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The mechanical properties of thin-walled plate with close-packed film cooling holes are studied based on the equivalent solid material concept. The equivalent principals of the method of equivalent strain energy, homogenization theory and uniform static deformation are considered. A simplification method of square penetration pattern for pitch and diagonal direction loading is presented. The goodness of fit is calculated to determine the optimal method. The tensile deformation, bending deflection, rotation displacement and maximum Mises equivalent stress of simplification plate models are in good agreement with plate models with close-packed film cooling holes. For square penetration pattern for pitch direction loading, the equivalent errors of Mises equivalent stress are all less than 10% when the ligament efficiency is more than 0.6.
Poisson-like behavior for event count data is ubiquitous in nature. At the same time, differencing of such counts arises in the course of data processing in a variety of areas of application. As a result, the Skellam distribution – defined as the distribution of the difference of two independent Poisson random variables – is a natural candidate for approximating the difference of Poisson-like event counts. However, in many contexts strict independence, whether between counts or among events within counts, is not a tenable assumption. Here we characterize the accuracy in approximating the difference of Poisson-like counts by a Skellam random variable. Our results fully generalize existing, more limited, results in this direction and, at the same time, our derivations are significantly more concise and elegant. We illustrate the potential impact of these results in the context of problems from network analysis and image processing, where various forms of weak dependence can be expected.
Arthropod communities in the tropics are increasingly impacted by rapid changes in land use. Because species showing distinct seasonal patterns of activity are thought to be at higher risk of climate-related extirpation, global warming is generally considered a lower threat to arthropod biodiversity in the tropics than in temperate regions. To examine changes associated with land use and weather variables in tropical arthropod communities, we deployed Malaise traps at three major anthropogenic forests (secondary reserve forest, oil palm forest, and urban ornamental forest (UOF)) in Peninsular Malaysia and collected arthropods continuously for 12 months. We used metabarcoding protocols to characterize the diversity within weekly samples. We found that changes in the composition of arthropod communities were significantly associated with maximum temperature in all the three forests, but shifts were reversed in the UOF compared with the other forests. This suggests arthropods in forests in Peninsular Malaysia face a double threat: community shifts and biodiversity loss due to exploitation and disturbance of forests which consequently put species at further risk related to global warming. We highlight the positive feedback mechanism of land use and temperature, which pose threats to the arthropod communities and further implicates ecosystem functioning and human well-being. Consequently, conservation and mitigation plans are urgently needed.
Recent observations on strength and deformation of small metals containing microstructures, including dislocation patterns, grain boundaries, and second-phase precipitates are reviewed. These microstructures impose an internal length scale that may interplay with the extrinsic length scale due to the specimen size to affect strength and deformation in an intricate manner. For micro-crystals containing pre-existing dislocations, Taylor work-hardening may dictate the dependence of strength on specimen size. The presence of grain boundaries in a small specimen may lead to effects far from the conventional Hall–Petch behavior. Precipitate–dislocation interactions in a small specimen may lead to an interesting weakest-size behavior.
Lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) may have a potential to enhance the productivity of agroecosystems in dry areas where water and nutrients are limited. This study quantified soil water, residual soil nitrogen (N), and crop yields in lentil-based systems in comparison with continuous cereal and conventional summerfallow systems. A 3-yr cropping sequence study was conducted for three cycles in Saskatchewan (50.28°N, 107.79°W) from 2007 to 2011. On average, soil retained 187, 196 and 337 mm of water in the 0–1.2 m depth at crop harvest in 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. Summerfallow contained the same amounts of water as the cropped treatments at the harvest in 2009 and 2010. However, in 2008, summerfallow contained more soil water than the cropped treatments. The effect of lentil cultivar on soil water conservation varied with years; the cultivars Glamis, Laird and Sedley conserved highest amounts of soil water by the planting time of 2009 and 2010, but no differences were found among cultivars in 2011. Soil available N (NO3− + NH4+) at spring planting time was 50.4 kg ha−1 in the preceding lentil treatments, which was 44% higher compared with preceding barley or flax, but was 25% lower compared with preceding summerfallow. Lentil cultivars had a similar amount of soil residual N. Grain production in the 3-yr rotation averaged 6.3 t ha−1 per rotation for the wheat–lentil–durum system and 6.8 t ha−1 for the wheat–cereal–durum monoculture, averaging 36% greater compared with wheat–summerfallow–durum system. The lentil system increased total grain production through the access of residual soil water and biologically fixed N, whereas continuous cereal system relies on inorganic fertilizer input for yield. Summerfallow system relies on ‘mining’ the soil for nutrients. We conclude that the adoption of lentil systems will enhance grain production through the use of residual soil water and available N.
We have simulated numerically the hydrodynamic cooling process after the maximum phase of a solar flare with improvements on the chromospheric radiative loss and the resolution of the transition region, together with the introduction of the mechanism of chromospheric heating by coronal soft X-rays. The main results are as follows:
1.At the early stage of the gradual phase, thermal conduction maintains chromospheric evaporation, but with the cooling of the atmosphere, chromosphere evaporation decreases gradually.
2.In most of the gradual phase, the velocity is smaller than 40km s−1 in the corona and 4km s−1 in the chromosphere.
3.From the middle stage of the gradual phase, the coronal atmosphere appears to have a quasi-periodic oscillation. The period is about two minutes, and the amplitude of velocity is within ±20km s−1.
4.The transition region continues to move downward at first and then changes very slowly for quite a long time. The upward motion of the transition region takes place only at the latest stage, when the atmosphere cools below the quiet-Sun case.
5.In contrast to the changes of temperature, the density of the corona does not seem to vary until the violent descent of coronal material takes place at the end of the gradual phase.
6.The coronal part cools mainly by thermal conduction, while the chromospheric part cools by radiative loss. With our initial model, it takes about 25 minutes for cooling from the maximum phase to nearly the quiet-Sun case.
7.The soft X-ray heating of the chromosphere seems to be of negligible importance in our calculations, but if the coronal density is greater than 1011 cm−3 at the maximum phase of the flare, the soft X-ray heating may play some role in the gradual phase.
8.At the latest stage of the gradual phase, the atmosphere remains dense and at low temperature. As a further consequence, it would evolve into a post-flare loop.
Metabarcoding, the coupling of DNA-based species identification and high-throughput sequencing, offers enormous promise for arthropod biodiversity studies but factors such as cost, speed and ease-of-use of bioinformatic pipelines, crucial for making the leapt from demonstration studies to a real-world application, have not yet been adequately addressed. Here, four published and one newly designed primer sets were tested across a diverse set of 80 arthropod species, representing 11 orders, to establish optimal protocols for Illumina-based metabarcoding of tropical Malaise trap samples. Two primer sets which showed the highest amplification success with individual specimen polymerase chain reaction (PCR, 98%) were used for bulk PCR and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The sequencing outputs were subjected to both manual and simple metagenomics quality control and filtering pipelines. We obtained acceptable detection rates after bulk PCR and high-throughput sequencing (80–90% of input species) but analyses were complicated by putative heteroplasmic sequences and contamination. The manual pipeline produced similar or better outputs to the simple metagenomics pipeline (1.4 compared with 0.5 expected:unexpected Operational Taxonomic Units). Our study suggests that metabarcoding is slowly becoming as cheap, fast and easy as conventional DNA barcoding, and that Malaise trap metabarcoding may soon fulfill its potential, providing a thermometer for biodiversity.
Telomere attrition might be one of the mechanisms through which psychosocial stress leads to somatic disease. To date it is unknown if exposure to adverse life events in adulthood is associated with telomere shortening prospectively. In the current study we investigated whether life events are associated with shortening of telomere length (TL).
Participants were 1094 adults (mean age 53.1, range 33–79 years) from the PREVEND cohort. Data were collected at baseline (T1) and at two follow-up visits after 4 years (T2) and 6 years (T3). Life events were assessed with an adjusted version of the List of Threatening Events (LTE). TL was measured by monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR at T1, T2, and T3. A linear mixed model was used to assess the effect of recent life events on TL prospectively. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to assess whether the lifetime life events score or the score of life events experienced before the age of 12 predicted TL cross-sectionally. All final models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, presence of chronic diseases, frequency of sports, smoking status, and level of education.
Recent life events significantly predicted telomere attrition prospectively (B = −0.031, p = 0.007). We were not able to demonstrate a significant cross-sectional relationship between the lifetime LTE score and TL. Nor did we find exposure to adverse life events before the age of 12 to be associated with TL in adulthood.
Exposure to recent adverse life events in adulthood is associated with telomere attrition prospectively.
CuxO thin films have been deposited on a quartz substrate by reactive radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering at different target powers Pt (140-190 W) while keeping other growth process parameters fixed. Room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements indicate considerable improvement of crystallinity for the films deposited at Pt>170 W, with most pronounced excitonic features being observed in the film grown using Pt=190 W. These results corroborate well with the surface morphology of the films, which was found more flat, smooth and homogeneous for Pt >170 W films in comparison with those deposited at lower powers.
The relationship between recurrent major depression (MD) in women and suicidality is complex. We investigated the extent to which patients who suffered with various forms of suicidal symptomatology can be distinguished from those subjects without such symptoms.
We examined the clinical features of the worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV MD between the ages of 30 and 60 years from across China. Student's t tests, and logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between suicidality and other clinical features of MD.
Suicidal symptomatology is significantly associated with a more severe form of MD, as indexed by both the number of episodes and number of MD symptoms. Patients reporting suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts experienced a significantly greater number of stressful life events. The depressive symptom most strongly associated with lifetime suicide attempt was feelings of worthlessness (odds ratio 4.25, 95% confidence interval 2.9–6.3). Excessive guilt, diminished concentration and impaired decision-making were also significantly associated with a suicide attempt.
This study contributes to the existing literature on risk factors for suicidal symptomatology in depressed women. Identifying specific depressive symptoms and co-morbid psychiatric disorders may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients. These findings could be helpful in identifying those who need more intense treatment strategies in order to prevent suicide.
Studies in Western countries have repeatedly shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in China?
Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression and regression coefficients by linear or Poisson regression.
Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD [OR 3.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95–5.45]. This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.17–5.23), genital (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.32–5.83) and intercourse (OR 13.35, 95% CI 1.83–97.42). The association between any form of CSA and MD remained significant after accounting for parental history of depression, childhood emotional neglect (CEN), childhood physical abuse (CPA) and parent–child relationship. Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes and an increased risk for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.39–2.66) and dysthymia (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.52–3.09).
In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes and increased co-morbidity with GAD and dysthymia. Although reporting biases cannot be ruled out, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that, as in Western countries, CSA substantially increases the risk for MD in China.
The objective of this work is to investigate the addition of misfit elements in both size and mass on the evolution of irradiated microstructure in 316 SS. Alloys were modified by the addition of Pt and Hf to suppress the radiation damage. Pt and Hf were added as a lattice perturbation to catalyze defect recombination within the early stage of cascade formation and defect migration. Irradiations were conducted with 5 MeV Ni-ions at 500 °C to doses up to 50 dpa or with 3.2 MeV protons at 400 °C. Microstructures were characterized using transmission electron microscopy. While no beneficial effect was seen for Pt addition, Hf appears to effectively alter the microstructural response to irradiation.
The median-times-to-failure (t50's) for straight
dual-damascene via-terminated copper interconnect structures, tested under
the same conditions, depend on whether the vias connect down to underlaying
leads (metal 2, M2, or via-below structures) or connect up to overlaying
leads (metal 1, M1, or via-above structures). Experimental results for a
variety of line lengths, widths, and numbers of vias show higher t50's for
M2 structures than for analogous M1 structures. It has been shown that
despite this asymmetry in lifetimes, the electromigration drift velocity is
the same for these two types of structures, suggesting that fatal void
volumes are different in these two cases. A numerical simulation tool based
on the Korhonen model has been developed and used to simulate the conditions
for void growth and correlate fatal void sizes with lifetimes. These
simulations suggest that the average fatal void size for M2 structures is
more than twice the size of that of M1 structures. This result supports an
earlier suggestion that preferential nucleation at the
Cu/Si3N4 interface in both M1 and M2 structures
leads to different fatal void sizes, because larger voids are required to
span the line thickness in M2 structures while smaller voids below the base
of vias can cause failures in M1 structures. However, it is also found that
the fatal void sizes corresponding to the shortest-times-to-failure (STTF's)
are similar for M1 and M2, suggesting that the voids that lead to the
shortest lifetimes occur at or in the vias in both cases, where a void need
only span the via to cause failure. Correlation of lifetimes and critical
void volumes provides a useful tool for distinguishing failure