system may allow providers to prioritize casualties using an intermediate category (Orange) more properly aligned to meet patient needs, and as such, may reduce the rates of over-triage compared with START. The FDNY-START system decreases the variability in patient sorting while maintaining high field utility without needing computer assistance or extensive retraining. Comparison of triage algorithms at actual MCIs is needed; however, initial feedback is promising, suggesting that FDNY-START can improve triage with minimal additional training and cost.
ArshadFH, WilliamsA, AsaedaG, IsaacsD, KaufmanB, Ben-EliD, GonzalezD, FreeseJP, HillgardnerJ, WeakleyJ, HallCB, WebberMP, PrezantDJ. A Modified Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment Algorithm from the New York City (USA) Fire Department. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(2):1-6.
The annealing behavior of three HSLA steels is studied using the combined techniques of EBSD-KAM and Sub-grain Method. These techniques have been successfully used to assess the annealing behavior of AK, IF and other high strength steels. Stored energy maps in the hot band, cold rolled and after annealing are constructed and analyzed. The combined usage of the Sub-grain Method and EBSD-KAM techniques are employed to calculate and compare the evolution of the stored energy and recrystallization behaviour during the annealing of Ti-bearing, Nb-bearing, and V-bearing HSLA steels. Orientation dependent stored energy distribution maps at different annealing stages are constructed and analysed. The results show that the stored energy distribution through the thickness of the samples is not uniform and is independent of the steel composition. Similarly the recrystallization behaviour is strongly related to the initial microstructural condition and particularly to the grain boundary character distribution of the steels.
Previous research has found associations but not established mechanisms of developmental linkage between language ability and inattentive–hyperactive (I-H) behavior problems. The present study examined whether self-regulation mediates the effect of language ability on later I-H behavior problems among young children (N = 120) assessed at 30, 36, and 42 months of age. Cross-lagged panel models tested the direction of effect between language ability and self-regulation and longitudinal effects of language ability on later I-H problems mediated by self-regulation. Language ability was measured by children's scores on the receptive and expressive language subtests of the Differential Ability Scales. Self-regulation was measured by three behavioral tasks requiring inhibitory control. I-H problems were reported by parents and secondary caregivers. Language ability predicted later self-regulation as measured by all three tasks. There was no association, however, between self-regulation and later language ability, suggesting that the direction of effect was stronger from language ability to later self-regulation. Moreover, the effect of language ability on later I-H behavior problems was mediated by children's self-regulation in one of the tasks (for secondary caregivers' but not parents' ratings). Findings suggest that language deficits may explain later I-H behavior problems via their prediction of poorer self-regulatory skills.
Adolescent psychopathology is commonly connected to marijuana use. How changes in these adolescent antecedents and in adolescent marijuana use are connected to patterns of marijuana use in the 20s is little understood. Another issue not clearly understood is psychopathology in the 30s as predicted by marijuana use in the 20s. This study sought to examine these two issues and the associations with marijuana disorder diagnoses using a longitudinal data set of 205 men with essentially annual reports. Individual psychopathology and family characteristics from the men's adolescence were used to predict their patterns of marijuana use across their 20s, and aspects of the men's psychopathology in their mid-30s were predicted from these patterns. Three patterns of marijuana use in the 20s were identified using growth mixture modeling and were associated with diagnoses of marijuana disorders at age 26 years. Parental marijuana use predicted chronic use for the men in adulthood. Patterns of marijuana use in the 20s predicted antisocial behavior and deviant peer association at age 36 years (controlling for adolescent levels of the outcomes by residualization). These findings indicate that differential patterns of marijuana use in early adulthood are associated with psychopathology toward midlife.