To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
F. Spahn, University of Potsdam Potsdam, GERMANY,
H. Hoffmann, University of Potsdam Potsdam, GERMANY,
H. Rein, University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, CANADA,
M. Seiss, University of Potsdam Potsdam, GERMANY,
M. Sremčević, University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado, USA,
M.S. Tiscareno, SETI Institute Mountain View, California, USA
When, in 1610, Galileo Galilei directed his telescope at Saturn, he discovered some puzzling addenda on either side of that planet, changing their appearance over the course of a few years – and even more disturbing, at certain instants they seemed to disappear and then return. These appendages remained a scientific riddle for about half a century until Christian Huygens came up with a seemingly correct model – he proposed that a solid ring is girdling Saturn. In 1675, G. D. Cassini's detection of a division in Saturn's rings – the Cassini Division separating the outer A and inner B rings – questioned Huygens’ hypothesis of a solid ring.
Almost 200 years later, in his famous work, Maxwell (1859) proved that a solid ring cannot be a stable configuration, suggesting instead that a myriad of individual tiny satellites form the rings of Saturn. This theoretical prediction was later confirmed experimentally by J. E. Keeler, who measured Doppler frequency shifts on either side of Saturn's rings (Keeler, 1889, 1895), showing that individual ring particles encircle Saturn at Kepler speeds.
Since those studies in the nineteenth century, the mesoscopic particulate nature of Saturn's rings has been widely accepted. Since the prediction of a flat monolayer ring by Jeffreys (1947), mainly suggested by the frequent inelastic collisions among the ring particles, only a little has been said about the properties of ring particles themselves – their size distribution, composition, etc., and their evolution as a granular ensemble.
Hénon (1981), motivated by the Pioneer and Voyager space missions to the outer solar system in the late 1970s and early 1980s, assumed a broad size distribution of the ring particles in order to explain spacecraft observations of the dense rings of Saturn. Properties like the apparent thickness of the rings or the distribution of the widths of dilute or empty gaps have been addressed by an extended power-law to characterize the size distribution of the ring particles. The idea behind this approach is that, depending on its size, a ring particle (especially sub-kilometer or kilometer-sized boulders, hereafter called moonlets) should gravitationally carve density features in the surrounding ring matter.
People with severe mental illness (SMI) have a high risk of living socially excluded from the mainstream society. Policy initiatives and health systems aim to improve the social situation of people who suffer from mental health disabilities. The aim of this study was to explore the extent of social exclusion (employment and income, social network and social activities, health problems) of people with SMI in Switzerland.
Data from the Swiss Health Survey 2012 were used to compare the social exclusion magnitude of people with SMI with those suffering from severe physical illness, common mental illness and the general population.
With the exception of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, we found a gradient of social exclusion that showed people with SMI to be more excluded than the comparison groups. Loneliness and poverty were widespread among people with SMI. Logistic regression analyses on each individual exclusion indicator revealed that people with SMI and people with severe physical illness were similarly excluded on many indicators, whereas people with common mental illness and the general population were much more socially included.
In contrast to political and health system goals, many people with SMI suffer from social exclusion. Social policy and clinical support should increase the efforts to counter exclusionary trends, especially in terms of loneliness and poverty.
Strategies for the involvement of primary care in the management of patients with presumed or diagnosed dementia are heterogeneous across Europe. We wanted to explore attitudes of primary care physicians (PCPs) when managing dementia: (i) the most popular cognitive tests, (ii) who had the right to initiate or continue cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine treatment, and (iii) the relationship between the permissiveness of these rules/guidelines and PCP's approach in the dementia investigations and assessment.
Key informant survey. Setting: Primary care practices across 25 European countries. Subjects: Four hundred forty-five PCPs responded to a self-administered questionnaire. Two-step cluster analysis was performed using characteristics of the informants and the responses to the survey. Main outcome measures: Two by two contingency tables with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the association between categorical variables. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to assess the association of multiple variables (age class, gender, and perceived prescription rules) with the PCPs’ attitude of “trying to establish a diagnosis of dementia on their own.”
Discrepancies between rules/guidelines and attitudes to dementia management was found in many countries. There was a strong association between the authorization to prescribe dementia drugs and pursuing dementia diagnostic work-up (odds ratio, 3.45; 95% CI 2.28–5.23).
Differing regulations about who does what in dementia management seemed to affect PCP's engagement in dementia investigations and assessment. PCPs who were allowed to prescribe dementia drugs also claimed higher engagement in dementia work-up than PCPs who were not allowed to prescribe.
Ernietta plateauensis Pflug, 1966 is the type species of the Erniettomorpha, an extinct clade of Ediacaran life. It was likely a gregarious, partially infaunal organism. Despite its ecological and taxonomic significance, there has not been an in-depth systematic description in the literature since the original description fell out of use. A newly discovered field site on Farm Aar in southern Namibia has yielded dozens of specimens buried in original life position. Mudstone and sandstone features associated with the fossils indicate that organisms were buried while still exposed to the water column rather than deposited in a flow event. Ernietta plateauensis was a sac-shaped erniettomorph with a body wall constructed from a double layer of tubes. It possessed an equatorial seam lying perpendicular to the tubes. The body is asymmetrical on either side of this seam. The tubes change direction along the body length and appear to be constricted together in the dorsal part of the organism.
The superconducting synchrotron SIS100 of the FAIR accelerator project will provide heavy ion beams of highest intensities. SIS100 is the first synchrotron with a special design, optimized for the control of ionization beam loss. Ionization beam loss is the most pronounced loss mechanism at operation with high-intensity, intermediate charge state heavy ions. The new synchrotron layout comprises an ion catcher system, which in combination with a charge separator lattice shall suppress dynamic vacuum effects.
A prototype cryogenic ion catcher, including a dedicated cryostat has been designed, manufactured, and tested under realistic conditions with beams from the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS18 at GSI. The gas desorption induced by the impact of heavy ions on this cryocatcher has been measured. For the very first time, a rise of desorption yield with increasing beam energy has been observed. However, measurements at room temperature have confirmed the known decrease of the pressure rise in the investigated energy regime. A transition temperature of 18 K, underneath hydrogen is adsorbed, could be verified several times. The results are significant and used to predict the ionization beam loss at operation of SIS100 at full-beam intensity.
Introduction: Point of care ultrasound has become an established tool in the initial management of patients with undifferentiated hypotension. Current established protocols (RUSH, ACES, etc) were developed by expert user opinion, rather than objective, prospective data. We wished to use reported disease incidence to develop an informed approach to PoCUS in hypotension using a “4 F’s” approach: Fluid; Form; Function; Filling. Methods: We summarized the incidence of PoCUS findings from an international multicentre RCT, and using a modified Delphi approach incorporating this data we obtained the input of 24 international experts associated with five professional organizations led by the International Federation of Emergency Medicine. The modified Delphi tool was developed to reach an international consensus on how to integrate PoCUS for hypotensive emergency department patients. Results: Rates of abnormal PoCUS findings from 151 patients with undifferentiated hypotension included left ventricular dynamic changes (43%), IVC abnormalities (27%), pericardial effusion (16%), and pleural fluid (8%). Abdominal pathology was rare (fluid 5%, AAA 2%). After two rounds of the survey, using majority consensus, agreement was reached on a SHoC-hypotension protocol comprising: A. Core: 1. Cardiac views (Sub-xiphoid and parasternal windows for pericardial fluid, cardiac form and ventricular function); 2. Lung views for pleural fluid and B-lines for filling status; and 3. IVC views for filling status; B. Supplementary: Additional cardiac views; and C. Additional views (when indicated) including peritoneal fluid, aorta, pelvic for IUP, and proximal leg veins for DVT. Conclusion: An international consensus process based on prospectively collected disease incidence has led to a proposed SHoC-hypotension PoCUS protocol comprising a stepwise clinical-indication based approach of Core, Supplementary and Additional PoCUS views.
Introduction: Point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) provides invaluable information during resuscitation efforts in cardiac arrest by determining presence/absence of cardiac activity and identifying reversible causes such as pericardial tamponade. There is no agreed guideline on how to safely and effectively incorporate PoCUS into the advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) algorithm. We consider that a consensus-based priority checklist using a “4 F’s” approach (Fluid; Form; Function; Filling), would provide a better algorithm during ACLS. Methods: The ultrasound subcommittee of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM) drafted a checklist incorporating PoCUS into the ACLS algorithm. This was further developed using the input of 24 international experts associated with five professional organizations led by the International Federation of Emergency Medicine. A modified Delphi tool was developed to reach an international consensus on how to integrate ultrasound into cardiac arrest algorithms for emergency department patients. Results: Consensus was reached following 3 rounds. The agreed protocol focuses on the timing of PoCUS as well as the specific clinical questions. Core cardiac windows performed during the rhythm check pause in chest compressions are the sub-xiphoid and parasternal cardiac views. Either view should be used to detect pericardial fluid, as well as examining ventricular form (e.g. right heart strain) and function, (e.g. asystole versus organized cardiac activity). Supplementary views include lung views (for absent lung sliding in pneumothorax and for pleural fluid), and IVC views for filling. Additional ultrasound applications are for endotracheal tube confirmation, proximal leg veins for DVT, or for sources of blood loss (AAA, peritoneal/pelvic fluid). Conclusion: The authors hope that this process will lead to a consensus-based SHoC-cardiac arrest guideline on incorporating PoCUS into the ACLS algorithm.
For the first time this project attempts to directly correlate magnetotelluric and geochemical data with the aim of creating a model on the regional distribution of potential pre-Westphalian source rocks deposited in marine environments in the North German basin.
Analysis of the magnetotelluric data shows, that there is a deep good conductor at the north-eastern fringe of the North German basin around the islands of Rügen and Usedom and on the mainland north east of the Anklam Fault. Through integration with seismic data and the offshore well G14 the conductor can be correlated with the Cambro-Ordovician Scandinavian Alum shales. To the south an adjoining area approximately corresponding to the depo-centre of the Rotliegend basin lacks a deep good conductor. Therefore it can be assumed that a regional distribution of comparable source rocks is unlikely. Another excellent and important conductor starts to the south west of the Lower Elbe Line extending along the Dutch-German border into the North Sea, and into the Münsterland. Its place in the local stratigraphy has not been adequately established. It is most likely that this good conductor corresponds to the black shales of the Early Namurian and the Dinantian, which is the case in the boreholes Münsterland 1 and Pröttlin 1 for example. In this paper they are collectively called Rhenohercynian Alum shales. On the Dutch-German border a transition into the “Bowland Shale” facies or equivalents is to be expected. It cannot be ruled out that even stratigraphically older black shales, possibly from the Cambro-Ordovician could contribute to the high integrated conductivity of the deep good conductor.
The evidence of highly conductive layers in the deep subsurface poses the question whether these layers could be potential source rocks for the gases in the north German gas fields. This question can be answered with a clear yes. Gas and isotope geochemical studies on gases from producing Rotliegend deposits have shown that Rhenohercynian Alum shales have been a significant source for these fields. This will be illustrated in detail using the gas fields from the production province “Ems Estuary” as an example.
We present the first snow/ice chemistry and ice radar results ever collected from South Georgia as part of an initial reconnaissance with the ultimate goal of assessing the feasibility of a South Georgia ice core to reconstruct past climate in the South Atlantic. South Georgia is well situated to capture a record of past atmospheric chemical composition over the South Atlantic and of past variability in the position and intensity of the austral westerlies. The question is how well preserved an ice core record can be recovered from a region experiencing accelerated melting? The results presented in this paper offer only a preliminary step in determining the feasibility of future deep ice coring on South Georgia. However, this initial reconnaissance does provide some basic information including: the chemistry of the atmosphere over South Georgia relative to other Southern Hemisphere ice coring sites; the potential for preservation of ‘annual layers’ in old ice on the island; a possible age for deep ice in the region; and an estimate of glacier health in the lower elevation regions of the island.
We report experiments and molecular dynamics calculations on the kinetics of electrodeposited lithium dendrites relaxation as a function of temperature and time. We found that the experimental average length of dendrite population decays via stretched exponential functions of time toward limiting values that depend inversely on temperature. The experimental activation energy derived from initial rates as Ea∼ 6-7 kcal/mole, which is closely matched by MD calculations, based on the ReaxFF force field for metallic lithium. Simulations reveal that relaxation proceeds in several steps via increasingly larger activation barriers. Incomplete relaxation at lower temperatures is therefore interpreted a manifestation of cooperative atomic motions into discrete topologies that frustrate monotonic progress by ‘caging’.
Rangea is the type genus of the Rangeomorpha, an extinct clade near the base of the evolutionary tree of large, complex organisms which prospered during the late Neoproterozoic. It represents an iconic Ediacaran taxon, but the relatively few specimens previously known significantly hindered an accurate reconstruction. Discovery of more than 100 specimens of Rangea in two gutter casts recovered from Farm Aar in southern Namibia significantly expands this data set, and the well preserved internal and external features on these specimens permit new interpretations of Rangea morphology and lifestyle. Internal structures of Rangea consist of a hexaradial axial bulb that passes into an axial stalk extending the length of the fossil. The axial bulb is typically filled with sediment, which becomes increasingly loosely packed and porous distally, with the end of the stalk typically preserved as an empty, cylindrical cone. This length of the axial structure forms the structural foundation for six vanes arranged radially around the axis, with each vane consisting of a bilaminar sheet composed of a repetitive pattern of elements exhibiting at least three orders of self-similar branching. Rangea was probably an epibenthic frond that rested upright on the sea bottom, and all known fossil specimens were transported prior to their final burial in storm deposits.
We investigate potential microevolutionary mechanisms of phenotypic change in a lineage of brackish-water gastropods from Lake Pannon. The lineage exhibits a threefold increase in body size and a pronounced increase in shell shouldering over a roughly 2.5-Myr interval. We use the stable oxygen isotope profiles of 13 shells to address the question of whether large size is due to more rapid growth or to greater longevity.
Results indicate that larger individuals have significantly greater longevity. Growth rates in large snails are comparable to those of their smaller-bodied ancestors.
Potentially relevant selective advantages of large size include escape from predators, avoidance of resource competition, and increased fecundity. We argue that the first two advantages may have accrued to larger individuals but are not likely to have driven the trend because selection for them would favor more rapid growth rates. Fecundity selection, on the other hand, is readily envisioned in a stable, predictable environment in which the need for early reproduction is relaxed. The evolution of large body size in Lake Pannon molluscs may be comparable to evolution on many islands, where reduced pressure from competition and predation lead to characteristic changes in body size.
The Dawn spacecraft orbited Asteroid (4) Vesta for a year, and returned disk-resolved images and spectra covering visible and near-infrared wavelengths at scales as high as 20 m/pix. The visible geometric albedo of Vesta is ~ 0.36. The disk-integrated phase function of Vesta in the visible wavelengths derived from Dawn approach data, previous ground-based observations, and Rosetta OSIRIS observations is consistent with an IAU H-G phase law with H=3.2 mag and G=0.28. Hapke's modeling yields a disk-averaged single-scattering albedo of 0.50, an asymmetry factor of -0.25, and a roughness parameter of ~20 deg at 700 nm wavelength. Vesta's surface displays the largest albedo variations observed so far on asteroids, ranging from ~0.10 to ~0.76 in geometric albedo in the visible wavelengths. The phase function of Vesta displays obvious systematic variations with respect to wavelength, with steeper slopes within the 1- and 2-micron pyroxene bands, consistent with previous ground-based observations and laboratory measurement of HED meteorites showing deeper bands at higher phase angles. The relatively high albedo of Vesta suggests significant contribution of multiple scattering. The non-linear effect of multiple scattering and the possible systematic variations of phase function with albedo across the surface of Vesta may invalidate the traditional algorithm of applying photometric correction on airless planetary surfaces.
Horses are often stabled in individual boxes, a method that does not meet their natural needs and may cause psychical and musculoskeletal diseases. This problem is particularly evident in Iceland, where horses often spend the long winter periods in cramped boxes. The aim of this study was to analyze the suitability of a group housing system in Iceland, but the results are also applicable to horses of other regions. Eight Icelandic horses were observed in an active stable system, and their behavior and time budget were recorded. Movement and lying behavior were studied with ALT (Activity, Lying, Temperature detection) pedometers. The effect of an automatic concentrate feeding station (CFS) on the horses’ behavior was examined. In the first period of investigation, the horses were fed concentrates manually, and in the second period, they were fed with the CFS. Additional behavioral observations and a determination of social hierarchy occurred directly or by video surveillance. The physical condition of the horses was recorded by body weight (BW) measurement and body condition scoring (BCS). The results showed a significant increase between the first and second trial periods in both the activity (P < 0.001) and the lying time (P = 0.003) of the horses with use of the CFS. However, there was no significant change in BW during the first period without the CFS (P = 0.884) or during the second period with the CFS (P = 0.540). The BCS of the horses was constant at a very good level during both trial periods, and the horses showed a low level of aggression, a firm social hierarchy and behavioral synchronization. This study concludes that group housing according to the active stable principle is a welfare-friendly option for keeping horses and is a suitable alternative to conventional individual boxes.
The present work shows results on elemental distribution analyses in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films for solar cells performed by use of wavelength-dispersive and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) in a scanning electron microscope, EDX in a transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron, angle-dependent soft X-ray emission, secondary ion-mass (SIMS), time-of-flight SIMS, sputtered neutral mass, glow-discharge optical emission and glow-discharge mass, Auger electron, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, by use of scanning Auger electron microscopy, Raman depth profiling, and Raman mapping, as well as by use of elastic recoil detection analysis, grazing-incidence X-ray and electron backscatter diffraction, and grazing-incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis. The Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films used for the present comparison were produced during the same identical deposition run and exhibit thicknesses of about 2 μm. The analysis techniques were compared with respect to their spatial and depth resolutions, measuring speeds, availabilities, and detection limits.
Milk yield per cow has continuously increased in many countries over the last few decades. In addition to potential economic advantages, this is often considered an important strategy to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kg of milk produced. However, it should be considered that milk and beef production systems are closely interlinked, as fattening of surplus calves from dairy farming and culled dairy cows play an important role in beef production in many countries. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of increasing milk yield per cow on GHG emissions and on other side effects. Two scenarios were modelled: constant milk production at the farm level and decreasing beef production (as co-product; Scenario 1); and both milk and beef production kept constant by compensating the decline in beef production with beef from suckler cow production (Scenario 2). Model calculations considered two types of production unit (PU): dairy cow PU and suckler cow PU. A dairy cow PU comprises not only milk output from the dairy cow, but also beef output from culled cows and the fattening system for surplus calves. The modelled dairy cow PU differed in milk yield per cow per year (6000, 8000 and 10 000 kg) and breed. Scenario 1 resulted in lower GHG emissions with increasing milk yield per cow. However, when milk and beef outputs were kept constant (Scenario 2), GHG emissions remained approximately constant with increasing milk yield from 6000 to 8000 kg/cow per year, whereas further increases in milk yield (10 000 kg milk/cow per year) resulted in slightly higher (8%) total GHG emissions. Within Scenario 2, two different allocation methods to handle co-products (surplus calves and beef from culled cows) from dairy cow production were evaluated. Results showed that using the ‘economic allocation method’, GHG emissions per kg milk decreased with increasing milk yield per cow per year, from 1.06 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq) to 0.89 kg CO2eq for the 6000 and 10 000 kg yielding dairy cow, respectively. However, emissions per kg of beef increased from 10.75 kg CO2eq to 16.24 kg CO2eq due to the inclusion of suckler cows. This study shows that the environmental impact (GHG emissions) of increasing milk yield per cow in dairy farming differs, depending upon the considered system boundaries, handling and value of co-products and the assumed ratio of milk to beef demand to be satisfied.