To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Flow over aligned and staggered cube arrays is a classic model problem for rough-wall turbulent boundary layers. Earlier studies of this model problem mainly looked at rough surfaces with a moderate coverage density, i.e.
is the surface coverage density and is defined to be the ratio between the area occupied by the roughness and the total ground area. At lower surface coverage densities, i.e.
, it is conventionally thought that cubical roughness acts like isolated roughness elements; and that the single-cube drag coefficient, i.e.
is the drag force on one cubical roughness element,
is the fluid density,
is the height of the cube,
is the spatially and temporally averaged wind speed at the cube height, and
is the drag coefficient of an isolated cube. In this work, we conduct large-eddy simulations and direct numerical simulations of flow over wall-mounted cubes with very low surface coverage densities, i.e.
. The large-eddy simulations are at nominally infinite Reynolds numbers. The results challenge the conventional thinking, and we show that, at very low surface coverage densities, the single-cube drag coefficient may increase as a function of
. Our analysis suggests that this behaviour may be attributed to secondary turbulent flows. Secondary turbulent flows are often found above spanwise-heterogeneous roughness. Although the roughness considered in this work is nominally homogeneous, the secondary flows in our simulations are very similar to those observed above spanwise-heterogeneous surface roughness. These secondary vortices redistribute the fluid momentum in the outer layer, leading to high-momentum pathways above the wall-mounted cubes and low-momentum pathways at the two sides of the wall-mounted cubes. As a result, the spatially and temporally averaged wind speed at the cube height, i.e.
, is an underestimate of the incoming flow to the cubes, which in turn leads to a large drag coefficient
Chitinase is responsible for insect chitin hydrolyzation, which is a key process in insect molting and pupation. However, little is known about the chitinase of Spodoptera exigua (SeChi). In this study, based on the SeChi gene (ADI24346) identified in our laboratory, we constructed the recombinant baculovirus P-Chi for the expression of recombinant SeChi (rSeChi) in Hi5 cells. The rSeChi was purified by chelate affinity chromatography, and the purified protein showed activity comparable with that of a commercial SgChi, suggesting that we harvested active SeChi for the first time. The purified protein was subsequently tested for enzymatic properties and revealed to exhibit its highest activity at pH 8 and 40 C. Using homology modeling and molecular docking techniques, the three-dimensional model of SeChi was constructed and screened for inhibitors. In two rounds of screening, twenty compounds were selected. With the purified rSeChi, we tested each of the twenty compounds for inhibitor activity against rSeChi, and seven compounds showed obvious activity. This study provided new information for the chitinase of beet armyworm and for chitinase inhibitor development.
Co-receptor tropism has been identified to correlate with HIV-1 transmission and the disease progression in patients. A molecular epidemiology investigation of co-receptor tropism is important for clinical practice and effective control of HIV-1. In this study, we investigated the co-receptor tropism on HIV-1 variants of 85 antiretroviral-naive patients with Geno2pheno algorithm at a false-positive rate of 10%. Our data showed that a majority of the subjects harboured the CCR5-tropic virus (81.2%, 69/85). No significant differences in gender, age, baseline CD4+ T-cell counts and transmission routes were observed between subjects infected with CXCR4-tropic or CCR5-tropic virus. The co-receptor tropism appeared to be associated with the virus genotype; a significantly more CXCR4-use was predicted in CRF01_AE infections whereas all CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC were predicted to use CCR5 co-receptor. Sequences analysis of V3 revealed a higher median net charge in the CXCR4 viruses over CCR5 viruses (4.0 vs. 3.0, P < 0.05). The predicted N-linked glycosylation site between amino acids 6 and 8 in the V3 region was conserved in CCR5 viruses, but not in CXCR4 viruses. Besides, variable crown motifs were observed in both CCR5 and CXCR4 viruses, of which the most prevalent motif GPGQ existed in both viral tropism and almost all genotypes identified in this study except subtype B. These findings may offer important implications for clinical practice and enhance our understanding of HIV-1 biology.
Background: Intracranial aneurysms are relatively common and often incidentally detected. Elective treatment may eliminate the risk of future hemorrhage, but carries risks of permanent deficit or death. Case-control studies have suggested factors predisposing to aneurysm rupture as well as risks of elective aneurysm repair. A clinical tool was recently developed to weigh benefits of repair against treatment risks. We evaluate its performance against real-world clinical decisions made by a cerebrovascular multidisciplinary team (MDT). Methods: Chart review of all patients with unruptured intracranial berry aneurysms (UIA) discussed at cerebrovascular MDT rounds 2008-2015. Management decisions and clinical outcomes were recorded. The Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysm Treatment Score (UIATS) was calculated for each patient (each aneurysm in the case of multiple UIA). Results: We identified 240 patients with a total of 279 aneurysms. UIATS recommended aneurysm repair in 79 cases, conservative management in 88 cases, and was equivocal in 112 cases. Where the UIATS gave a clear decision, that decision was concordant with the MDT decision in 119/167 cases (71%). Discordant decisions often related to the presence of comorbidities. Clinical outcomes did not differ in cases where the recommendations were clearly concordant vs. discordant. Conclusions: The UIATS may provide guidance to non-expert clinicians. It did not outperform the MDT.
Over the past 8 years, human enteroviruses (HEVs) have caused 27 227 cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Xiamen, including 99 severe cases and six deaths. We aimed to explore the molecular epidemiology of HFMD in Xiamen to inform the development of diagnostic assays, vaccines and other interventions. From January 2009 to September 2015, 5866 samples from sentinel hospitals were tested using nested reverse transcription PCR that targeted the HEV 5′ untranslated region and viral protein 1 region. Of these samples, 4290 were tested positive for HEV and the amplicons were sequenced and genotyped. Twenty-two genotypes were identified. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses A16, A6 and A10 (CA16, CA6 and CA10) were the most common genotypes, and there were no changes in the predominant lineages of these genotypes. EV71 became the most predominant genotype every 2 years. From 2013, CA6 replaced CA16 as one of the two most common genotypes. The results demonstrate the vast diversity of HFMD pathogens, and that minor genotypes are able to replace major genotypes. We recommend carrying-out long-term monitoring of the full spectrum of HFMD pathogens, which could facilitate epidemic prediction and the development of diagnostic assays and vaccines.
The pressure oscillation and terminal shock motion in a two dimensional inlet, which was designed for tandem configuration turbine-based combined cycle propulsion systems was investigated experimentally and numerically, respectively. The inlet was characterised by a bleed cavity upstream the inlet throat, an S-shape rectangular-to-circular diffuser and flowpaths for a turbine and a ramjet engine. The terminal shock motion was calculated through a second-order unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes scheme. The pressure and the terminal shock were unsteady when the combined cycle inlet operated at different conditions. With the terminal shock located in the throat and at the shoulder of the third ramp of the TBCC inlet, the pressure oscillation was significant and the shock exhibited unsteady streamwise motion with an oscillatory pattern. The amplitude of shock oscillation at these two conditions was 6mm and 12mm, respectively. When the shock was located downstream of the throat and upstream of the cowl lip, it oscillated in a small range. We defined this motion as the “shake” of the shock. This unsteady behaviour of the shock was caused by flow separation in the combined cycle inlet diffuser.
Human infection with the emerging avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China in 2013 has raised global concerns. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of 27 confirmed human influenza A(H7N9) cases in Jiangsu Province, to elaborate poultry-related exposures and to provide a more precise estimate of the incubation periods of the illness. The median incubation period was 6 days (range 2–10 days) in cases with single known exposure and was 7·5 days (range 6·5–12·5 days) in cases with exposures on multiple days, difference between the two groups was not significant (Z = −1·895, P = 0·058). The overall median incubation period for all patients was estimated to be 7·5 days (range 2–12·5 days). Our findings further highlight the necessity for public health authorities to extend the period of medical surveillance from 7 days to 10 days.
A series of Ce3+ doped Ca8La2(PO4)6O2 phosphors with tunable emission were successfully synthesized by traditional solid state reaction. The crystal structure and photoluminescence properties were studied through X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra. The results indicated that Ca8La2(PO4)6O2:Ce3+ exhibited color-tunable emission due to the 5d-4f transitions of Ce3+ ions under different wavelength excitation. The optimal doping content of Ce3+ ions in Ca8La2(PO4)6O2 was found to be 5 mol%. The site-selective photoluminescence property and the reason for red-shift of the emission band along with Ce3+ content and the excitation wavelength were also studied in detail.
Mass transfer is very common in binary evolution and it dominates the evolutionary fate of binaries. Two crucial problems i.e. dynamical mass transfer and common envelope evolution, are not well understood yet. Here we focus on the first problem, and systematically show the critical mass ratio for dynamical mass transfer when the donor stars are still on the main sequence (MS).
Strabismus represents a complex oculomotor disorder characterized by the deviation of one or both eyes and poor vision. A more sophisticated understanding of the genetic liability of strabismus is required to guide searches for associated molecular variants. In this classical twin study of 1,462 twin pairs, we examined the relative influence of genes and environment in comitant strabismus, and the degree to which these influences can be explained by factors in common with refractive error. Participants were examined for the presence of latent (‘phoria’) and manifest (‘tropia’) strabismus using cover–uncover and alternate cover tests. Two phenotypes were distinguished: eso-deviation (esophoria and esotropia) and exo-deviation (exophoria and exotropia). Structural equation modeling was subsequently employed to partition the observed phenotypic variation in the twin data into specific variance components. The prevalence of eso-deviation and exo-deviation was 8.6% and 20.7%, respectively. For eso-deviation, the polychoric correlation was significantly greater in monozygotic (MZ) (r = 0.65) compared to dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (r = 0.33), suggesting a genetic role (p = .003). There was no significant difference in polychoric correlation between MZ (r = 0.55) and DZ twin pairs (r = 0.53) for exo-deviation (p = .86), implying that genetic factors do not play a significant role in the etiology of exo-deviation. The heritability of an eso-deviation was 0.64 (95% CI 0.50–0.75). The additive genetic correlation for eso-deviation and refractive error was 0.13 and the bivariate heritability (i.e., shared variance) was less than 1%, suggesting negligible shared genetic effect. This study documents a substantial heritability of 64% for eso-deviation, yet no corresponding heritability for exo-deviation, suggesting that the genetic contribution to strabismus may be specific to eso-deviation. Future studies are now needed to identify the genes associated with eso-deviation and unravel their mechanisms of action.
Energetic divergent proton beams can be generated in the interaction of ultra-intense laser pulses with solid-density foil targets via target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). In this paper, a scheme using a capillary to reduce the proton beam divergence is proposed. By two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, it is shown that strong transverse electric and magnetic fields rapidly grow at the inner surface of the capillary when the laser-driven hot electrons propagate through the target and into the capillary. The spontaneous magnetic field collimates the electron flow, and the ions dragged from the capillary wall by hot electrons neutralize the negative charge and thus restrain the transverse extension of the sheath field set up by electrons. The proton beam divergence, which is mainly determined by the accelerating sheath field, is therefore reduced by the transverse limitation of the sheath field in the capillary.
For the gate last approach of a high K metal gate scheme used in advanced CMOS technology, various materials were tested as wetting layers to allow Aluminum (Al) gap fill at gate widths of10 to 45 nanometers. In this study, Titanium (Ti) and Cobalt (Co) were investigated as a wetting layer for Al gap fill. It was discovered that Al-Ti and Al-Co alloys were formed during high temperature Al deposition. Alloys were characterized using XRD. Alloy’s impacts on line resistivity and subsequent Al Chemical Mechanical Polish (Al CMP) were also investigated. In addition, a model was established to predict the alloy type and alloy mole% with respect to feature size. The predicted Al mole% by this model correlated very well with 1) line resistivity trend and 2) morphologies. The model also predicted that due to Al lower electro-chemical potential than Ti, Co or its alloys, galvanic corrosion could take place depending on the chemical environment in the Al CMP slurry. Different slurry or cleaning chemical may reduce or increase the risk of galvanic corrosion. The knowledge gained with the help of the model provides clear directions on selection criteria for wetting layers, optimization for deposition processes and Al CMP consumable design to meet the challenges.
A discrete subaortic membrane cannot only cause left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, but can grow onto the aortic valve leaflets. The late finding of this encroachment is aortic valve insufficiency or stenosis. Echocardiography is used to follow the progression of outflow tract obstruction, but its ability to show subaortic membrane encroachment onto the aortic valve is unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of echocardiography for diagnosing whether a discrete subaortic membrane involves the aortic valve.
A pre-operative determination of aortic valve involvement by a discrete subaortic membrane was obtained by review of the official pre-operative echocardiogram reading and a retrospective blinded review of the pre-operative echocardiogram by an independent echocardiographer. These findings were compared to the intra-operative findings.
A total of 48 consecutive patients underwent primary resection for isolated discrete subaortic membrane between October, 1995 and May, 2006. The pre-operative and blinded readings both predicted a statistically lower rate of aortic valve involvement – 35% in 11 of 31 patients and 31% in 10 of 31 patients, respectively – than found at surgery – 65% in 31 of 48 patients. The sensitivity and specificity of pre-operative echocardiography to diagnose aortic valve involvement is 35% and 76%. Overall survival was 100%. There were no strokes, re-operations for bleeding or wound infections, or need for a pacemaker.
Echocardiography is not sensitive in assessing whether a discrete subaortic membrane involves the aortic valve. Since the morbidity and mortality for discrete subaortic membrane resection is negligible, resection may be indicated at the time of diagnosis to minimise aortic valve impairment.
The influence of prior cold deformation on precipitating of alpha phase as well as the variation of hardness during aging has been investigated in solution-treated Ti-10Mo-8V-1Fe-3.5Al alloys. The results show that alpha phase precipitation could be obviously accelerated by the prior cold deformation. In the predeformed samples, a network pattern structure was observed with an optical microscope after aging treatment. It could be attributed to the phenomenon that the plate-shape alpha precipitates prefer to nucleate and grow in the regions with a high density of dislocations, especially inside slip bands. The hardness of both the predeformed and undeformed TB3 specimens after different aging times was measured and further predicted by a proposed strengthening model based on the grain refinement mechanism of the beta phase. The predicted results are consistent with the experimental results, especially in the later aging stages.
We have carried out measurements of electromigration-induced strains in copper conductor lines using microbeam energy dispersive x-ray diffraction. Strains developed in random texture damascene Cu 2μm-wide, 0.16 μm-thick conductor lines with TaN liners in low-k dielectric during electromigration at 350°C are much smaller than electromigration-induced strains in (111) fiber texture Al-on-Si, 10μm-wide, SiO2 passivated conductor lines. The reasons for these differences in electromigration behavior may involve the different roles of grain boundary and interface diffusion paths and the different passivation structures and materials for the two types of samples.
ZnO films with orientations of (001), (110), and (100) were fabricated on silicon by different substrate biases at low temperature. Dynamic cathodoluminescence (CL) dependence on electron bombardment revealed unstable Zn-N bonding if N2 was used as a predecessor. CL under various accelerated voltages showed the possible energies of Zn-N. N-related photoluminescence (PL) at low temperature confirmed that nitrogen was released after annealing. These N-doping behaviors agreed to the theoretical calculation.
We present a detailed photoluminescence study of a (6, 5) enriched DNA-wrapped single wall carbon nanotube (DNA-CNT) solid sample and an as-produced DNA-CNT solution. Multiple strong PL peaks were observed at excitation energies that do not correspond to the interband electronic transitions that are strongly enhanced by electronic van Hove singularities. These strong PL peaks are assigned to different mechanisms of excitation and relaxation, including one phonon, two phonon, hot luminescence processes, as well as radiative and non-radiative energy transferring mechanisms between neighboring nanotubes. These processes are assigned to different channels of phonon-assisted electron relaxation. The study shows that the electronic relaxation processes observed in PL can be used as a means to probe different physical interactions between photons, electrons, and phonons that are not separately identified in bulk semiconducting materials.