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Most modern instrumental methods of analysis depend on the use of known standards of composition for calibration. Newer analytical techniques, such as the solids mass spectrometer, laser probe and, especially, the electron-probe microanalyzer have reduced the amount of a sample which can be analyzed quantitatively to a range of about 0.1 to as small as 0.00005 μg. As a corollary to these microanalytical advances, homogeneity requirements have become severe to meet analytical standards. This paper describes a continuation of the National Bureau of Standards' effort to characterize more fully existing standards as to suitability for the new microanalytical techniques. An NBS cartridge brass sample in both the wrought (NBS-1102) and chill cast forms (NBS-C1102), as well as a low-alloy steel sample (NBS-463), have been investigated by means of electron-probe micreanalysis and optical metallography. Some 17 elements are contained in the brass, while 25 elements are found in the steel. Results for 10 elements in the steel and 6 elements in the brass are presented. In the steel, iron, nickel, copper, and silicon ate essentially distributed homogeneously at micron levels, while manganese, tantalum, niobium, zirconium, sulfur, and chromium are not. In the brass, copper and zinc are distributed homogeneously at micron levels while lead, sulfur, aluminum, and silicon are not. Electron-probe micreanalyzer results indicate that both NBS-1102 and NBS-C1102 brass are suitable for use as a calibration standard for electronprobe microanalysis as well as other microsnalyticat techniques, such as the solids mass spectrometer. The results for brass have been corroborated by a number of laboratories using the electron-probe analyzer.
After achieving significant research results on laser-driven boron fusion, the essential facts are presented how the classical very low-energy gains of the initially known thermal ignition conditions for fusion of hydrogen (H) with the boron isotope 11 (HB11 fusion) were bridged by nine orders of magnitudes in agreement with experiments. This is possible under extreme non-thermal equilibrium conditions for ignition by >10 PW-ps laser pulses of extreme power and nonlinear conditions. This low-temperature clean and low-cost fusion energy generation is in crucial contrast to local thermal equilibrium conditions with the advantage to avoid the difficulties of the usual problems with extremely high temperatures.
Epigenetic DNA modifications in genes related to the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis are discussed as a mechanism underlying the association between prenatal depression and altered child HPA activity. In a longitudinal study, DNA methylation changes related to prenatal depressive symptoms were investigated in 167 children aged 6 to 9 years. At six candidate genes, 126 cytosine–guanine dinucleotides were considered without correcting for multiple testing due to the exploratory nature of the study. Further associations with the basal child HPA activity were examined. Children exposed to prenatal depressive symptoms exhibited lower bedtime cortisol (p = .003, ηp2 = 0.07) and a steeper diurnal slope (p = .023, ηp2 = 0.06). For total cortisol release, prenatal exposure was related to lower cortisol release in boys, and higher release in girls. Furthermore, prenatal depressive symptoms were associated with altered methylation in the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), the mineralocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C2), and the serotonin receptor gene (SLC6A4), with some sex-specific effects (p = .012–.040, ηp2 = 0.03–0.04). In boys, prenatal depressive symptoms predicted bedtime cortisol mediated by NR3C2 methylation, indirect effect = –0.07, 95% confidence interval [–0.16, –0.02]. Results indicate relations of prenatal depressive symptoms to both child basal HPA activity and DNA methylation, partially fitting a mediation model, with exposed boys and girls being affected differently.
Aberrant reward mechanisms with regard to slim body shapes are discussed in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of the present study was to examine of cue reactivity toward body shapes in AN via the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related electroencephalography (EEG) component. By including adolescents and adults, aspects of development and chronification could be studied (2 × 2 design).
Thirty-two female AN patients (19 adolescents and 13 adults) and 37 control participants (16 adolescents and 21 adults) were included. Standardized photographic stimuli showing women's bodies in underwear from five body mass index (BMI) categories (extremely underweight to extremely overweight) were presented. During picture evaluation, EEG activity was recorded (10–20 system). The LPP was measured in two time windows characterized by different topographies (450–700 ms: posterior; 1000–1300 ms: central).
Regarding the posterior component, LPP amplitudes were clearly reduced in adult but not in adolescent patients; for both time windows the LPP showed differential patterns over BMI categories for patients and controls. Regarding the central component, a highly significant linear decrease from extremely underweight to extremely overweight body shapes was revealed in patients and no significant modulation in control participants.
Adolescent and adult patients show increased sustained attention toward extremely underweight bodies. In chronically ill patients, this bias appears to be accompanied by generally reduced automatic attention. The LPP findings provide a differentiated picture of aberrant cue reactivity which could be interpreted as motivated attention toward body shapes in AN.
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) offer the potential to replace conventional light sources such as incandescent bulbs and fluorescent tubes. The question which thin-film technology is most favorable to produce OLED on an industrial scale is still unanswered. The most established technology for the deposition of small-molecule organic layers is vacuum thermal evaporation. A comparably novel technology is organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD), which offers some unique features in terms of adjustable process parameters such as deposition chamber pressure (P) and substrate temperature (TS). The impact of these parameters on the morphology of organic single layers as well as on the performance of OLED is mostly unknown. In this work, phosphorescent red OLED were produced with different TS and a strong influence on the device efficiency was found. Atomic force microscopy measurements were conducted to investigate the morphology of the hole injection and hole transport layers of the devices deposited at different TS. In addition to this, the influence of TS and P on the performance of fluorescent blue OLED and the morphology of organic single layers was tested. By varying TS and P for the emission layer only, current efficiencies in the range from 4.3 to 6.8 cd/A were found despite the fact that all devices had the same structure. Atomic force microscopy measurements conducted on organic single layers which were deposited at the same process conditions showed rms values ranging from 1.4 to 57 nm.
The following list consists of dates of soil samples, partly produced in the former Bonn laboratory and bearing the code designations, BONN, and partly in the present dating lab at Hamburg University. The list comprises Mollisols and Inceptisols from Germany, sampled by layer and dated as whole soil, hydrolysis residue, and hydrolysate. Other profiles represent selected Australian Vertisols and Krasnozems, sampled by layer as well. Dates derived from marshes of the Elbe River as well as from paleosols buried by coastal levees are also included in the list. Pretreatment of soil samples is described in Scharpenseel and Pietig (1969) and Scharpenseel (1972; 1977).
This list consists of dates of soil samples from selected soil profiles in Tunisia, Sudan, and Argentina. The profiles from Tunisia were taken to elucidate ages of typic paleosols of paleoclimatic significance. The Sudan profiles increase our understanding of pedogenesis of Sudanese Vertisols. The existence of pedoturbation in these profiles is further explored and questioned. The profiles of Argentina were dated to supplement information from chemical and micromorphological studies.
Radiocarbon dates, obtained from paleosols, sediments, fossils, and groundwater samples of North Africa and especially, Tunisia, were investigated for information on phases of pedogenesis throughout the younger Pleistocene and Holocene in north and central Tunisia. This paper evaluates available data, while a larger set of new samples is under study, which, hopefully will exhaust the problem and will reveal whether extrapolations such as those made in this paper, eg, phases of pedogenesis from groundwater data, are correct.
Frequency distribution of the dates from groundwaters taken by systematic sampling, as well as from random soil samples from open pits that yielded access to buried paleosols, indicate that organic matter was being produced for 7 or 8 periods. The evidence suggests major pedogenic activity at about 2000 BP, 4000 to 6000 BP, 8000 to 12,000 BP, and perhaps 21,000 to 25,000 BP.
In accordance with suggestions made by members of the Commission further consideration of the following topics is proposed:
(1)Improvement of the present plan for distribution of observations and computations relating to minor planets and comets, with special reference to those which depart considerably from their ephemerides.
(2)Designation of a central bureau to supervise any accepted plan for coordination of observations and computations. It is suggested that separate bureaus be established for Minor Planets and for Comets.
(3)Systematic investigations of the orbits of the recently discovered objects designated as minor planets: Reinmuth 1932 HA, and Delporte 1932 EA1( and other objects of similar interest.
(4)Financing of proposals (2) and (3).
(5)Standard equinoxes as proposed by Comrie (1950.0) and by Bower (1900.0).
(6)Designation of published residuals as observed residuals rather than referring to the epoch of the comparison star.
(7)Greater adherence to the convention “That the dates used in giving the osculation epochs of elements for comets and minor planets shall be the midnight following an integral Julian date which is exactly divisible by 40, and for ephemerides, divisible by 8 (or 4, etc.),” to facilitate intercomparison of ephemerides and elements.
(8)Inauguration of complete residuals of comets, similar to those of minor planets with provision for their continuation.
(9)Inclusion in astronomical telegrams of some information of a descriptive nature to indicate the accuracy of the measured position, in confirmation of previous action.
(10)Greater emphasis on accurate rather than on approximate positions, particularly in (9), or preliminary orbits.
Exceptionally high reaction gains of hydrogen protons measured with the boron isotope 11 are compared with other fusion reactions. This is leading to the conclusion that secondary avalanche reactions are happening and confirming the results of high-gain, neutron-free, clean, safe, low-cost, and long-term available energy. The essential basis is the unusual non-thermal block-ignition scheme with picosecond laser pulses of extremely high powers above the petawatt range.
Cook et al. suggest that motor-visual neurons originate from associative learning. This suggestion has interesting implications for the processing of socially relevant visual information in social interactions. Here, we discuss two aspects of the associative learning account that seem to have particular relevance for visual recognition of social information in social interactions – namely, context-specific and contingency based learning.
Reconfigurable nanowire transistors provide the operation of unipolar p-type and n-type FETs freely selectable within a single device. The enhanced functionality is enabled by controlling the currents through two individually gated Schottky junctions. Here we analyze the impact of the Schottky barrier height on the symmetry of Silicon nanowire RFET transfer characteristics and their performance within circuits. Prospective simulations are carried out, indicating that germanium nanowire based RFETs of the same dimensions will show a distinctly increased performance, making them a promising material solution for future reconfigurable electronics.
Jeffery et al. propose a non-uniform representation of three-dimensional space during navigation. Fittingly, we recently revealed asymmetries between horizontal and vertical path integration in humans. We agree that representing navigation in more than two dimensions increases computational load and suggest that tendencies to maintain upright head posture may help constrain computational processing, while distorting neural representation of three-dimensional navigation.
In this paper, human viscosity perception in haptic teleoperation systems is thoroughly analyzed. An accurate perception of viscoelastic environmental properties such as viscosity is a critical ability in several contexts, such as telesurgery, telerehabilitation, telemedicine, and soft-tissue interaction. We study and compare the ability to perceive viscosity from the standpoint of detection and discrimination using several relevant control methods for the teleoperator. The perception-based method, which was proposed by the authors to enhance the operator's kinesthetic perception, is compared with the conventional transparency-based control method for the teleoperation system. The fidelity-based method, which is a primary method among perception-centered control schemes in teleoperation, is also studied. We also examine the necessity and impact of the remote-site force information for each of the methods. The comparison is based on a series of psychophysical experiments measuring absolute threshold and just noticeable difference for all conditions. The results clearly show that the perception-based method enhances both detection and discrimination abilities compare with other control methods. The results further show that the fidelity-based method confers a better discrimination ability than the transparency-based method, although this is not true with respect to detection ability. In addition, we show that force information improves viscosity detection for all control methods, as predicted from previous theoretical analysis, but improves the discrimination threshold only for the perception-based method.