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This study evaluated cardiac function using tissue Doppler echocardiography and assessed electrocardiographic findings in children diagnosed with Wilson’s disease.
Asymptomatic patients with a diagnosis of Wilson’s disease (n = 43) were compared to healthy controls (n = 37) that were age and gender matched.
The standard electrocardiographic and conventional echocardiographic examinations were similar in both groups. The left ventricular ejection fraction, shortening fraction, and diastolic function were not significantly different between the two groups. The Tei index for mitral lateral, mitral septal, tricuspid lateral, tricuspid septal, and inter-ventricular septum on tissue Doppler echocardiography was higher in the patient group, yet it did not reach statistical significance. Mitral lateral and septal systolic annular velocity values were significantly lower in the patient group when compared to the control group (p = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively). Also, mitral lateral and septal isovolumetric contraction time values were higher in the patient group (p = 0.04). Although the left ventricular values were not significantly different, relative left ventricular wall thickness was higher in the patient group when compared to the control group, and concentric remodelling in the left ventricle was found in 7 (16%) of 42 patients. QT interval (p = 0.02) and P-wave dispersion values (p = 0.04) were significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group, and these tend to predict arrhythmias.
Our study based on the tissue Doppler echocardiography assessment indicated a subclinical systolic, rather than diastolic, dysfunction in the myocardium with increased QT interval and P-wave dispersion, despite the young age of the patients and short disease duration.
In this paper the space variable-order fractional Schrödinger equation (VOFSE) is studied numerically, where the variable-order fractional derivative is described here in the sense of the quantum Riesz-Feller definition. The proposed numerical method is the weighted average non-standard finite difference method (WANSFDM). Special attention is given to study the stability analysis and the convergence of the proposed method. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to show that this method is reliable and computationally efficient.
Shoe soles have been shown to transfer infectious microorganisms to floor and ground surfaces. However, the possible modes of transmission of infectious agents from floors or ground surfaces to human contact for infection have not been systematically reviewed. A systematic review was performed on articles indexed in medical databases (Medline, EMBASE, PubMed) using a pre-defined search strategy and MeSH terms (date of last search: 15 March 2016). Only primary research studies in English that investigated the transmission dynamics of infectious microorganisms from floor or ground surfaces to human infection were included. Extraction of articles was performed two independent reviewers using pre-defined data fields in an Excel sheet. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria. Almost all hospital-associated microorganisms including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile, and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative species were identified on floor or ground surfaces. Several modes of transmission dynamics, most commonly direct contact or aerosolization, were identified. In conclusion, interventions such as efficient cleaning of floor surfaces and vectors that transfer infectious organisms to floors such as shoe soles could be an effective infection control strategy to prevent human disease.
Patients with psychosis display the so-called ‘Jumping to Conclusions’ bias (JTC) – a tendency for hasty decision-making in probabilistic reasoning tasks. So far, only a few studies have evaluated the JTC bias in ‘at-risk mental state’ (ARMS) patients, specifically in ARMS samples fulfilling ‘ultra-high risk’ (UHR) criteria, thus not allowing for comparisons between different ARMS subgroups.
In the framework of the PREVENT (secondary prevention of schizophrenia) study, a JTC task was applied to 188 patients either fulfilling UHR criteria or presenting with cognitive basic symptoms (BS). Similar data were available for 30 healthy control participants matched for age, gender, education and premorbid verbal intelligence. ARMS patients were identified by the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS) and the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument – Adult Version (SPI-A).
The mean number of draws to decision (DTD) significantly differed between ARM -subgroups: UHR patients made significantly less draws to make a decision than ARMS patients with only cognitive BS. Furthermore, UHR patients tended to fulfil behavioural criteria for JTC more often than BS patients. In a secondary analysis, ARMS patients were much hastier in their decision-making than controls. In patients, DTD was moderately associated with positive and negative symptoms as well as disorganization and excitement.
Our data indicate an enhanced JTC bias in the UHR group compared to ARMS patients with only cognitive BS. This underscores the importance of reasoning deficits within cognitive theories of the developing psychosis. Interactions with the liability to psychotic transitions and therapeutic interventions should be unravelled in longitudinal studies.
Al6061 and AZ31 plates were processed using accumulative roll bonding (ARB) method up to two passes to produce laminated composites. The sandwich stacks of Al6061/AZ31/Al6061 were held at 450 °C for 10 min in a cubical furnace and rolled together with reduction of 50% in one pass. The microstructural investigations were done using optical and scanning electron microscopes. The structures of the interface, mechanical and drop impact properties of the laminated composites after the first and second passes were investigated and compared with Al6061 and AZ31 alloy plates. It was found that Al6061 improved the elongation to failure property of AZ31 after the first pass of ARB process and the drop impact properties of AZ31 after the first and second passes. However, elongation to failure magnitude with the uniaxial tensile loading decreased with increase in the number of passes due to the formation of brittle intermetallic between the Al6061/AZ31 nonuniform interfaces.
The Business Meeting of Commission 10 was held as part of the Business Meeting of Division II (Sun and Heliosphere), chaired by Valentin Martínez-Pillet, the President of the Division. The President of Commission 10 (C10; Solar activity), Lidia van Driel-Gesztelyi, took the chair for the business meeting of C10. She summarised the activities of C10 over the triennium and the election of the incoming OC.
Mg doped ZnO thin films were prepared by DC/RF magnetron co-sputtering in (Ar+O2) ambient conditions using metallic Mg and Zn targets. We present a comprehensive study of the effects of film thickness on the structural, optical and magnetic properties. Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in the films and the saturation magnetization (MS) increases at first as the film’s thickness increases and then decreases. The MS value as high as ∼15.76 emu/cm3 was achieved for the Mg-doped ZnO film of thickness 120 nm. The optical band gap of the films determined to be in the range 3.42 to 3.52 eV.
Commission 10 of the International Astronomical Union has more than 650 members who study a wide range of activity phenomena produced by our nearest star, the Sun. Solar activity is intrinsically related to solar magnetic fields and encompasses events from the smallest energy releases (nano- or even picoflares) to the largest eruptions in the Solar System, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which propagate into the Heliosphere reaching the Earth and beyond. Solar activity is manifested in the appearance of sunspot groups or active regions, which are the principal sources of activity phenomena from the emergence of their magnetic flux through their dispersion and decay. The period 2008–2009 saw an unanticipated extended solar cycle minimum and unprecedentedly weak polar-cap and heliospheric field. Associated with that was the 2009 historical maximum in galactic cosmic rays flux since measurements begun in the middle of the 20th Century. Since then Cycle 24 has re-started solar activity producing some spectacular eruptions observed with a fleet of spacecraft and ground-based facilities. In the last triennium major advances in our knowledge and understanding of solar activity were due to continuing success of space missions as SOHO, Hinode, RHESSI and the twin STEREO spacecraft, further enriched by the breathtaking images of the solar atmosphere produced by the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) launched on 11 February 2010 in the framework of NASA's Living with a Star program. In August 2012, at the time of the IAU General Assembly in Beijing when the mandate of this Commission ends, we will be in the unique position to have for the first time a full 3-D view of the Sun and solar activity phenomena provided by the twin STEREO missions about 120 degrees behind and ahead of Earth and other spacecraft around the Earth and ground-based observatories. These new observational insights are continuously posing new questions, inspiring and advancing theoretical analysis and modelling, improving our understanding of the physics underlying magnetic activity phenomena. Commission 10 reports on a vigorously evolving field of research produced by a large community. The number of refereed publications containing ‘Sun’, ‘heliosphere’, or a synonym in their abstracts continued the steady growth seen over the preceding decades, reaching about 2000 in the years 2008–2010, with a total of close to 4000 unique authors. This report, however, has its limitations and it is inherently incomplete, as it was prepared jointly by the members of the Organising Committee of Commission 10 (see the names of the primary contributors to the sections indicated in parentheses) reflecting their fields of expertise and interest. Nevertheless, we believe that it is a representative sample of significant new results obtained during the last triennium in the field of solar activity.
CeO2–ZrO2–γ-Al2O3 mixed oxides with different molar compositions have been synthesized by the sol-gel method using nitrate–alkoxide precursors. Some relationships between the molar composition of the ternary systems and their textural and structural properties are presented. CeO2–ZrO2–γ-Al2O3 mixed oxides have been studied and characterized using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopic analyses. By complete porosity analyses of all samples before and after hydrothermal (up to 75% steam) treatment at 500 °C, we have been able to optimize a highly hydrothermally stable CeO2–ZrO2–γ-Al2O3 system with a molar ratio of 10:10:80 mol%. γ-Al2O3 alone and CeO2-doped as well as ZrO2-doped γ-Al2O3 were also investigated by the hydrothermal treatment, and their steam-sensitive properties have been compared with those of the ternary CeO2–ZrO2–γ-Al2O3 system.
Division XI was born by merging Commission 44 “Space and High Energy Astrophysics” and Commission 48 “High Energy Astrophysics” by the decision at the IAU General Assembly in The Hague (1994). As the naming of space astronomy is technique oriented, i.e. astronomy from space, it covers quite a wide range of astronomy, almost all branches of astronomy are included by the progress of space observations. Historically, it started from high energy astronomy, UV, X, and gamma rays astronomy, somewhat including cosmic ray physics. However, in these days, space observations have expanded to low energy astronomy, such as optical, infrared, submillimeter and even radio waves(Space VLBI).
The relative complexity measure (RCM) is a new approach to evaluate relatedness of DNA sequences which eliminates the requirement to align sequences prior to analysis, a step required with standard reference methods. The value of the RCM approach to generate distance matrices for use in phylogenetic analysis of organisms has not been determined. This study compared RCM with the algorithmic and tree searching reference methods for phylogenetic analysis using fungal sequences. Sequences of the cytochrome b gene and the 18S rDNA gene were obtained from the GenBank database to determine feasibility of this method for phylogenetic relatedness. The RCM approach was also used to construct a phylogenetic tree using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences from 23 medically relevant fungal species. The robustness of the RCM and reference approaches was determined by comparing the topology of seven medically relevant fungi within the phylogenetic trees generated after progressive removal of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of the nucleotide bases from either the 5′ or 3′ end of the three genomic target sequences. The results demonstrated that the RCM method was equivalent to the reference methods for construction of phylogenetic trees from cytochrome b and 18S rDNA gene sequences. The phylogenetic tree constructed using the ITS sequence generated no contradictory topology. The RCM generated trees retained the appropriate topology after removal of up to 50% of the cytochrome b sequence, 40% of the ITS sequence, and 30% of the 18S gene target sequence. Comparatively, the reference methods failed to maintain topology after only a 10% sequence deletion for each genomic target. The results showed the RCM to be a reliable and robust computational approach for use in the construction of fungal phylogenetic trees without the requirement for prior sequence alignment.
Background and objective: Target-controlled infusions of anaesthetic agents have become increasingly available. They can involve the use of propofol in combination with an opioid or a benzodiazepine. The effect site concentration of propofol infusions has been advocated as a method of estimating drug distribution. We investigated the influence of co-induction with remifentanil and midazolam on effect site propofol requirements at induction of anaesthesia using target-controlled infusions.
Methods: Sixty-six consenting adult patients were randomly allocated to three treatment groups. Each group received induction of anaesthesia with a different total intravenous technique. One group was induced with target-controlled propofol alone; another received target-controlled propofol and target-controlled remifentanil (3 ng mL−1); and the last received midazolam (0.03 mg kg−1), target-controlled remifentanil (3 ng mL−1) and target-controlled propofol. Computer simulation was used to calculate effect site concentrations. We recorded propofol dose and effect site concentration at loss of verbal response.
Results: The effect site concentration (Ce50) of propofol alone was 2.19 µg mL−1. This was reduced to 1.55 µg mL−1 during co-induction with remifentanil and further reduced to 0.64 µg mL−1 with midazolam premedication (P < 0.001; ANOVA).
Conclusions: We conclude that co-induction with remifentanil alone or with midazolam can be used to reduce propofol doses at induction of anaesthesia using target-controlled infusions. We believe that using effect site concentration may prove a useful tool in routine clinical practice.
This article examines the impacts of monetary policy on agricultural prices in four Asian economies using time series analysis and graph theory. The estimations clearly show that agricultural prices overshoot their long-run equilibrium values for Korea, Philippines, and Thailand, and the overshooting for agricultural prices is larger than for manufactured prices. Impulse-response functions and variance-decomposition analysis based on directed graphs and causal structures highlight the complex interplay among the variables in the model and how those relationships differ by country. Money supply changes clearly affect real variables and relative prices for all countries either through overshooting or non-neutrality of money.
Introduction. The date palm tree is one of the fruit trees most cultivated in the Arabian Gulf States.
Bioregulators were used for the quality and productivity improvement of date palm tree fruits. A study was conducted to
assess the relative effectiveness of GA3, NAA, ethephon and a mixture of growth regulators on some fruit
characteristics and productivity of the Barhee date palm tree cultivar. Materials and methods. Five selected
female uniform date palm trees of the cultivar Barhee were pollinated on March 5-15, 1994, 1995 and 1996, by placing
eight fresh male strands on the female spadix center (flower cluster).Ten flower clusters were used on each tree and
divided into five groups of two flower clusters. Each of these groups was subjected to one of the following treatments:
control (water), 150 mg GA3 × L-1, 100 mg NAA × L-1, 1 000 mg ethephon × L-1 and a mixture of these three growth regulators. Then the fruit setting, fruit flesh and dry matter percentages,
the total soluble solids, the fruit ripening, and the fruit weight per bunch and per tree were measured. Results
and discussion. The data showed that the application of GA3 or ethephon on flower clusters of Barhee date palm trees
had no constant effect on fruit characteristics and productivity of trees. NAA or growth regulator mixture applications
on Barhee flower clusters reduced the fruit dry matter and fruit ripening percentages and increased the fruit weight per
bunch and per tree. Conclusion. Treatments of Barhee date palm flower clusters, 20 d after pollination, with NAA or the
specific growth regulator mixture decreased the dry matter percentage and the fruit ripening and increased the fruit
flesh percentage and the date palm tree yield, therefore, these treatments could be recommended to improve the
productivity of date palm trees in the region.