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Many Neotropical species whose range is restricted to tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) are in danger of local or total extinction due to warming and drying as air warmed by climate change ascends these mountains. While the species richness of many arthropod higher taxa declines at high elevations, those species that do reside in TMCF are often highly specialised and endemic, rendering their natural history especially interesting. However, we know little about these TMCF arthropods. One genus of ants, Adelomyrmex Emery, 1897 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is characteristic of many TMCFs in Central America, and exemplifies this pattern. While workers of this genus are very common in leaf litter samples, winged males and winged queens have been unknown and nests have never been observed for most species. Here we report how a combination of affordable digital field microscopes and DNA barcoding has allowed nest discovery and documentation and linked male and worker Adelomyrmex. Based on this work, we have now learned that male Adelomyrmex can be quite abundant locally.
The objective of this work is to study defect occurrence and appearance in thick sublimation epitaxial layers grown on top of LPE layers with different thickness and substrates with reduced micropipe density. Data from growth on C-terminated surfaces are also presented. The results were analyzed with the aid of optical microscopy, SEM images, HRXRD and synchrotron white beam X-ray topography. A pronounced effect of the LPE (buffer) layer surface roughness on formation of dislocations and micropipes is observed in the sublimation epitaxy layers. While with increasing the thickness of the buffer layer the efficiency of the micropipe reduction increases, the structure quality of the top sublimation epilayer degrades. LPE layers with a thickness of 0.1 μm appear to be the best compromise.
An intrinsic defect spectrum, commonly observed after ion-implantation, electron, proton or neutron irradiation and even after SIMS measurements is investigated using photoluminescence techniques. The spectrum is associated with carbon related isoelec-tronic centers having a pseudodonor like behaviour. Vacancy-interstitial pair complexes are tentatively suggested as the defect centers responsible for this intrinsic spectrum.
We have observed electroluminescence from 4H-SiC Ni-Schottky diodes on 1015cm−3 nitrogen doped n-type epilayers. A high barrier Schottky contact will form an inversion layer close to it. This creates minority carriers that can be injected into the epi and recombine to emit light. The spectral composition and its temperature dependence have been investigated from liquid He temperatures to room temperature. Band edge luminescence, Al related luminescence and DI bound exciton have been observed. To study the electroluminescence from Schottky diodes provides an easy and additional technique for defect characterization of epitaxial layers.
We have investigated by x-ray diffraction defect structures in 6H-SiC after neutron irradiation with different fluences and followed by different annealing procedures. An interpretation along a model of Klimanek [1, 4–6] shows, that higher fluences lead to a stronger than linear reduction of the correlation length, whereas higher annealing temperatures correlate with a better recovery of the correlation length. In addition defects of 1st kind created by irradiation are reduced by annealing. We find that annealing changes the character of the defects and it accentuates a defect structure already present in the original samples.
Growth of very thick 4H-SiC epilayers up to 215 μm has been demonstrated in a vertical radiant-heating reactor. Surface roughness is maintained as small as ˜0.2 nm even for epilayers over 150 μm in thickness, and a regular step structure without macro step bunching is observed from the very thick epilayers indicating a stable step-flow growth. Photoluminescence and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were performed for a 150 μm-thick epilayer. The Photoluminescence showed strong free excitons and comparatively small nitrogen bound excitons, while aluminum-, boron- and titanium-related lines were almost negligible. The SIMS analysis found no impurities exceeding 1 × 1014 cm−3. The influence of growth parameters on thickness uniformity will also be shown.
We report ordinary <ε┴> and extra-ordinary <ε║> dielectric function data of 4H- and 6H-SiC from 0.7 to 9.0 eV. These data, which were obtained by with spectroscopic ellipsometry, are in good qualitative agreement with trends recently reported in ab initio calculations.
Thermodynamically stable, low specific contact resistance electrical contacts to SiC are essential to the application of such devices in high power or high temperature applications. However, thermal budgets impose processing constraints due to interfacial reactions and dopant profiles during device fabrication. Nickel disilicide (NiSi2) is useful for metallization of SiC, as stable contacts can be formed on SiC by reacting a fugitive layer of amorphous silicon (a-Si) with sputtered nickel at 300°C. NiSi2 forms directly upon reacting nickel with a-Si; this is not the case when nickel is reacted with crystalline silicon, where more nickel-rich silicides form first. Specific contact resistances as low as 5.6×10−5 Ωcm2 have been measured using NiSi2 circular TLM contacts so formed on APCVD 3C-SiC thin films deposited on a silicon wafer.
Pulsed laser direct deposit Ni2Si Ohmic contacts were successfully fabricated on n-SiC. The electrical, structural, compositional, and surface morphological properties were investigated as a function of heat treatments ranging from 700 °C to 950 °C. The as-deposited and 700 °C annealed samples were non-Ohmic. Annealing at 950 C° yielded excellent Ohmic behavior, an abrupt void free interface, and a smooth surface morphology. No residual carbon was present within the contact film or at the film-SiC interface and the contact showed no appreciable contact expansion as a result of the 950 °C annealing process. Results of this investigation demonstrate that 950 °C annealed pulse laser deposited Ni2Si-SiC contacts possess excellent electrical, interfacial, microstructural, and surface properties, which are required for reliable device operation.
Sublimation growth of 6H-SiC has been studied with respect to surface morphology, growth temperature, supersaturation and growth rate. Growth was performed on the C-terminated face of 6H seeds mainly and for comparison also the Si-terminated face was used. Step bunching is observed dependent on different parameters and is strongly influenced by the seed orientation. The growth rate of 4H on the C-face is found to be higher than the rate of 6H grown on the Siface.
Homoepitaxial films of 4H-SiC(1120) and 8° off-axis 4H-SiC(0001) have been grown and characterized. The number of domains and the range of full-width half-maxima values of the x-ray rocking curves of the -oriented wafers were smaller than the analogous values acquired from the (0001) materials. Hydrogen etching of the former surface for 5 and 30 minutes reduced the RMS roughness from 0.52 nm to 0.48 nm and to 0.28 nm, respectively; the RMS roughness for a 30 μm (1120) film was 0.52 nm. Micropipes in the substrates did not thread beyond the film-substrate interface. The separation distance between stacking faults was determined to be 10 μm by transmission electron microscopy. Hall mobilities and carrier concentrations of 12,200 cm2/Vs and 3.1×1014 cm−3 and 800 cm2/Vs and 7.4×1014 cm−3 were measured at 100°K and 300°K, respectively. Photoluminescence indicated high purity. 4H-SiC(1120) PiN devices exhibited average blocking voltages to 1344 V and a minimum average forward voltage drop of 3.94 V.
Reproducible growth of 4H-SiC with good crystalline quality has been obtained in a temperature interval around 2350°C and on 4H-SiC C-face seeds. It has been observed that morphological instability may appear at the initial stage of growth, causing formation of defects. Experimental evidence has been found that supersaturation and surface kinetics are responsible for the polytype stability, while growth front and growth mode address defect reduction. An explanation of the findings has been suggested. It has been shown that starting the growth with a relatively low growth rate ( ≈ 100 μm/h ) can be beneficial for the crystal quality.
As agriculture contributes about 0·08 of Canada's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, reducing agricultural emissions would significantly decrease total Canadian GHG output. Evaluating mitigation practices is not always easy because of the complexity of farming systems in which one change may affect many processes and associated emissions. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of selected management practices on net whole-farm emissions, expressed in CO2 equivalents (CO2e) from a beef production system, as estimated for hypothetical farms at four disparate locations in western Canada. Whole-farm emissions (t CO2e) per unit of protein output (t) of 11 management systems (Table 2) were compared for each farm using a model based, in part, on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) equations. Compared with the baseline management scenario, maintaining cattle on alfalfa-grass pastures showed the largest decrease (0·53–1·08 t CO2e/t protein) in emissions for all locations. Feeding lower quality forage over winter showed the greatest increase in emissions per unit protein on the southern Alberta (S.AB) and northern Alberta (N.AB) farms, with increases of 1·36 and 2·22 t CO2e/t protein, respectively. Eliminating the fertilization of forages resulted in the largest increase (4·20 t CO2e/t protein) in emissions per unit protein on the Saskatchewan (SK) farm, while reducing the fertilizer rate by half for all crops showed the largest increase (11·40 t CO2e/t protein) on the Manitoba (MB) farm. The findings, while approximate, illustrate the importance of considering all GHGs simultaneously, and show that practices which best reduce emissions may vary among locations. The findings also suggest merit in comparing emissions on the basis of CO2e per unit of protein exported off-farm, rather than on the basis of total CO2e or CO2e per hectare.
Managing crop fertilization may be an important component of integrated weed management systems that protect crop yield and reduce weed populations over time. A field study was conducted to determine the effects of various timings and application methods of nitrogen (N) fertilizer on weed growth and spring wheat yield. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied the previous fall (October) or at planting (May) at a dose of 50 kg ha−1. Nitrogen application treatments consisted of granular ammonium nitrate applied broadcast on the soil surface, banded 10 cm deep between every crop row, banded 10 cm deep between every second crop row, or point-injected liquid ammonium nitrate placed between every second crop row at 20-cm intervals and 10 cm deep. Treatments were applied in 4 consecutive yr to determine annual and cumulative effects over years. Density and biomass of wild oat, green foxtail, wild mustard, and common lambsquarters were sometimes lower with spring- than with fall-applied N. Spring wheat yield was never lower and was higher in 50% of the cases, when N was spring rather than fall applied. Nitrogen application method generally had larger and more consistent effects than application timing on weed growth and wheat yield. Shoot N concentration and biomass of weeds were often lower with subsurface banded or point-injected N than with surface broadcast N, and concurrent increases in spring wheat yield usually occurred with these N placement treatments. Depending on the weed species, the weed seedbank at the conclusion of the 4-yr study was reduced by 25 to 63% with point-injected compared with broadcast N. Information gained in this study will contribute to the development of more integrated and cost-effective weed management programs in wheat.
Information on weed responses to soil fertility levels is needed to aid development of fertilizer management strategies as components of integrated weed management programs. A controlled environment study was conducted to determine shoot and root growth response of 22 agricultural weeds to fertilizer phosphorus (P) applied at 5, 10, 20, 40, or 60 mg kg−1 soil. An unfertilized control was included. Wheat and canola were included as control species. Shoot and root growth of all weeds increased with added P, but the magnitude of the response varied greatly among species. Many weeds exhibited similar or greater responses in shoot and root biomass to increasing amounts of soil P compared with wheat or canola. With increasing amounts of P, 17 weed species increased shoot biomass more than wheat, and 19 weed species increased shoot biomass more than canola. However, only 10 weed species exhibited greater increases in root biomass than canola, and no weed species increased root biomass more than wheat with added P. Canola was among species taking up the greatest percentage of available P at all P doses. However, percentage P uptake by wheat relative to other species varied with P dose. Only four weed species extracted more P than wheat at low P levels, but 17 weed species extracted more P at high soil P levels. These findings have significant implications as to how soil fertility may influence crop–weed competition.