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Filamentary structures can form within the beam of protons accelerated during the interaction of an intense laser pulse with an ultrathin foil target. Such behaviour is shown to be dependent upon the formation time of quasi-static magnetic field structures throughout the target volume and the extent of the rear surface proton expansion over the same period. This is observed via both numerical and experimental investigations. By controlling the intensity profile of the laser drive, via the use of two temporally separated pulses, both the initial rear surface proton expansion and magnetic field formation time can be varied, resulting in modification to the degree of filamentary structure present within the laser-driven proton beam.
The Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment (SHEVE) program is aimed at producing high-resolution images of southern radio sources. The radio telescopes of the present SHEVE array are described below and some recent results presented.
The data contained in this report have been taken from two sources: (1) Information received from astronomers active in the field of Commission 37 in response to a circular letter mailed July 1969; (2) Surveys of special fields, prepared by W. Becker on “Open star clusters and spiral structure”, by G. Larsson-Leander on “Clusters and stellar evolution”, by M. Walker on “Young clusters’, and by P. -B. Bouvier on “Dynamical models and numerical computations’. It is a pleasure to thank them and all of those who have contributed to the preparation of this report.
G. Alter reports that after a long delay the second edition of the Catalogue of Star Clusters and Associations. (G. Alter, J. Ruprecht, V. Vanýsek), which was discussed at a meeting of our commission at the Congress in Hamburg (1964) (Trans, IAU, 12B, 1966, 336), will now be published by Publishing House of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. It is considerably enlarged, since it includes the contents of the annual Supplements published in B.A.C. between 1959 and 1967.
PKS 1934–638 is an archetypal GPS source, peaking at 1.4 GHz and exhibits almost no flux density variability. VLBI images at frequencies of .843, 2.3, 4.8, & 8.4 were made with the southern hemisphere VLBI array and they reveal that the source is a 42 mas compact double. There is no detectable change in separation over the last 20 years, yielding an upper limit of ~ 0.03c ± 0.2c on any expansion velocity. The spectral shapes of the two components are remarkably similar, despite indications of finer structure on longer baselines. Magnetic field calculations indicate fields of a few mGauss and the results are consistent with equipartition.
From the combination of VLBI phase-referenced observations and Hipparcos satellite data, we have found evidence of a low-mass object orbiting the late-type star AB Doradus. The mass of the new object is near the hydrogen burning limit and will constitute a precise point for calibrating the low end of the main sequence. This represents the first detection of a low-mass stellar companion using the VLBI technique, which could become an important tool in future searches for planets and brown dwarfs orbiting other stars.
We present a model for dislocation array image effects during epilayer island growth. Misfit dislocations often appear at an interface between phases, to accommodate a lattice mismatch. In many situations, such as early film growth, one of the phases may be discontinuous, leaving the interface region clearly bounded. The structure of such a finite interface differs from the normally-modeled infinite boundary because of end effects near the edges of the islands. We have modeled the dislocation structure of such a finite interface in MBE-grown InAs islands on GaP, and compare our results to high-resolution images of the same structure. The 11% misfit causes dislocation introduction from the outset of growth. Islands containing between 4 and 14 dislocations were examined, and dislocation spacings were found to be enlarged near the island perimeters. The model provides a clear understanding of this and other effects.
We have measured the transient events of the α-β martensitic transformation in nanocrystalline Ti films via single shot electron diffraction patterns with 1.5 ns temporal resolution. This was accomplished with a newly constructed dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM), which combines pulsed laser systems and pump-probe techniques with a conventional TEM. The DTEM thereby enables studies of transformations that are (1) far too fast to be captured by conventional bulk techniques, and (2) difficult to study with current ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) instruments (which typically require an accumulation of multiple shots for each diffraction pattern). Martensitic transformations in nanocrystalline materials meet both criteria, with their rapid nucleation, characteristic interface velocities ∼1 km/s, and significant irreversible microstructural changes. Free-standing 40-nm-thick Ti films were laser-heated at a rate of ∼1010 K/s to a temperature above the 1155 K transition point, then probed at various time intervals with a 1.5-ns-long intense electron pulse. Diffraction patterns show an almost complete transition to the β phase within 500 ns. Post-mortem analysis (after the sample is allowed to cool) shows a reversion to the α phase coupled with substantial grain growth, lath formation, and texture modification. The cooled material also shows a complete lack of apparent dislocations, suggesting the possible importance of a "massive" short-range diffusion mechanism.
We describe the results of an investigation into the formation and properties of dislocations in electronic devices. We have made electron transparent specimens from metastable GeSi/Si p-n junction diodes and introduced dislocations into the devices by heating in situ in the electron microscope. A modification made on the specimen holder for our microscope enables us to measure the characteristics of these devices while they remain under observation in the microscope. We can therefore observe the changes in the electrical properties of the devices as dislocations form. We confirm that the introduction of dislocations has a deleterious effect on parameters such as the reverse leakage current through a diode. However the magnitude of the effect we observe can not be explained by a generation-recombination process and instead we suggest a model based on the creation of point defects or the diffusion of metals during the formation of dislocations. We also consider the kinetics of dislocation formation, and in particular how the extent of dislocation formation in a device depends on the subsequent processing steps which it undergoes.
We report on the epitaxial growth of superconducting molybdenum films on sapphire substrates. These films are to be etched into arrays of isolated cylinders, each 1–5μm in diameter. When placed in a magnetic field and biased at 0.95 Tc(H), the flux movement associated with their bolometric response to the energy deposited when radiation is absorbed will provide the basis of a gamma-ray detector.
The films were prepared by UHV sputter deposition at temperatures between 650° and 840°C. Besides standard XRD analysis the films were examined by TEM. An epitaxy orientation relationship with sapphire was found similar to that observed for niobium. Electrical conductivity measurements were made as a function of temperature down to Tc, the superconducting transition temperature, which ranged from below 0.35K to above 0.8K for films with a high room temperature resistance ratio (e.g. 300 in a 0.9pjn thick film). Results from a range of films will be presented and their Tc’s discussed.
The composition dependence of the nucleation free energy barrier W* in amorphous Si1-xGex thin films is investigated. Within the composition range of x = 0.25 ∼ 0.52, the nucleation free energy barrier exhibits a maximum, which is in a good agreement with our theoretical analysis. The results are significant for processing polycrystalline SiGe thin films with desirable microstructures for thin film transistor applications. In addition, the incubation time of crystallization of amorphous Si1-xGex (x=0.5) thin films is investigated as a function of temperature.
Screening of patients for common mental disorders (CMDs) is needed in primary-care management programmes. This study aimed to compare the screening properties of five widely used questionnaires.
Adult attenders in five primary-care settings in India were recruited through systematic sampling. Four questionnaires were administered, in pairs, in random order to participants: the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ, 12 items); the Primary Health Questionnaire (PHQ, nine items); the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10, 10 items), and from which we could extract the score of the shorter 6-item K6; and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ, 20 items). All participants were interviewed with a structured lay diagnostic interview, the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R).
Complete data were available for 598 participants (participation rate 99.3%). All five questionnaires showed moderate to high discriminating ability; the GHQ and SRQ showed the best results. All five showed moderate to high degrees of correlation with one another, the poorest being between the two shortest questionnaires, K6 and PHQ. All five had relatively good internal consistency. However, the positive predictive value (PPV) of the questionnaires compared with the diagnostic interview ranged from 51% to 77% at the optimal cut-off scores.
There is little difference in the ability of these questionnaires to identify cases accurately, but none showed high PPVs without a considerable compromise on sensitivity. Hence, the choice of an optimum cut-off score that yields the best balance between sensitivity and PPV may need to be tailored to individual settings, with a higher cut-off being recommended in resource-limited primary-care settings.
We construct an asymptotic representation for the solution $u(x,t)$ of a singularly-perturbed linear fifth-order evolution equation which accounts for the relevant exponentially-small terms in all regions of the complex $x$ plane. The particular equation that we study is chosen in part to highlight the complexities that arise in high-order examples, resulting in particular from the non-existence of a suitable (steady-state) heteroclinic connection. Key points of this calculation are the identification, location and evolution of the active (in the sense that non-zero, though exponentially-small, terms are switched on across them) Stokes lines, and of the higher-order Stokes lines across which these can be activated or inactivated. In doing so, we need in particular to analyse two ‘levels’ of higher-order Stokes lines and to present the associated mechanisms by which they can themselves be activated or inactivated. By piecing together the information concerning which Stokes lines (both ordinary and higher-order) are active, we are able to deduce systematically which of the competing exponentials that can potentially arise within the asymptotic solution are actually present in each region of the complex plane.