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This study examined (1) the association of dietary energy density from solid (EDS) and solid plus liquids (EDSL) with adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors (CRF) in children with overweight and obesity, (2) the effect of under-reporting on the mentioned associations and (3) whether the association between ED and body composition and CRF is influenced by levels of physical activity. In a cross-sectional design, 208 overweight and obese children (8–12-year-old; 111 boys) completed two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. ED was calculated using two different approaches: EDS and EDSL. Under-reporters were determined with the Goldberg method. Body composition, anthropometry and fasting blood sample measurements were performed. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was registered with accelerometers (7-d-register). Linear regressions were performed to evaluate the association of ED with the previously mentioned variables. Neither EDS nor EDSL were associated with body composition or CRF. However, when under-reporters were excluded, EDS was positively associated with BMI (P=0·019), body fat percentage (P=0·005), abdominal fat (P=0·008) and fat mass index (P=0·018), while EDSL was positively associated with body fat percentage (P=0·008) and fat mass index (P=0·026). When stratifying the group according to physical activity recommendations, the aforementioned associations were only maintained for non-compliers. Cluster analysis showed that the low-ED and high-MVPA group presented the healthiest profile for all adiposity and CRF. These findings could partly explain inconsistencies in literature, as we found that different ED calculations entail distinct results. Physical activity levels and excluding under-reporters greatly influence the associations between ED and adiposity in children with overweight and obesity.
The objective of this study was to determine the serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) strains in children from Lima, Peru, before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), which was introduced in the national immunisation program on 2009. We conducted a prospective, multicentre, passive surveillance IPD study during 2006–2008 and 2009–2011, before and right after the introduction of PCV7 in Peru. The study was performed in 11 hospitals and five private laboratories in Lima, Peru, in patients <18 years old, with sterile site cultures yielding Streptococcus pneumoniae. In total 159 S. pneumoniae isolates were recovered. There was a decrease in the incidence of IPD in children <2 years old after the introduction of PCV7 (18.4/100 000 vs. 5.1/100 000, P = 0.004). Meningitis cases decreased significantly in the second period (P = 0.036) as well as the overall case fatality rate (P = 0.025), including a decreased case fatality rate of pneumonia (16.3% to 0%, P = 0.04). PCV7 serotypes showed a downward trend. Vaccine-preventable serotypes caused 78.9% of IPD cases, mainly 14, 6B, 5, 19F and 23F. A non-significant increase in erythromycin resistance was reported. Our findings suggest that the introduction of PCV7 led to a significant decrease of IPD in children under 2 years old and in the overall case fatality rate.
This work presents a study about synthesis of polypyrrole films electrochemically doped with iodine by luminescent discharge plasma in aqueous sodium sulfate solution, and its structural, morphological and electrical characterization. The synthesis is carried out at atmospheric pressure with square pulse from -1.06 to 1.16 V for 120 minutes. Doping times of the films are 10, 30 and 50 minutes. The films have thicknesses of 6, 12.7, 20.32 and 25.4 μm, and linear growth trend according to the time exposure of their synthesis. The main chemical groups exhibited in the films are C-H, N-H and CH2I, which are characteristics of film doped with Iodine. The electrical conductivity calculated of polypyrrole films is in the range 10-5-10-3 S/cm, and its activation energy is between 0.052 and 1.77 eV.
The exposure of adult, female, Mediterranean goats during anoestrus to males with induced sexual activity via photostimulation, induces a very high percentage of ovulations. The present work examines the ability of photostimulated bucks to improve the male effect-induced reproductive response of young does over that induced by non-stimulated bucks. A 2×2 factorial experiment was designed, consisting of doe age and buck photoperiod treatments. During seasonal anoestrus, 41 does aged 7 (n=19) or 10 (n=22) months were subjected to the male effect on 10 April; half of each group was exposed to males rendered sexually active by prior exposure to 3 months of long days (16 h of light/day) from 31 October (PHOTO bucks), and half to males maintained under the natural photoperiod (CONTROL bucks). Oestrous activity was recorded daily by direct visual observation of the marks left by male-worn marking harnesses over the 32 days following the bringing of the sexes together (introduction). Doe body weight and body condition were determined weekly. Ovulation was detected by measuring plasma progesterone concentrations twice per week over the 3 weeks after introduction. The ovulation rate was assessed by transrectal ultrasonography. Fecundity, fertility, prolificacy and productivity were also determined. The interaction doe age × buck photoperiod treatment had no effect on any outcome. The percentage of females showing ovulation or oestrus was higher in the does exposed to PHOTO bucks (85% v. 43% for those exposed to CONTROL bucks) they also showed higher fertility (75% v. 43%) and productivity (1.05±0.17 v. 0.57±0.16 kids born per doe serviced) (all P values at least P<0.05). The 10-month-old group showed higher percentage of females showing ovulation, oestrus, fertility and productivity than the 7-month-old does after the male effect (females showing ovulation: 82% v. 42%; showing oestrus: 73% v. 42%; fertility: 73% v. 42% and productivity: 1.09±0.17 v. 0.47±0.14 goat kids born per doe serviced; respectively, all P values at least P<0.05). The present results show that the use of photostimulated males improves the reproductive performance of 7- and 10-month-old does, and may contribute towards increasing their productivity and lifetime reproductive performance.
High-Mn Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steels are an excellent alternative in the design of structural components for the automotive industry. The TWIP steels application allows weight reduction, maintaining the performance of vehicles. Nowadays the research works focused on TWIP steel weldability are relative scarce. It is well-known that weldability is one of the main limitations for industrial application of TWIP steel. The main goal of this research work was studied the effect of heat input on the microstructural changes generated in a TWIP steel microalloyed with Ti. A pair of welds were performed through Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process. The GTAW process was carried out without filler material, using Direc Current Electrode Negative (DCEN), tungsten electrode EWTh-2 and Ar as shielding gas. The microstructure and average grain size in the fusion (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) were determined by light optical metallography (LOM). Elements segregation in the FZ was evaluated using point and elemental mapping chemical analysis (EPMA) by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Phase transformations were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Finally, the hardness were measured by means of Vickers microhardness testing (HV500). The results show that the FZ is characterized by a dendritic solidification pattern. Meanwhile, the HAZ presented equiaxed grains in both weld joints. On the other hand, the TWIP-Ti steel weldments did not present austenite phase transformations. Nevertheless, the FZ exhibited variations in the chemical elements distribution (Mn, Al, Si and C), which were higher as the heat input increases. Finally, the heat input reduced the microhardness of TWIP-Ti steel weld joints. Although post-welding hardness recovery was detected, which is associated with precipitation of Ti second-phase particles.
In resource-constrained facilities or during resuscitation, immediate paediatric weight estimation remains a fundamental challenge. We aimed to develop and validate weight estimation models based on ulna length and forearm width and circumference measured by simple and portable tools; and to compare them against previous methods (advanced paediatric life support (APLS), Theron and Traub–Johnson formulas).
Cross-sectional analysis of anthropometric measurements. Four ulna- and forearm-based weight estimation models were developed in the training set (n 1016). Assessment of bias, precision and accuracy was examined in the validation set (n 457).
National Children’s Study-Formative Research in Anthropometry (2011–2012).
Multi-racial/ethnic infants and children aged <6 years (n 1473).
Developed Models 1–4 had high predictive precision (R2=0·91–0·97). Mean percentage errors between predicted and measured weight were significantly smaller across the developed models (0·1–0·7 %) v. the APLS, Theron and Traub–Johnson formulas (−1·7, 9·2 and −4·9 %, respectively). Root-mean-squared percentage error was overall smaller among Models 1–4 v. the three existing methods (range=7·5–8·7 v. 9·8–13·3 %). Further, Models 1–4 were within 10 and 20 % of actual weight in 72–87 and 95–99 % of the weight estimations, respectively, which outperformed any of the three existing methods.
Ulna length, forearm width and forearm circumference by simple and portable tools could serve as valid and reliable surrogate measures of weight among infants and children aged <6 years with improved precision over the existing age- or length-based methods. Further validation of these models in physically impaired or non-ambulatory children is warranted.
Functional circuits of the human brain emerge and change dramatically over the second half of gestation. It is possible that variation in neural functional system connectivity in utero predicts individual differences in infant behavioral development, but this possibility has yet to be examined. The current study examines the association between fetal sensorimotor brain system functional connectivity and infant postnatal motor ability. Resting-state functional connectivity data was obtained in 96 healthy human fetuses during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Infant motor ability was measured 7 months after birth using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Increased connectivity between the emerging motor network and regions of the prefrontal cortex, temporal lobes, posterior cingulate, and supplementary motor regions was observed in infants that showed more mature motor functions. In addition, females demonstrated stronger fetal-brain to infant-behavior associations. These observations extend prior longitudinal research back into prenatal brain development and raise exciting new ideas about the advent of risk and the ontogeny of early sex differences.
The deposition of uniform, reproducible and compact Sb2S3 thin films were obtained by chemical bath deposition using tartaric acid as a complexing agent. It was found that the thickness of the films increases with the pH of the solution, reaching values of 130 and 170 nm for pH values of 9.5 and 10, respectively. XRD, as well as Raman analysis, showed amorphous Sb2S3 films formed directly from the chemical bath, which crystallized into stibnite after a thermal treatment in N2 with crystallite sizes between 31 and 39 nm. On the other hand, the optical band gap of the Sb2S3 films decreased with an increase in pH, with values of 1.82-2.03 eV for the crystalline ones. An n-type photo-conductivity of 10-6 Ω-1 cm-1 was obtained for the heated films. The evaluation of these films for solar cell applications using CdS as the window layer gave a Voc of 656 mV and a Jsc of 2.66 mA/cm2 under AM1.5G radiation.
The control of Anastrepha obliqua includes the sterilization of mass-reared insects grown in isolation in a constantly controlled environment. Through time, laboratory mass-reared colonies may produce flies with lower field performance. To recover the genetic variation and aptitude of mass-reared populations, wild insects are introduced into mass-reared colonies. Our aim in this study was to determine whether the host species from two localities influence the life history traits of A. obliqua. We collected flies as larvae from infested fruits of Spondias purpurea, S. mombin, Mangifera indica cv. ‘piña’, and M. indica cv. ‘coche’ from two localities in Chiapas, Mexico. There were significant differences in the mating competitiveness of males collected from mango cv. ‘coche’ compared with mass-reared males. There were no differences in the mating propensity between flies from the two localities, even in the number of matings, when weight was considered as a covariable. The mass-reared strain showed the earliest age at first oviposition. The locality affected the longevity and oviposition period, and these influenced the birth rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of population increase, mean generation time, and doubling time. According to the demographic parameters, the population of S. mombin would allow artificial colonization in less time, considering that it has a high reproduction rate starting at an early age. Even in the propensity test, it had the highest number of matings. However, males with greater sexual competitiveness and longevity for colonization corresponded to those collected from S. purpurea.
Background:ATP8A2 mutations have only recently been associated with human disease. We present the clinical features from the largest cohort of patients with this disorder reported to date. Methods: An observational study of 9 unreported and 2 previously reported patients with biallelic ATP8A2 mutations was carried out at multiple centres. Results: The mean age of the cohort was 9.4 years old (range: 2.5-28 yrs). All patients demonstrated developmental delay, severe hypotonia and movement disorders: chorea/choreoathetosis (100%), dystonia (27%) or facial dyskinesia (18%). Hypotonia was apparent at birth (70%) or before 6 months old (100%). Optic atrophy was observed in 75% of patients who had a funduscopic examination. MRI of the brain was normal for most patients with a small proportion showing mild cortical atrophy (30%), delayed myelination (20%) and/or hypoplastic optic nerves (20%). Epilepsy was seen in two older patients. Conclusions:ATP8A2 gene mutations have emerged as a cause of a novel phenotype characterized by developmental delay, severe hypotonia and hyperkinetic movement disorders. Optic atrophy is common and may only become apparent in the first few years of life, necessitating repeat ophthalmologic evaluation. Early recognition of the cardinal features of this condition will facilitate diagnosis of this disorder.
The objective of this research work is to study the weldability of a Nb microalloyed TWIP steel through welding nuggets generated by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process. Weldability was examined by microstructural changes in the fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) using light optical metallography (LOM), segregation in the nuggets was evaluated using elemental mappings of chemical analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), phase transformations were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the hardness properties were examined using Vickers microhardness testing (HV25). Experimental results show that microstructure of welding nuggets consists of austenitic dendritic grains in the FZ and equiaxed grains in the HAZ. FZ width and HAZ grain growth tend to increase as the heat input increases. Additionally, the studied Nb-containing TWIP steel showed segregation in the FZ, where Mn and Si segregated in the interdendritic regions, while Al and C preferentially segregated in dendritic areas. In general, the data obtained by XRD indicated that GTAW process did not affect austenite stability. Finally, the welding nuggets of studied TWIP steel showed lower microhardness values than the as-solution condition (starting condition). However, the heat affected zone showed hardened areas, which are associated with NbC precipitation hardening.
Arc welding processes such Gas Tungsten (GTAW), Gas Metal (GMAW) and Submerged Arc (SAW) are typically used in order to produce a weld joint in stainless steels (SS). However, welding thermal cycle generates a sensitization by formation of chromium carbides. In addition, the heat affected zone (HAZ) is also susceptible to sensitization and fracture of the weldment. Weld bead geometric parameters such depth penetration, fusion zone (FZ) width and size of HAZ are mainly determined by welding operation parameters. This research work studies the influence of welding current, welding speed and arc gap on the width and grain size in the HAZ produced by a single pass of autogenous GTAW process applied to a plate butt-welded joint of AISI 304 SS. The welded specimens were prepared for analysis by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopies to identify the interfaces between FZ-HAZ and base material as well as the grain growth in the HAZ. Adams equation for 2-D heat distribution was used to estimate theoretically the width of the HAZ. Furthermore, computational simulation which solved a convective-diffusion problem of the volumetric heat applied during the weld pool formation allowed to correlate the thermal gradient and the molten material flow of the FZ with the welding depth penetration, and width and grain size in the HAZ. The results demonstrated that the high heat input generates an important grain growth in the HAZ caused by low heat diffusion in the adjacent material to the fusion line. Welding speed was the main factor in the thermal gradient changes. Simulation results indicate that outward recirculating flow in the molten metal produced by surface tension forces is responsible for the shallow penetration of the autogenous GTAW process. Theoretical and computational estimations of the HAZ are in good agreement with the experimental results.