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The acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear underlies the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, including PTSD. Women have higher lifetime prevalence and greater risk of PTSD than men. Such sex differences may be attributed to a combination of genetic and hormonal factors. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene encodes an enzyme that metabolizes catechol compounds, including dopamine. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism affects the enzymatic activity of dopamine and has been associated with altered fear memory performance. Besides, when estrogen secretion is elevated, women show a greater extinction of conditioned fear than men. Here, we investigated the relationship between the COMT genotype and sex in the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. In a 3-day cued fear conditioning experiment, acquisition and extinction performance of 75 healthy men (21.8 years) and 45 healthy women in follicular phase (21.2 years) were examined. Visual cues and electric shocks were used as the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus, respectively. Subjects with Met/Met homozygotes showed less fear acquisition (p < .0001). Female Val carriers showed more extinction (p = .009) and less reconsolidation (p < .0001) than male Val carriers. Women with Val/Val homozygotes were less affected by a reinforcing stimulus than men with Val/Val homozygotes (p = .0001). These findings suggest a clear interaction between the COMT gene and sex in fear memory function, and that women have a greater tolerance for aversive experiences than men. Higher estrogen levels mediate increased dopaminagic activity, potentially optimizing the prefrontal function known to contribute to the fear-related symptomatology of PTSD.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
The nearby radio galaxy M87 offers a unique opportunity for exploring the connection between γ-ray production and jet formation at an unprecedented linear resolution. However, the origin and location of the γ-rays in this source is still elusive. Based on previous radio/TeV correlation events, the unresolved jet base (radio core) and the peculiar knot HST-1 at >120 pc from the nucleus are proposed as candidate site(s) of γ-ray production. Here we report our intensive, high-resolution radio monitoring observations of the M87 jet with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) and the European VLBI Network (EVN) from February 2011 to October 2012. During this period, an elevated level of the M87 flux is reported at TeV with VERITAS. We detected a remarkable flux increase in the radio core with VERA at 22/43 GHz coincident with the VHE activity. Meanwhile, HST-1 remained quiescent in terms of its flux density and structure at radio. These results strongly suggest that the TeV γ-ray activity in 2012 originates in the jet base within 0.03 pc (projected) from the central supermassive black hole.
This paper reports a NEMS (Nano Electro Mechanical Syetems) tunable color filter based on subwavelength grating with high color uniformity and low drive voltage. We newly proposed a GVG (Ground-Voltage-Ground) type tunable color filter deployed with a parallel-plate actuator with three pairs of electrode to decrease a crosstalk of an electrostatic attraction force between each actuator. The proposed structure was fabricated using an SOI wafer. The color tuning using was demonstrated by applying the drive voltage of 6.7 V. The reflected light intensity was decreased by 34 % at 680 nm wavelength. The color uniformity was also obtained in the filter area by reducing the variation of the displacement on one-dimensional arrayed actuators.
We present VLBI maps of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission in 32 sources obtained using the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN) and the East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN). All of the observed sources provide new VLBI maps, and the spatial morphologies have been classified into five categories similar to the results obtained from European VLBI Network observations (Bartkiewicz et al. 2009). The 32 methanol sources are being monitored to measure the relative proper motions of the methanol maser spots.
We have used the Japanese VLBI array VERA to perform high-precision astrometry of an H2O maser source in the Galactic superbubble NGC 281. We successfully detected a trigonometric parallax of 0.355±0.030 mas, corresponding to a source distance of 2.82±0.24 kpc. The source distance as well as the absolute proper motions were used to demonstrate the 3D structure and expansion of the NGC 281 superbubble, ∼650 pc in size parallel to the Galactic disk, indicating the superbubble expansion may be confined to the disk. We estimate the expansion velocity of the superbubble as ∼20 km s−1 both perpendicular to and parallel to the Galactic disk with a consistent timescale of ∼20 Myr.
After the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, the disaster countermeasures concerning medical care in Japan changed drastically. In 2005, the Japanese government began to develop a domestic, rapid, medical response system called Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) for the purpose of rapid medical correspondence in the acute phase. As of 12 July 2010, 393 institutions and 734 teams (3,700 persons) were trained. A DMAT is important not only to the response to large disasters such as earthquakes, but also the response to local disasters. It is important to establish the DMAT system of each prefecture and district.
The DMAT system at the local level was described at the 15th World Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine. During the present Congress, the development and activities of the DMAT system over the past three years will be reported.
Results and Conclusion
Eight local districts in the DMAT system have been developed, and progress has been made in the fields of policy, operative plans, and agreement among each province. The system of inter-prefecture mutual aid must be built upon in the near future.
David Ames, Professor of Psychiatry of Old Age, University of Melbourne,
Eleanor Flynn, Senior Lecturer in Medical Education, University of Melbourne,
Maria Alekxandrova, Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Medical University Pleven,
Kaloyan Stoychev, Consultant Psychiatrist, University Hospital Pleven,
Kenneth Shulman, Professor of Geriatric Psychiatry, University of Toronto,
Ross Upshur, Professor of Primary Care, University of Toronto,
Kirsten Abelskov, Old-Age Psychiatrist, Aarhus University Hospital,
Kaj Sparle Christensen, General Practitioner, Institut for Almen Medicin, University of Aarhus,
Philippe H. Robert, Professor of Psychiatry,
Michel Benoit, Psychiatrist Centre Mémoire de Ressources et de Recherche, Nice,
Florence Cabane, General Practitioner Nice,
Geneviève Ruault, Geriatrician Nice,
Helen F. K. Chiu, Professor of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong,
D. K. T. Li, Family Physician, Past President Hong Kong College of Family Physicians,
Syuichi Awata, Psychiatrist and Director Division of Neuropsychiatry and Center for Dementia, Sendai City Hospital,
Akira Honma, Psychiatrist, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology,
Els Licht-Strunk, General Practitioner, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam,
Marijke Bremmer, Consultant Psychiatrist, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam,
Knut Engedal, Professor of Old-Age Psychiatry, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo,
Harald Sanaker, Specialist in Family Medicine, Kongsvegen Legesenter, Brummunddal,
Nicoleta Tătaru, Senior Consultant Psychiatrist, Forensic Hospital Ştei, Bihor,
Monica Bălan, Primary Care Physician Oradea,
Alexandru Dicker, Senior Consultant in Internal Medicine Psychiatric Hospital, Nucet, Bihor,
Raimundo Mateos, Professor of Psychiatry, University of Santiago de Compostela,
Jose Antonio Ferreiro Guri, Specialist in Family and Community, Medicine University of Santiago de Compostela,
Tom Campbell, Professor of Family Medicine, University of Rochester, NY,
Jeffrey M. Lyness, Professor of Psychiatry, University of Rochester, NY
The editors summarized the contributions written by colleagues in different parts of the world (Chapter 6) to illustrate the similarities, and occasional differences, in the management of depression in older people described in all the contributions. This appendix allows the reader to read the individual contributions.
This 82-year-old woman is chronically disabled by pain and breathlessness and appears to have become socially disengaged. She has several symptoms of depression, including persistent low mood, loss of energy (which sounds to be out of proportion to her medical state), early morning waking, loss of interest in previously enjoyed activities, and persistent feelings that life is not worth living. The vignette does not provide information about her appetite and weight, concentration, any psychomotor changes, guilt feelings or confidence levels, but even so it is clear that, provided the symptoms have been present for two weeks (and this seems highly likely), she meets both DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode and ICD-10 criteria for a depressive episode.
Australian health-care system
Within the Australian health-care system, in which specialists are accessible only after referral from a general practitioner (GP), this woman would normally be managed by her GP who in all likelihood will already be engaged in the management of her troublesome osteoarthritis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She might well attend a respiratory outpatient clinic or rheumatology clinic in a public hospital, or (less likely as fewer than one-third of the elderly have private health insurance) be seeing a private medical specialist with expertise in one or both of these two areas.
We present an overview of recent astrometric results with VERA. Since 2004, we have been conducting astrometry of tens of Galactic maser sources with VERA, and recently obtained trigonometric parallaxes for several sources, with distances ranging from 180 pc to 5.3 kpc. In this paper, we briefly summarize the results for Galactic star-forming regions, including S269, Orion-KL, NGC 1333, ρ-oph, NGC 281 and others.
We present observational results on the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris with VERA. We have observed 22 GHz H2O masers and 43 GHz SiO masers (v=1 and 2 J=1-0) around VY CMa for 13 months. We succesfully detected a parallax of 0.87 ± 0.08 mas, corresponding to the distance of 1.15 +0.10−0.09 kpc using H2O masers. As the result of phase-referencing analyses, we have measured absolute positions for both H2O masers and SiO masers. The H2O maser features show rapid expansion off the central star.
VERA aims at astrometric observations using phase referencing VLBI techniques, whose goal is a 10 micro arc-second accuracy for annual parallax measurements. VERA has four 20-m diameter VLBI radio telescopes in Japanese archipelago with the maximum baseline length of 2,300 km. They have the two-beam observing system, which makes simultaneous observations of two objects possible. This leads to very accurate phase referencing VLBI observations. An important science goal is to make a 3-dimensional map of the Galaxy and reveal its dynamics. In order to achieve this, VERA has the 22GHz and 43GHz bands for H2O and SiO maser objects, respectively. Maser objects are compact and suitable for astrometry observations. VERA's construction was started in 2000 and the array became operational in 2004. We have already measured annual parallaxes and proper motions of some galactic objects. In the future, VERA will collaborate with Korean and Chinese VLBI stations.
In the serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis, the detection of specific reactions against not only protein but also carbohydrate antigen is useful and both antigens supplement each other. Though recombinant protein antigens have recently advanced, the preparation of carbohydrate antigen still depends on extraction from crude antigens. In the latter case, it is not conventional to obtain carbohydrate antigen as a single component for examination and research. Therefore, chemically synthesized carbohydrate antigens were prepared for serodiagnosis by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Four antigens with the structure of glycosphingolipids from Echinococcus multilocularis were examined and one antigen, Galβ1-6(Fucα1-3)Galβ1-6Galβ1-ceramide, was found to show significant serodiagnostic potential in differentiating alveolar from cystic echinococcosis.
More than 4000 stars observed in both MOA and DENIS projects showing periodic or quasi-periodic light curves are studied. Almost all Mira stars are located on the classical period-luminosity relation, and the multiplicity of the period-luminosity relation is confirmed for small-amplitude stars. The colour-magnitude diagrams based on the MOA red band, Rm, and Ks constructed for the sequences, form a single strip with small successive shifts.
In this paper, new synthetic routes have been investigated for the preparation of Organic/inorganic nanocomposite polymer membranes consisting of SiO2 /PTMO(polytetramethylene oxide) hybrids and novel proton conducting materials. These materials have been synthesized through sol-gel processes in flexible, ductile, free-standing thin membrane form. The hybrid membrane has been found to be thermally stable up to 160 C and possesses proton conductivities of approximately 10−4 S/cm from a room temperature to 160 C.
Thin films of mesoporous materials have been synthesized recently as lamellar, one dimensional hexagonal and cubic structures at substrate surfaces as well as at air/liquid interfaces. The present work investigates thermally induced structural changes of lamellar and one-dimensional hexagonal(1-dH) mesostructured silicate thin films, which is less known at the moment. The 1-dH films proved to be much more thermally stable than the lamellar ones; Open-pore one dimensionalhexagonalmesoporous thin films are obtained by the calcination of the films, where as the lamellarphase has collapsed after the surfactants removal.
The mesostructured vanadia/surfactant composites are synthesized by self assembled processes and phase transition has been investigated. The lamellar mesostructure of the vanadia/surfactant has been shifted to monoclinic and hexagonal mesophase by low temperature annealing, possibly due to the change of the inorganic/surfactant ratio.
J aggregates cyanine dyes have been successfully doped directly in sol-gel derived silicate thin films. The films are transparent, homogeneous and stable at room temperature. The J aggregates successfully incorporated in rigid SiO2 framework were characterized by absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The films are expected to be useful for non-linear optical devices, multiple photon recording and photoelectric cell.
Highly ordered self-assembly organized silica meso-structured architecture have attracted increasing attention because these materials provide a rich source for scientific research and technological applications. This approach to meso-structured materials has been extended to non-silica oxides, especially transition-metal-oxides which might promise applications involving electron transfer and photocatalysts. We report the syntheses of TiO2 transition-metal-oxides meso-structured thin films (MSTF) using a surfactant templating processing with spin coating method. X-ray diffraction patterns of the films showed that the films generally oriented in a lamellar structure. The phase transferring in TiO2 MSTF was also investigated.
Thin layers of magnetic substance are often used in magnetic
shieldings. Since the scale of the spatial change in electromagnetic
fields in the direction of the thickness of such a thin layer is
considerably different from that in the transverse directions, the
numerical treatment of the interior electromagnetic fields
is formidable. In this paper, it is shown that the impedance boundary conditions
on the surfaces of the thin magnetic layer, which have been written in
former papers by the scalar potentials, can be expressed in terms of
the vector potentials.
Moreover, a new numerical method for analysis of eddy currents on
thin magnetic layers
is introduced, in
which the quasi-static magnetic field in an air region
ambient the thin layer is analyzed by solving the boundary integral
equations under the impedance boundary conditions without any numerical
treatment of the interior field. This formulation has no difficulties
even when the skin depth is very short compared with the thickness of
the layer. It is shown that the numerical results obtained by the present
method in two-dimensional and axisymmetric systems agree well with
the results analytically obtained or computed by a conventional numerical