Nanowires and nanotubes have attracted significant interest during recent years due to their novel electrical, magnetic, and photonic properties. Quantum confinement, proximity interaction, and surface plasmon enhancement effects are among a few unique phenomena associated with these materials. A convenient procedure to prepare these materials is through anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template synthesis. Nanoporous AAO membranes with pore diameters ranging from 10 to 200 nm can be prepared with anodization in oxalic, sulfuric and phosphoric acids under various reaction conditions. With repeated anodization-etching cycles, highly ordered straight channels can be prepared through self-organization. With electro- and electroless deposition, a variety of nanowires and nanotubes such as Ni, Co, Au, Pb, Bi, etc. have been prepared. The synthesis, characterization, and physical properties of these materials are presented.