To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In the Middle Ages and the sixteenth century, Jews and Jewish communities faced severe existential threats nearly everywhere in Western and Central Europe. The many types of persecution included banishment, forced conversion, confiscation of property, cancellation of debts, as well as assault and murder. Sometimes anti-Jewish violence erupted spontaneously, and sometimes it resulted from legally conducted prosecution of Jewish victims. During this long period, the number of territories that permitted Jewish residency contracted steadily until the second half of the sixteenth century, when more favorable conditions slowly began to develop in some areas of Europe. The wave of expulsions began with England in 1290, followed by France in 1394, and crested, but did not entirely dissipate, with the banishment of Sephardic Jews from Spain in 1492 and from Portugal in 1497. Significant Jewish communities in Sicily (1493) and the Kingdom of Naples (1511–1541) were also banished in the aftermath of the Spanish decree. The Sephardic expulsions as well as the preceding century of anti-Jewish agitation in Spain (beginning with widespread pogroms in 1391) resulted in tens of thousands of coercive baptisms and, subsequently, the development of a large Converso population. As many Conversos continued to practice Judaism surreptitiously, they became the targets of the Spanish and, later, Portuguese inquisitions (established in 1478 and 1536, respectively). Moreover, the Iberian expulsions dispersed the thriving Sephardic communities to the Ottoman Empire, parts of Italy, and, as of circa 1600, to the northern port cities of Amsterdam and Hamburg, as well as, beginning in the 1650s, to London. These port cities became important venues for the foundation of new, highly influential Jewish communities.
Several studies have reported evidence of interference between respiratory viruses: respiratory viruses rarely reach their epidemic peak concurrently and there appears to be a negative association between infection with one respiratory virus and co-infection with another. We used results spanning 16 years (2002–2017) of a routine diagnostic multiplex panel that tests for nine respiratory viruses to further investigate these interactions in Victoria, Australia. Time series analyses were used to plot the proportion positive for each virus. The seasonality of all viruses included was compared with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A virus using cross-correlations. Logistic regression was used to explore the likelihood of co-infection with one virus given infection with another. Seasonal peaks were observed each year for influenza A and RSV and less frequently for influenza B, coronavirus and parainfluenza virus. RSV circulated an average of 6 weeks before influenza A. Co-infection with another respiratory virus was less common with picornavirus, RSV or influenza A infection. Our findings provide further evidence of a temporal relationship in the circulation of respiratory viruses. A greater understanding of the interaction between respiratory viruses may enable better prediction of the timing and magnitude of respiratory virus epidemics.
Breakthrough Listen is a 10-yr initiative to search for signatures of technologies created by extraterrestrial civilisations at radio and optical wavelengths. Here, we detail the digital data recording system deployed for Breakthrough Listen observations at the 64-m aperture CSIRO Parkes Telescope in New South Wales, Australia. The recording system currently implements two modes: a dual-polarisation, 1.125-GHz bandwidth mode for single-beam observations, and a 26-input, 308-MHz bandwidth mode for the 21-cm multibeam receiver. The system is also designed to support a 3-GHz single-beam mode for the forthcoming Parkes ultra-wideband feed. In this paper, we present details of the system architecture, provide an overview of hardware and software, and present initial performance results.
Isotopic investigations of human burials from excavations of the Autonomous University of Campeche (CIHS) at the prehispanic Maya capital of Calakmul in southeastern Mexico, near the border with Guatemala, include determination of radiocarbon dates; carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in collagen; and strontium, carbon, and oxygen isotope ratios in tooth enamel. A total of 22 human and 5 faunal samples analyzed for strontium isotopes reveal a narrow range of variation in values, pointing to the likely local origin of over two-thirds of the central population of Calakmul, including two of its rulers. Carbon and nitrogen data confirm a typical Classic Maya diet at the site and identify a diet high in meat consumption for one dynastic individual. Interpreted jointly, the isotopic information offers new perspectives on the provenience and lifestyles of the residents of Calakmul, including a potential place of origin for the royal occupant of chamber tomb Burial VII-1.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The aim of this study is to determine whether quantitative measures of knee structures including effusion, bone marrow lesions, cartilage, and meniscal damage can improve upon an existing model of demographic and clinical characteristics to classify accelerated knee osteoarthritis (AKOA). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a case-control study using data from baseline and four annual follow-up visits from the osteoarthritis initiative. Participants had no radiographic knee osteoarthritis (KOA) at baseline. AKOA is defined as progressing from no KOA to advance-stage KOA in at least 1 knee within 48 months. AKOA knees were matched 1:1 based on sex to (1) participants who did not develop KOA within 48 months and (2) participants who developed KOA but not AKOA. Analyses were person based. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to determine the important variables and percent of variance explained. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A previous classification and regression tree analysis found that age, BMI, serum glucose, and femorotibial angle explained 31% of the variability between those who did and did not develop AKOA. Including structural measurements as candidate variables yielded a model that included effusion, BMI, serum glucose, cruciate ligament degeneration and coronal slope and explained 39% of the variability. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Knee structural measurements improve classification of participants who developed AKOA Versus those who did not. Further research is needed to better classify patients at risk for AKOA.
We undertook observations with the Green Bank Telescope, simultaneously with the 300 m telescope in Arecibo, as a follow-up of a possible flare of radio emission from Ross 128. We report here the non-detections from the GBT observations in C band (4–8 GHz), as well as non-detections in archival data at L band (1.1–1.9 GHz). We suggest that a likely scenario is that the emission comes from one or more satellites passing through the same region of the sky.
Hans Holbein the Younger produced a large corpus of illustrations that appeared in an astonishing variety of Bibles, including Latin Vulgate editions, Desiderius Erasmus's Greek New Testament, rival German translations by Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli, the English Coverdale Bible, as well as in Holbein's profoundly influential Icones veteris testamenti (Images of the Old Testament)—to name only his better-known contributions. This essay discusses strategies that the artist developed for accommodating the heterogeneity of the various humanist and Reformation Bibles. For Erasmus's innovative Bibles, Holbein connected the text to the expansive concept of Renaissance humanist art, simultaneously portraying the new Bible and humanist art as part of a broadly defined cultural-philosophical discourse. Similarly, Holbein's production of Protestant Bibles, most importantly the epochal Luther Bible, associated the new text with the humanist Bible and, in so doing, conceptualized the humanist biblical image as a validation of religious art in a new context. Ultimately, the reliance on humanist art as a cultural authority mitigated perception of the heterogeneity of the text to the point that the publishers of Holbein's Icones completely displaced the text with the daring creation of a new genre: the picture Bible. With the exception of the iconography of royal supremacy in England, Holbein's Bible image was exceedingly movable, an artistic efficiency designed to contribute to the stability of the Bible image across a wide humanist and multiconfessional spectrum.
Early life stress (ELS) is a significant risk factor for the emergence of internalizing problems in adolescence. Beginning in adolescence, females are twice as likely as males to experience internalizing disorders. The present study was designed to examine sex differences in the association between ELS and internalizing problems in early pubertal adolescents, and whether and how corticolimbic function and connectivity may underlie these associations. Fifty-nine early pubertal males and 78 early pubertal females, ages 9–13 years (all Tanner Stage 3 or below) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging as they performed an emotion label task that robustly interrogates corticolimbic function. Participants were also interviewed about their experience of ELS. Females exhibited a positive association between ELS and internalizing problems, whereas males exhibited no such association. Whole-brain and amygdala region of interest analyses indicated that whereas females exhibited a positive association between ELS and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during implicit emotion regulation, males showed no such association. Activation in these regions was positively associated with internalizing problems in females but not males; however, activation in these regions did not mediate the association between ELS and internalizing problems. Finally, both boys and girls exhibited an association between ELS and increased negative connectivity between the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and bilateral amygdala. Using a carefully characterized sample of early pubertal adolescents, the current study highlights important sex differences in the development of corticolimbic circuitry during a critical period of brain development. These sex differences may play a significant role in subsequent risk for internalizing problems.
The formulation of a physical problem in terms of a variational (or action) principle conveys significant advantages for the analytical formulation and numerical solution of that problem. One such problem is ice-sheet dynamics as described by non-Newtonian Stokes flow, for which the variational principle can be interpreted as stating that a measure of heat dissipation, due to internal deformation and boundary friction, plus the rate of loss of total potential energy is minimized under the constraint of incompressible flow. By carrying out low-aspect-ratio approximations to the Stokes flow problem within this variational principle, we obtain approximate dynamical equations and boundary conditions that are internally consistent and preserve the analytical structure of the full Stokes system. This also allows us to define an action principle for the popular first-order or ‘Blatter–Pattyn’ shallow-ice approximation that is distinct from the action principle for the Stokes problem yet preserves its most important properties and elucidates various details about this approximation. Further approximations within this new action functional yield the standard zero-order shallow-ice and shallow-shelf approximations, with their own action principles and boundary conditions. We emphasize the specification of boundary conditions, which are problematic to derive and implement consistently in approximate models but whose formulation is greatly simplified in a variational setting.
There are many advantages to formulating an ice-sheet model in terms of a variational principle. In particular, this applies to the specification of boundary conditions, which might otherwise be problematic to implement. Here we focus primarily on the frictional basal sliding boundary condition in a non-Newtonian Stokes model. This type of boundary condition is particularly difficult because it is heterogeneous, requiring both a Dirichlet (no-penetration) condition normal to the bed, and a Neumann (frictional sliding) condition tangential to the bed. In general, Neumann conditions correspond to natural boundary conditions in a variational principle; that is, they arise naturally in the variational formulation and thus need not be explicitly specified. While the same is not necessarily true of Dirichlet conditions, it is possible to enforce a no-penetration condition using Lagrange multipliers within the variational principle so that the Dirichlet condition becomes a natural boundary condition. Thus, in the case of ice sheets, all relevant boundary conditions may be incorporated in the variational functional, making them particularly easy to discretize. For the Stokes model, the resulting basal boundary condition is valid for arbitrary topographic slopes. Here we apply the same methodology to the Blatter– Pattyn higher-order approximate model, which is ordinarily limited to small basal slopes by the smallaspect-ratio approximation. We introduce a modification that improves on the accuracy of the standard Blatter–Pattyn model for all values of the basal slope, as we demonstrate in the slow sliding regime for which analytical results are available. The remaining error is due to the effects of the small-aspect-ratio approximation in the Blatter–Pattyn model.
Subglacial lakes beneath Antarctica’s fast-moving ice streams are known to undergo ∼1 km3 volume changes on annual timescales. Focusing on the MacAyeal Ice Stream (MacIS) lake system, we create a simple model for the response of subglacial water distribution to lake discharge events through assimilation of lake volume changes estimated from Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimetry. We construct a steady-state water transport model in which known subglacial lakes are treated as either sinks or sources depending on the ICESat-derived filling or draining rates. The modeled volume change rates of five large subglacial lakes in the downstream portion of MacIS are shown to be consistent with observed filling rates if the dynamics of all upstream lakes are considered. However, the variable filling rate of the northernmost lake suggests the presence of an undetected lake of similar size upstream. Overall, we show that, for this fast-flowing ice stream, most subglacial lakes receive >90% of their water from distant distributed sources throughout the catchment, and we confirm that water is transported from regions of net basal melt to regions of net basal freezing. Our study provides a geophysically based means of validating subglacial water models in Antarctica and is a potential way to parameterize subglacial lake discharge events in large-scale ice-sheet models where adequate data are available.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Identify objective neurological substrates of cognitive fatigue in Parkinson’s disease and in aging. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Structural and diffusion MRI. Behavioral assessments for aged adults and Parkinson’s disease. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Gray and white matter deficits that correlate with deficits in the basal ganglia for fatigued Parkinson’s disease patients Versus anterior cingulate cortex in healthy aged adults with fatigue. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Over 50% of patients with Parkison’s disease and 38% of healthy older adults suffer from cognitive fatigue. However, diagnostics are limited to subjective surveys and there are no treatments for either population. Therefore, objective measures are greatly needed for better diagnosis and development of treatment targets.
Ten ice-sheet models are used to study sensitivity of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to prescribed changes of surface mass balance, sub-ice-shelf melting and basal sliding. Results exhibit a large range in projected contributions to sea-level change. In most cases, the ice volume above flotation lost is linearly dependent on the strength of the forcing. Combinations of forcings can be closely approximated by linearly summing the contributions from single forcing experiments, suggesting that nonlinear feedbacks are modest. Our models indicate that Greenland is more sensitive than Antarctica to likely atmospheric changes in temperature and precipitation, while Antarctica is more sensitive to increased ice-shelf basal melting. An experiment approximating the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s RCP8.5 scenario produces additional first-century contributions to sea level of 22.3 and 8.1 cm from Greenland and Antarctica, respectively, with a range among models of 62 and 14 cm, respectively. By 200 years, projections increase to 53.2 and 26.7 cm, respectively, with ranges of 79 and 43 cm. Linear interpolation of the sensitivity results closely approximates these projections, revealing the relative contributions of the individual forcings on the combined volume change and suggesting that total ice-sheet response to complicated forcings over 200 years can be linearized.
The Schistosoma mansoni cercarial elastase (SmCE) has previously been shown to be poorly immunogenic in mice. However, a minority of mice were able to produce antibodies against SmCE after multiple immunizations with crude preparations containing the enzyme. These mice were partially protected against challenge infections of S. mansoni. In the present study, we show that in contrast to the poor immunogenicity of the enzymatically active native form of SmCE derived from a crude preparation (cercarial transformation fluid), immunization of CBA/Ca mice with two enzymatically inactive forms, namely purified native SmCE or a recombinant SmCE fused to recombinant Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase (rSmCE-SjGST), after adsorption onto aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, induced specific anti-SmCE immunoglobulin G (IgG) in all mice within 2 weeks of the second immunization. The IgG antibody response to rSmCE-SjGST was mainly of the IgG1 subclass. These results suggest that inactive forms of the antigen could be used to obtain the optimum immunogenic effects as a vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis. Mice immunized with the rSmCE-SjGST on alum had smaller mean worm burdens and lower tissue egg counts when compared with adjuvant alone- and recombinant SjGST-injected controls. The native SmCE was antigenically cross-reactive with homologous enzymes of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma margrebowiei.