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We analysed associations between exposure to nightlife businesses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 PCR test results at a tertiary hospital in Tokyo between March and April 2020. A nightlife group was defined as those who had worked at or visited the businesses. We included 1517 individuals; 196 (12.9%) were categorised as the nightlife group. After propensity score matching, the proportion of positive PCR tests in the nightlife group was significantly higher than that in the non-nightlife group (nightlife, 63.8%; non-nightlife, 23.0%; P < 0.001). An inclusive approach to mitigate risks related to the businesses needs to be identified.
Vertigo and dizziness are frequent symptoms in patients at out-patient services. An accurate diagnosis for vertigo or dizziness is essential for symptom relief; however, it is often challenging. This study aimed to identify differences in diagnoses between primary-care physicians and specialised neurotologists.
In total, 217 patients were enrolled. To compare diagnoses, data was collected from the reference letters of primary-care physicians, medical questionnaires completed by patients and medical records.
In total, 62.2 per cent and 29.5 per cent of the patients were referred by otorhinolaryngologists and internists, respectively. The cause of vertigo or dizziness and diagnosis was missing in 47.0 per cent of the reference letters. In addition, 67.3 per cent of the diagnoses by previous physicians differed from those reported by specialised neurotologists.
To ensure patient satisfaction and high quality of life, an accurate diagnosis for vertigo or dizziness is required; therefore, methods or materials to improve the diagnostic accuracy are needed.
Epidemiological studies of Echinococcus multilocularis infections in definitive hosts require a reliable and economic diagnostic method. In this study, the current copro-DNA examination technique was modified by increasing the faecal amounts tested and adding a step to neutralize the faeces before DNA extraction. Reliability of the modified method was evaluated using rectal faecal samples from red foxes and comparing them with intestinal worms detected using the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) following necropsy. The modified copro-DNA examination method demonstrated 93.9% sensitivity (138/147) on the SCT. Its detectability increased depending on the worm burden, and the sensitivity was 100% in cases harbouring over 1000 worms. From 111 SCT-negative cases, six (5.4%) were copro-DNA-positive, and all were confirmed as E. multilocularis via sequencing analysis. Five of the remaining 105 SCT-negative cases (4.8%) retained polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors in the extracted solution, suggesting that approximately 5% of the red fox faeces retained these inhibitors after treatment with the present copro-DNA extraction method. Although further evaluation is needed for faeces deposited in the wild, the present copro-DNA examination technique will help monitor the E. multilocularis prevalence in definitive hosts. When used for detailed evaluations of endemicity (e.g. changes in infection pressure or spread in non-endemic areas), the absence of PCR inhibitors should be confirmed, and multiple trials on faecal subsamples are recommended.
We report on the formation of shallow junctions with high activation in both n+/p and p+/n Ge junctions using ion implantation and Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA). The shallowest junction depths (Xj) formed for the n+/p and p+/n junctions were 7.6 nm and 6.1 nm with sheet resistances (Rs) of 860 ohms/sq. and 704 ohms/sq., respectively. By reducing knocked-on oxygen during ion implantation in the n+/p junctions, Rs was decreased by between 5% and 15%. The lowest Rs observed was 235 ohms/sq. with a junction depth of 21.5 nm. Hall measurements clearly revealed that knocked-on oxygen degraded phosphorus activation (carrier concentration). In the p+/n Ge junctions, we show that ion implantation damage induced high boron activation. Using this technique, Rs can be reduced from 475 ohms/sq. to 349 ohms/sq. These results indicate that the potential for forming ultra-shallow n+/p and p+/n junctions in the nanometer range in Ge devices using FLA is very high, leading to realistic monolithically-integrated Ge CMOS devices that can take us beyond Si technology.
The mode of onset and the course of schizophrenia illness exhibit substantial individual variations. Previous studies have pointed out that the mode of onset affects the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and clinical outcomes, such as cognitive and social functioning. This study attempted to clarify the association between the DUP and clinical features, taking the different modes of onset into consideration, in a prospective longitudinal study examining patients with first-episode schizophrenia.
This study was conducted in six areas of Japan. Patients with first-episode schizophrenia were followed for over 18 months. Cognitive function, psychopathology, and social functioning were assessed at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18-month follow-up points.
We identified 168 patients and sufficient information was available to determine the DUP and the mode of onset for 156 patients (92.9%): 79 had an acute onset, and 77 had an insidious onset. The DUP was significantly associated with quality of life (QOL), social functioning, and cognitive function at most of the follow-up points in the insidious-onset group. The DUP and negative symptoms at baseline were significant predictors of cognitive function at the 18-month follow-up in the insidious-onset group.
The present results further support the hypothesis that the DUP affects QOL, social functioning, and cognitive function over the course of illness, especially in patients with an insidious onset. Effective strategies for detecting and caring for individuals with insidious onset early during the course of schizophrenia will be essential for achieving a full patient recovery.
Ions that are moved by electric fields in gases follow quite exactly the electric field lines since these ions have substantially lost their kinetic energies in collisions with gas atoms or molecules and so carry no momenta. Shaping the electric fields appropriately the phase space such ion beams occupy can be reduced and correspondingly the ion density of beams be increased.
A 79-year-old female with type 2 diabetes and mild cognitive impairment (Clinical Dementia Rating score of 0.5) was supported with medication with regard to the daily requirements using a medication reminder device. Use of this device not only improved her medication adherence, hemoglobin A1c level, and self-confidence but also reduced caregiver's burden. For elderly patients with such diseases, loading the device with medication, providing advance notice before mechanical reminders for a short period after the device's activation, monitoring unused medication, and adjusting the timing of reminders according to users’ daily routine, seemed to facilitate daily use of the device.
Swimming is dynamically a part of the hydrodynamic field and can be considered as a field of the optimal control motion. Animals move by instinct according to the situation which they are confronting with. Therefore, their instinctive motion is optimal most of the time. The movement of animals can be classified roughly into two kinds: the fast motion with the maximum speed and the motion with the minimum energy consumption. Considering the foreleg of the soft shelled turtle as a flat plane, several sets of movement of the foreleg were observed and calculated theoretically. The theoretical results agreed the observation results in the both cases with the maximum speed and the minimum energy consumption. Applying the theoretical movement of the soft shelled turtle foreleg to human movement in swimming, the general S-shaped pull stroke is the minimum energy consumption motion in free-style. It became clear that there was a different stroke for generating the maximum speed in free-style. That was the soft shelled turtle style of fast swimming, the I-shaped pull strokes. In 2002 when the author announced this theory, there was only one fast swimmer whose free-style swimming strokes coincidentally accorded with the I-shaped pull with fewer numbers of strokes at that time. He was the Olympic gold medalist Ian Thorp. Now the I-shaped stoke has become main stream in free style.
Epitaxial magnesium oxide (MgO) thin films prepared on Si(0 0 1) substrates revealed the contraction of its lattice constants along both out-of-plane and in-plane directions. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) verified the epitaxial growth with the relation of MgO(1 0 0) parallel to Si(1 0 0) [cubic on cubic growth] with large lattice misfit of ~22% instead of the relation of MgO(1 1 0) parallel to Si(1 0 0) [45° rotation growth] with lattice mismatch of ~9%. Although the domain epitaxy explaining the cubic on cubic growth is preferred in terms of crystallography, structural stability is not considered in the concept of the domain epitaxy. In order to explain the contraction of lattice constant from point of view of structural stability, ab initio method was used to evaluate all-electron total energy, and optimal lattice constant was estimated with point defects in the MgO structure.
A 60 GHz tandem coupler using offset broadside coupled lines is proposed in a WLP (Wafer Level Packaging) technology. The fabricated coupler has a core chip area of 750 μm × 385 μm (0.288 mm2). The measured results show an insertion loss of 0.44 dB, an amplitude imbalance of 0.03 dB and a phase difference of 87.6° at 60 GHz. Also the measurement shows an insertion loss of less than 0.67 dB, an amplitude imbalance of less than 0.31 dB, a phase error of less than 3.7°, an isolation of more than 29.7 dB and a return loss of more than 27.9 dB at the input ant coupled ports and more than 14.3 dB at the direct and isolated ports over the frequency band of 57-66 GHz, covering 60 GHz band both in Japan and US. To the best of our knowledge the proposed coupler achieves the lowest ever reported insertion loss and amplitude imbalance for a 3-dB coupler on a silicon substrate. With its superior performance and lower cost compared to the CMOS counterparts, the proposed coupler is a suitable candidate for low-cost high-performance millimeter-wave systems.
Engineering and manufacturing of thick and bio-functional tissue products is one of the big issues in tissue engineering. To produce such tissues, we need some innovative technologies, which enable us to build up thick, three-dimensional structures and to arrange multiple types of cells to make complicated tissue structures. Based on such considerations, we have developed a custom-made inkjet 3D bioprinter, which realized both of direct cell printing and 3D laminating printing with cells and hydrogel. Recently, it has been improved, and here we report recent progresses and our achievements with new version 3D bioprinter.
Image based printing mode and active Z-axis control system were added. As a useful structure, an image of multi-honeycomb pattern was designed in computer and next it was copied and finally in total 100 image data were prepared. Using those digital data, 3D image of thick multi-honeycomb structure was reconstructed in computer, and then, laminating printing was carried out using our new version 3D bioprinter with alginate hydrogel. The new version printer showed good performance of 3D laminating printing and finally complicated 3D multi-honeycomb hydrogel structures could be successfully fabricated. It is indicated that fabrication of cell containing 3D structures based on the computer aided designs is feasible and that such biofabrication technologies must contribute to further innovative advancement of tissue engineering.
Homoepitaxial growth on 4H-SiC Si-face substrates with sizes corresponding to 150 mm was carried out. The influence of growth conditions for uniformity and epitaxial defect density was investigated. A 150 mm size was realized by using two 76.2 mm wafers lined up in a radial direction. C/Si ratio is found to be a major parameter for controlling triangular defect density and the generation of step bunching. As a result, the surface morphology without bunched step structure and the triangular defect density with 0.5 cm−2 were obtained by decreasing C/Si ratio to 1.0 on the size corresponding to 150 mm. Under this condition, good carrier concentration and thickness uniformity of σ/mean =15.2 % and 1.7 % could be obtained.
We consider two player electromagnetic evasion-pursuit games where each player must incorporate significant uncertainty into their design strategies to disguise their intension and confuse their opponent. In this paper, the evader is allowed to make dynamic changes to his strategies in response to the dynamic input with uncertainty from the interrogator. The problem is formulated in two different ways; one is based on the evolution of the probability density function of the intensity of reflected signal and leads to a controlled forward Kolmogorov or Fokker-Planck equation. The other formulation is based on the evolution of expected value of the intensity of reflected signal and leads to controlled backward Kolmogorov equations. In addition, a number of numerical results are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approach in exploring problems of control in a general dynamic game setting.