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This study aimed to determine the predictors of disease progression after functional endoscopic sinus surgery in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.
A total of 281 adult chronic rhinosinusitis patients who underwent primary bilateral functional endoscopic sinus surgery between 2007 and 2017 and had at least 12 months of follow-up endoscopic evaluation were examined. Patients were divided into eosinophilic (n = 205) and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis groups (n = 76). In order to determine adverse factors, post-operative endoscopic appearance scores were analysed in relation to the pre- and intra-operative findings using multiple regression analyses.
The post-operative course of eosinophilic cases deteriorated over time, like the early period for non-eosinophilic cases. Frontal sinus polyps recurred early in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis. Multivariate analyses indicated young adulthood, asthma, high computed tomography score and frontal sinus polyps as significant adverse predictors.
Early, appropriate estimation of sinonasal conditions appears to be crucial for successful surgical management of chronic rhinosinusitis.
Parotid gland carcinoma is a rare and complicated histopathological classification. Therefore, assembling a sufficient number of cases with long-term outcomes in a single institute can present a challenge.
The medical records of 108 parotid gland carcinoma patients who were treated at Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan, between 1983 and 2014 were reviewed. The survival outcomes were analysed according to clinicopathological findings.
Forty-six patients had low clinical stage tumours (I–II), and 62 patients had high clinical stage tumours (III–IV). Fifty-two, 10 and 46 patients had low-, intermediate- and high-grade tumours, respectively. Twenty-seven of 65 cases had positive surgical margins. In high clinical stage and intermediate- to high-grade tumours, adjuvant radiation therapy was correlated with local recurrence-free survival (p = 0.0244). Intermediate- to high-grade tumours and positive surgical margins were significantly associated with disease-specific survival in multivariate analysis (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0058).
The results of this study show that adjuvant radiation therapy is useful for improved local control in patients with high clinical stage and intermediate- to high-grade tumours.
SiO maser emission from the Bulge IRAS sources has been searched by the v=1, J=1−0 and v=2, J=1—0 transitions to investigate the kinematics of the Galactic Bulge, resulting in a sample of 124 line-of-sight velocities. The rotation velocity, velocity dispersion, and velocity offset at l = 0° for the sample are found to be , and —18.2±9.7 km s−1, respectively (80% confidence interval). Furthermore we find trends for the rotation velocity and velocity dispersion to decrease with distance from the galactic plane. These trends are supported by a larger sample constructed by incorporating other available velocity data on the Bulge IRAS sources. The rotation velocity and velocity dispersion are expressed as 15.6—1.23x|b(deg)| km s−1 deg−1 and 101−3.6x |b(deg)| km s−1, respectively. The implications of the observed quantities are discussed.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Daily snowmelt rates at a leafless deciduous forest site were 40–85% of those at an open site. Reduced snowmelt rates were caused by a difference in meteorological conditions at the forested site. Solar radiation, net radiation and wind speed were especially reduced in the forest, and relationships between them at the two sites were represented by linear functions. Snowmelt rates at the two sites could be predicted by an energy budget method, and net radiation was the major component in the snowmelt energy at both sites. Differences between snowmelt rates at the two sites were due to net radiation differences over many days, but dependency on net radiation at both sites was reduced under particular meteorological conditions. Parameteric analysis under fixed meteorological conditions indicates that this dependency is changed by wind speed, temperature and humidity, because wind speed is reduced in the forest and decrease of turbulent heat exchange in the forest will be notable under strong wind conditions.
Supernovae are classified as type I and type II and further subdivided into Ia, Ib, Ic, II-P, II-L, and IIb. The origin of this observational diversity has not been well understood. The recent nearby supernovae SN 1993J and SN 1994I have provided particularly useful material to clarify the supernova — progenitor connection. For a progenitor of type IIb supernova 1993J, we propose that merging of two stars in a close binary is responsible for the formation of a thin H-rich envelope. As a progenitor of type Ic supernova 1994I, we propose a bare C+O star that has lost both its H and He envelope after a common-envelope phase. By generalizing these scenarios, we show that common-envelope evolution in massive close binary stars leads to various degrees of stripping off of the envelope of a massive star. This naturally leads to an explanation of the origin of type II-L, IIn, IIb, Ib, and Ic in a unified manner. The binary hypothesis to explain the diversity of supernovae can be substantiated with new information on SN IIb 1993J and SN Ic 1994I. Model light curves are compared with observations. Since extensive mass loss is essential for the binary scenario, circumstellar interactions are examined for comparison with X-ray observations.
Evidence for the bar structure in our Galaxy has been shown by Blitz and Spergel (1991b) based on the near-infrared maps of the bulge, by Nakada et al. (1991) based on IRAS point source catalogue, and more clearly by recent COBE maps. However, no clear “dynamical” signature of the bulge bar has been found yet. At optical wavelengths, stellar radial velocities of the bulge stars were observed only at the optical windows and were not observed for the entire region of the bulge because of the dust extinction in this direction.
We obtained high resolution far-infrared images of the circumstellar dust shells of several AGB carbon stars using ISOPHOT on board the ISO. We used the C-100 and C-200 detector arrays in PHT32 oversampling mode at 90 μm and 160 μm except for U Ant, which was observed at 60 μm and 90 μm. AFGL 3068 is very compact in both bands. R Scl is marginally resolved at 90 μm. U Ant shows a double shell structure, a compact but well resolved shell surrounded by a very extended envelope. Y CVn exhibits a very extended, hollow dust shell. We analyse the structure of the dust shells using a simple dust shell model and discuss the mass-loss behaviors, particularly in conjunction with the thermal pulses on the AGB.
The values given below are those published in every annual report of the international latitude work. Those for the first three years were calculated from the observed results in three stations, namely, Mizusawa, Carloforte and Ukiah, while that for the last year was from the results of four stations with one additional station, Kitab.
Infrared spectra of evolved stars are generally dominated by the radiation from their circumstellar shells. M stars are characterized by the 10 μm emission feature from silicate dust grains, while C stars by the 11 μm SiC band. However, some C stars have been found to show the 10 μm feature indicating the oxygen-rich property of their circumstellar dust (Willems and de Jong 1986, Little-Marenin 1986).
In order to investigate the gas phase chemistry of the circumstellar envelopes around these peculiar objects, we have observed radio molecular lines of H2O, SiO, HCN, and CO towards three of them BM Gem (C5, 4J), V778 Cyg (C4, 5J), and EU And (C4, 4).
Meiotic maturation of oocytes requires a variety of ATP-dependent reactions, such as germinal vesicle breakdown, spindle formation, and rearrangement of plasma membrane structure, which is required for fertilization. Mitochondria are accordingly expected be localized to subcellular sites of energy utilization. Although microtubule-dependent cellular traffic for mitochondria has been studied extensively in cultured neuronal (and some other somatic) cells, the molecular mechanism of their dynamics in mammalian oocytes at different stages of maturation remains obscure. The present work describes dynamic aspects of mitochondria in porcine oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage. After incubation of oocytes with MitoTracker Orange followed by centrifugation, mitochondria-enriched ooplasm was obtained using a glass needle and transferred into a recipient oocyte. The intracellular distribution of the fluorescent mitochondria was then observed over time using a laser scanning confocal microscopy equipped with an incubator. Kinetic analysis revealed that fluorescent mitochondria moved from central to subcortical areas of oocytes and were dispersed along plasma membranes. Such movement of mitochondria was inhibited by either cytochalasin B or cytochalasin D but not by colcemid, suggesting the involvement of microfilaments. This method of visualizing mitochondrial dynamics in live cells permits study of the pathophysiology of cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular traffic of mitochondria and associated energy metabolism during meiotic maturation of oocytes.
One of the critical issues for development of the nuclear fusion demonstration reactor (DEMO) is the high heat flux on heat-resistant equipments, especially the blanket and divertor. Materials of such equipments require relatively high thermal conductivities. In this study, we developed iron-based composite materials with carbon nanotube (CNT) and copper, which have high thermal diffusivities, by means of Hot Pressing (HP) and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS).
The thermal diffusivity in the iron/CNT composites was not high enough compared with that of pure iron, while iron/copper composite showed a relatively high thermal diffusivity in the joining conditions. One of the reasons not to be improved thermal diffusivity could be non-mono-dispersion of CNT by the formation of carbides in the matrix.
We carried out an extensive photometric and spectroscopic investigation of the SPB binary, HD 25558 (see Fig. 1 for the time and geographic distribution of the observations). The ~2000 spectra obtained at 13 observatories during 5 observing seasons, the ground-based multi-colour light curves and the photometric data from the MOST satellite revealed that this object is a double-lined spectroscopic binary with a very long orbital period of about 9 years. We determined the physical parameters of the components, and have found that both lie within the SPB instability strip. Accordingly, both components show line-profile variations consistent with stellar pulsations. Altogether, 11 independent frequencies and one harmonic frequency were identified in the data. The observational data do not allow the inference of a reliable orbital solution, thus, disentangling cannot be performed on the spectra. Since the lines of the two components are never completely separated, the analysis is very complicated. Nevertheless, pixel-by-pixel variability analysis of the cross-correlated line profiles was successful, and we were able to attribute all the frequencies to the primary or secondary component. Spectroscopic and photometric mode-identification was also performed for several of these frequencies of both binary components. The spectroscopic mode-identification results suggest that the inclination and rotation of the two components are rather different. While the primary is a slow rotator with ~6 d rotation period, seen at ~60° inclination, the secondary rotates fast with ~1.2 d rotation period, and is seen at ~20° inclination. Our spectropolarimetric measurements revealed that the secondary component has a magnetic field with at least a few hundred Gauss strength, while no magnetic field was detected in the primary.
The detailed analysis and results of this study will be published elsewhere.
Rhino-sinus mucosal involvement is well documented in untreated lepromatous leprosy, but less understood in ex-leprosy patients (i.e. leprosy patients who have been treated and cured) with atrophic rhinitis.
Materials and methods:
Rhino-sinus abnormalities were investigated in 13 ex-lepromatous leprosy patients with atrophic rhinitis, using interviews enquiring about sinonasal symptoms, nasal endoscopy, nasal swab culture and computed tomography. Endoscopic sinus surgery had been performed in three patients. The clinical course, computed tomography findings and nasal biopsy results of these three patients were evaluated.
All patients had turbinate atrophy and 6 of the 13 (46.2 per cent) had septal perforation. Paranasal sinus involvement was noted in 9 of 12 examined patients (75 per cent). The most commonly affected sinus was the maxillary sinus (in 8 of 12; 66.7 per cent). All three patients treated by endoscopic sinus surgery experienced relapse and required further surgery. Maxillary sinus irrigation was effective for reduction of persistent symptoms such as postnasal discharge and crusts.
Ex-lepromatous leprosy patients with atrophic rhinitis had various rhino-sinus abnormalities and persistent symptoms. These patients had chronic rhinosinusitis because of underlying atrophic rhinitis. These patients required repeated otolaryngological observations together with combined surgery and conservative treatment.