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A scantling X-ray fluorescence(XRF) microprobe using WoIter type 1 optics was developed, and micro and trace element analysis was carried out using synchrotron radiation up to 10 keV as an excitation source. The design parameters of the optical system and the performance of the system, such as the beam size and the intensity, are described. The MDL obtained for Mn was 6 ppm in relative concentration and about 0.1 pg in absolute amount. The estimated spatial resolution was better than 10 um.
An epitaxial NdFeAs(O,F) thin film of 90 nm thickness grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MgO single crystal with Tc = 44.2 K has been investigated regarding a possible vortex glass–liquid transition. The voltage–current characteristics show excellent scalability according to the vortex-glass model with a static critical exponent ν of around 1.35 and a temperature-dependent dynamic exponent z increasing from 7.8 to 9.0 for the investigated temperature range. The large and non-constant z values are discussed in the frame of 3D vortex glass, thermally activated flux motion, and inhomogeneity broadening.
Background: We evaluate long-term post-operative hippocampal volume (HV) on non-epileptic hippocampus using MR volumetry as well as the neuropsychological outcome in patients with surgery for unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and achieved seizure-freedom. Methods: We studied 1.5-Tesla MRI before and after epilepsy surgery in 24 patients with MTLE. Serial MRI studies were scheduled at 4 post-operative consecutive periods; 6m-1y; 1-2y; 2-3y; 3-5y. We compared neuropsychological outcomes for memory and estimated IQ at the same periods with serial MRI up to 3 years. Results: The pre-operative non-epileptic HV was significantly smaller than HV in age-matched controls (n=14) (p<0.05). The HV became progressively atrophic after the surgery (p<0.05), correlating with the age at surgery (p<0.05) and pre-operative larger non-epileptic HV (p<0.05), but not with seizure duration. In 14 patients with non-dominant MTLE, the smaller dominant HV at 2-3y period correlated with decline of verbal memory (p<0.05). Conclusions: Post-operative progression of non-epileptic hippocampal atrophy was found with significantly more pronounce in patients with older age at surgery and larger pre-operative non-epileptic hippocampus. After the epileptogenic hippocampus is resected, the remaining hippocampus alone might exhaust to maintain the memory, especially in elders.
Crystals of CoSb3 were grown using the vertical Bridgman method at growth rates that varied from 0.4 to 2.8 mm/h. Thermoelectric properties were analyzed for both as-grown and post-annealed samples. Polycrystalline CoSb3 surrounded by Sb was obtained. Samples grown at the rate of 0.4 mm/h had larger CoSb3 grains than samples grown at the 2.8 mm/h rate. For the as-grown samples, the Seebeck coefficient was smaller than 200 μ/K, which is a nominal value [1–3]. The presence of residual Sb resulted in a decrease in the Seebeck coefficient and an increase in the samples' electrical conductivity. A subsequent heat treatment at 800 °C for 20 h eliminated the residual Sb, resulting in a significant increase in the Seebeck coefficients (ranging from > 200 μV/K) in the annealed samples, as compared with the as-grown samples. The samples with a higher growth rate had larger Seebeck coefficients of ∼500 μ/K after annealing.
The effect of thermal processing in the sample preparation of YBa2Cu3Oy has been investigated systematically on microstructures and electrical properties. The grain size was found to grow preferably during the cooling process rather than during the sintering process. The high Tc superconducting phase appears around 500 C in this thermal processing. The annealing experiment shows that the grains still grow at low temperature such as 300 °C.
Giaever tunneling measurements have been applied to investigate the electronic structures of the high Tc superconductor YB2Cu3Oy near Tc. The superconducting energy gap of 17 meV was observed in V-dl/dv curve at 77 K. In the light of BCS model, 2Δ0Δ/kBTc was estimated as 3.3. Several dip structures were observed in the bias region up to 0.5 eV in V-dl/dV curve, using the 3rd derivative analysis. Through the temperature dependence, these structures were found to be associated with the superconductivity.
Low energy (100 eV) impinging of carbon (C+) ions was made during molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of GaAs using combined ion beam and molecular beam epitaxy (CIBMBE) technologies for the growth temperature ( Tg ) between 500 °C and 590 °C. 2 K photoluminescence (PL), Raman scattering and Hall effect measurements were made for the samples. In the PL spectra two specific emissions, “g” and [g-g], were observed which are closely associated with acceptor impurities. PL and Hall effect measurements indicate that C atoms were very efficiently introduced during MBE growth by CIBMBE and were both optically and electrically well activated as acceptors even at Tg=500 °C. The results reveal that defect-free impurity doping without subsequent annealing can be achieved by CIBMBE method.
Hg (mercury) in GaAs is known to be a moderately deep acceptor impurity, having a 52 meV activation energy. Optical properties of Hg acceptors in GaAs were systematically investigated as a function of Hg concentration, [Hg]. Samples were prepared by high-energy ion-implantation of Hg+ into GaAs grown by the liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) method. Heat treatment was made by furnace annealing and rapid thermal annealing. Photoluminescence measurements at 2K revealed that the Hg-related so-called “g” line is formed in addition to the well-defined conduction band-to-Hg acceptor transition, (e, Hg). Additionally, three shallow emissions are formed for net hole concentrations INA-NDI greater than 2×1017cm−3 . This is the first demonstration that even Hg in GaAs makes multiple shallow emissions due to acceptor-acceptor pairs and LEC GaAs can be used for the investigations of these emissions.
Furnace annealing (FA) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) were made for Cd+ ion-implanted GaAs with Cd concentration, [Cd] from 1×1016cm−3 to 3×1021 cm−3. In FA samples, Raman scattering spectra exhibited a single peak at 292 cm−1 for entire [Cd] range which is LO-phonon mode from (100) GaAs. In RTA samples, LO-phonon mode is a single peak for [Cd]<1×1019cm−3 but with growing [Cd], TO-phonon mode appears for [Cd] 1×1020cm3 and becomes a dominant signal for [Cd]=3×1021 cm−3. The quenching of LO-phonon mode with increasing [Cd] was more clearly observed in RTA samples than in FA ones. Hall-effects results, however, showed that activation rate of RTA samples is 6–7 times larger than that of FA ones for [Cd] 1×1021 cm−3. 2K photoluminescence spectra revealed that in FA samples multiple shallow emissions associated with Cd are formed while in RTA ones the dominant emission is the band to Cd acceptor transition.
Phase stability of E21 (Co, Ni)3AlC was investigated from the viewpoint of magnetic properties in the Co-Ni-Al-C quaternary system. Isotherms of the Co-Al-C and Ni-Al-C ternary systems at 1373 K were revised and evaluated by means of electron probe microanalysis. Magnetic properties measurement revealed that discontinuity appearing on the chemical concentration dependence of Curie temperature and saturation magnetization of E21 (Co,Ni)3AlC indicates the existence of two types of E21 phase in the Co-Ni-Al-C quaternary system.
The bulk crystal of silicon germanium was grown by vertical Bridgman method with germanium composition, x, varying from 0.6 to 1.0. The temperature dependent variation of the mobility is indicative of alloy scattering dominantly for the bulk wafer. Phosphorus was diffused in as-grown p-type bulk wafer at 850 °C to form pn-junction, and the diffusion coefficient of phosphorus was evaluated as a function of x. The diffusion behavior of phosphorus in silicon germanium is closely correlated with the germanium self-diffusion with changing x. For specimens with lower content x, P concentration profiles indicated “kink and tail” shape, while it was not observed for higher x. For current-voltage characteristics measurement, an ideality factor was obtained.
We report transport properties of polycrystalline TMGa3 (TM = Fe and Ru) compounds in the temperature range 313K<T<973K. These compounds exhibit semiconductorlike behavior with relatively high Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, and Hall carrier concentrations at room temperature in the range of 1017 - 1018cm−3. Seebeck coefficient measurements reveal that FeGa3 is n -type material, while the Seebeck coefficient of RuGa3 changes signs rapidly from large positive values to large negative values around 450K. The thermal conductivity of these compounds is estimated to be 3.5Wm−1K−1 at room temperature and decreased to 2.5Wm−1K−1 for FeGa3 and 2.0Wm−1K−1 for RuGa3 at high temperature. The resulting thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, at 945K for RuGa3 reaches 0.18.
Coin-shaped multicrystalline Si1-xGex crystals were grown using a Brigdman method combined with die-casting growth. Si1-xGex alloy is known as a candidate material for producing Auger generation, which creates more than one electron/hole pair per absorbed photon. Since Si1-xGex alloy shows a complete series of solid solutions, precipitating crystals with a certain composition of silicon or germanium by conventional selective growth methods is burdensome. Using die-casting combined with Bridgman growth brought about Si1-xGex precipitation in a form completely different from that predicted by the Si-Ge phase diagram. By combining this growth with subsequent heat treatment of the precipitated Si1-xGex sample, Si1-xGex (x= 0.5 ± 3 %) could be obtained. Indirect band-gap energy was estimated by measuring room-temperature optical absorption coefficient of the grown samples.
Die-casting growth was used for manufacturing the multicrystalline silicon sheet with a size of 100 × 120 × 0.5 mm. During the growth, incorporation of contaminants such as iron, cobalt, nickel and chromium was well suppressed. The average etch-pit density values ranged from 1×104 cm-2 to 4x106 cm-2 for growth rates of 5 to 60 mm/h, respectively. Measurement of minority-carrier lifetime bye microwave-photoconductivity-decay (μ-PCD) method was 0.5 μs for as-grown specimens, suggesting that defects and residual strain exist in the grown sheet. Moreover, post heat treatment at 1473 K reduced the etch-pit density and improved carrier lifetime up to 2.2 μs.
Low defect density a-plane GaN films were successfully grown by sidewall epitaxial lateral overgrowth (SELO) technique. Control of V/III ratio during the growth of GaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) was found to be very important to achieve a complete overgrowth on the SiO2 mask regions and atomically flat surface. The threading dislocation and stacking fault densities in the overgrown regions were lower than 106 cm−2 and 103 cm−1, respectively. The root mean square roughness was 0.09 nm. We also fabricated and characterized a-plane-GaN-based-light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using SELO technique. The light output power of the blue-green LED steeply increased with the decrease of threading dislocation density from 1010 cm−2 to 108 cm−2 and tended to saturate at lower dislocation densities.
Single crystalline AlN epitaxial layers have been grown on and (0001) sapphire and 6H-SiC substrates by MOVPE technique at high temperatures in the range of 1340-1500°C. The structural qualities of the high temperature grown AlN layers were found to be good as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analyses results. By transmission electron microscopic analysis, dislocation densities of the layers were found to be 6.2 × 107 cm−2 or lower and the formation of dislocation loops was confirmed. High temperature bridge layers of AlN and AlxGa1−xN layers were grown on linear-groove patterned sapphire based AlN templates and 6H-SiC substrates. AlxGa1−xN bridge layers exhibited different growth behaviours depending on the direction of groove patterns on the sub-strates.
We report the electrical resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient of AZn13 (A = Sr, Ba, and La) and LaCo13 measured over a wide temperature range and their thermal conductivity measured at room temperature. The electrical measurements of AZn13 and LaCo13 above room temperature reveal that the compounds show good metallic behavior. We find that the absolute value of Seebeck coefficient for AZn13 (A = Sr, Ba, and La) increases with increasing temperature, which is a typical metallic behavior and the absolute value is less than 3μVK−1 at room temperature. Accordingly, the power factor of AZn13 is quite low. Temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient for LaCo13 is similar to that of Co. The absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient for LaCo13 is high as a metallic conductor and approaches -30μVK−1 at 500K, which leads LaCo13 to large power factor of 1.8 × 10−3Wm−1K−2. We obtained lattice components of the thermal conductivity by subtracting electronic contributions from the total thermal conductivity. The electronic components of the thermal conductivity were estimated using Wiedemann-Frantz law assuming L (Lorentz number) is 2.45 × 10−8 V2K−2. The thermal conductivities of the lattice components for AZn13 (A = Sr, Ba, and La) and LaCo13 with NaZn13 type structure are about 10 Wm−1K−1, respectively. These values are high as compared with other thermoelectric materials.