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Considering the ample evidence of involvement of the glutamate system in the pathophysiology of depression, pre-clinical and clinical studies have been conducted to assess the antidepressant efficacy of glutamate inhibition, and glutamate receptor modulators in particular. This review focuses on the use of glutamate receptor modulators in unipolar depression.
We investigated the reason of the (imbalanced) accumulation of electrons in AIGaSb/lnAs/AIGaSb QW system in spite of the p-type conduction of undoped AIGaSb. It was found that the concentration of the accumulated electrons negligibly depended on the number of the interfaces, but increased linearly with the effective AlSb thickness. These results indicate that donor levels in AIGaSb are the dominant electron sources. We propose a model that the deep acceptors with larger concentration and donors coexist, and the electron accumulation depends on the energy position of the acceptor in AIGaSb with respect to the quantum level in the InAs well. Acceptor levels obtained experimentally are about 100 meV higher than the bottom of the InAs conduction band, and we succeeded in eliminating the electron accumulation by making the quantum level of the InAs well higher than this acceptor level. The origins of the donors and acceptors are also discussed.
The application of severe plastic deformation to metals provides a convenient procedure for achieving nanometer and submicrometer microstructures. Several different processing methods are available but Equal-Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) is especially attractive because it provides an opportunity for preparing relatively large bulk samples. This paper describes the use of ECAP in preparing materials with ultrafine grain sizes and the subsequent properties of these materials at elevated temperatures. It is demonstrated that, provided precipitates are present to retain these small grain sizes at the high temperatures where diffusion is reasonably rapid, it is possible to achieve remarkably high superplastic elongations in the as-pressed materials and there is a potential for making use of this processing procedure to develop a superplastic forming capability at very rapid strain rates.
Recent progress in the heteroepitaxial growth of layered structures of Si, Ge, GaAs, and alkaline earth fluorides is reviewed. Effectiveness of the predeposition technique, in which a thin Si layer is deposited on the CaF2 surface at room temperature prior to the growth of a thick Si film at 800 °C, is shown for the growth of Si films on CaF2/Si structures. In case of the overgrowth of Ge and GaAs films on (111) substrates, modification of the fluoride surface by electron beam exposure is effective to increase the wet-tability between fluoride and semiconductor films and to improve the crystal -1 inity and surface morphology of the films. Finally, antiphase disorder in the GaAs(100) films grown on fluorides is experimentally studied and the generation mechanisms are discussed.
Heteroepitaxial growth of alkaline earth fluoride films on Si substrates and Si, Ge, and GaAs films on the fluoride/Si structures, is reviewed. Growth of single crystalline fluoride films on Si is first discussed. Then the usefulness of novel heteroepitaxial technologies, the predeposition method and the electron beam irradiation method, is demonstrated in the growth of Si and Ge films on CaF2/Si structures. Finally fundamental growth characteristics of GaAs films on CaF2/Si structures and annealing effects on the crystallinity of the GaAs films are described.
Schottky barrier contacts have been made on CVD—grown β - SiC on Si substrates, and their C—V and I—V characteristics are measured. Dependence of the Schottky characteristics on Si substrate orientation ((n11),(n=1,3,4,5,6), and (100)) is examined. The Schottky diodes of the β-SiC films on Si (611), Si(411), and Si (111) show excellent characteristics compared with the conventional Schottky diodes using Si(100) substrates. That is, reverse leakage currents are small, ideality factors are close to unity, and barrier heights are larger.
Recent progress in the heteroepitaxial growth of layered structures of Si, Ge, GaAs, and alkaline earth fluorides is reviewed. Effectiveness of the predeposition technique, in which a thin Si layer is deposited on the CaF2 surface at room temperature prior to the growth of a thick Si film at 800°C, is shown for the growth of Si films on CaF2/Si structures. In case of the overgrowth of Ge and GaAs films on (111) substrates, modification of the fluoride surface by electron beam exposure is effective to increase the wettability between fluoride and semiconductor films and to improve the crystallinity and surface morphology of the films. Finally, antiphase disorder in the GaAs(l00) films grown on fluorides is experimentally studied and the generation mechanisms are discussed.
Ion beam mixing effects on metals and highly doped semiconductors on GaAs for formation of ohmic contacts have been studied. In this study, we have principally selected Pt as metal and Ge as semiconductors electrodes for GaAs. In Pt/GaAs system, we observed alloying phenomena induced by Si+, Ar+, Ge+ ion mixing effects. The amount of GaAs reacted with Pt was found to be proportional to the mass of the incident ions for constant dose. Concernig with the formation of ohmic contacts, only in the case of Si implantation through Pt films, the conversion from Schottky- to ohmic-contact was observed due to ion beam mixing effects. In Ge/GaAs system, we observad the solid state epitaxy for implanted Ge layer by the first annealing at 450°C in the two step annealing, but no activation of the implanted species. For activating implanted species, the second annealing at 800°C was effective. Concerning with the formation of ohmic contacts, we observed that the ohmic I-V characteristics for Ge/GaAs system could be obtainable when the following conditions were satisfied at the same time: 1) high dose implantation of As+ into Ge layer, 2) low dose implantation of Si into Ge/GaAs boundary and 3) relatively short period annealing in the second annealing step. From such study, it is concluded that ion beam mixing in conjunction with rapid annealing would be most promising for forming stable and reproducible ohmic contacts.
The initial stage of Ge overgrowth on CaF2/Si structures was controlled by electron beam (e-beam) exposure through a room-temperature-deposited thin Ge layer on CaF2. It was found that the island growth of Ge was prevented in the e-beam exposed region and the crystalline quality and the surface flat-ness of the Ge film were much improved. From several experimental results, a growth model that e-beam dissociates the surface F atoms of CaF2 and improves the wettability between Ge and CaF2 is proposed.
Recent progress in the research of heteroepitaxial growth of Si, Ge, and GaAs films on CaF2/Si structures is reviewed. Growth conditions and material properties of the Si/CaF2/Si structures are first discussed. It is shown that such growth techniques as the predeposition technique and the recrystallization method are useful to improve the crystalline quality of Si films on the CaF2/Si structures. Then, device application of the Si/CaF2/Si structure to field effect transistors with epitaxial MIS (metal-insulatorsemiconductor) gate electrodes is described. Finally, epitaxial growth of Ge and GaAs films on the CaF2/Si structure are discussed, in which such growth parameters as the substrate temperature and growth rate are optimized to obtain high-quality films with excellent crystallinity and smooth surface.
Lateral solid phase epitaxy (L-SPE) of amorphous Si (a-Si) films vacuum-evaporated on Si substrates with SiO2 patterns has been investigated, in which the film first grows vertically in the regions directly contacted to the Si substrates and then grows laterally onto SiO2 patterns. It has been found from transmission electron microscopy and Nomarski optical microscopy that use of dense a-Si films, which are formed by evaporation on heated substrates and subsequent amorphization by Si+ ion implantation, is essentially important for L-SPE. The maximum L-SPE length of 5–6μm was obtained along the <010> direction after 10hourannealing at 600°C. The kinetics of the L-SPE growth has also been investigated.
Superplastic ductilities may be achieved in tension using polycrystalline materials with small grain sizes (typically <10 μm). Experiments were conducted to evaluate the significance of the grain boundaries in an Al-3% Mg solid solution alloy with a submicron grain size (∼0.2 μm). The material was produced by subjecting the alloy to severe plastic strain using a pressing technique. This paper describes the nature of the microstructure in the as-fabricated condition, the evolution of the microstructure as a function of time and/or temperature, and the effect of testing in tension at a temperature of 403 K.
Control of epitaxial relationship of CaF2 films grown on Si(111) substrates was considered to be important to improve surface morphology and crystallini ty of GaAs films on CaF2/Si(111) structures. We successfully grew CaF2 films with the “type-A” epitaxial relationship on Si(111) substrates, that is, the crystallographic orientation of the CaF2 films were aligned in the same direction as that of the Si(111) substrates. These “type-A” CaF2 films were grown by a two step growth method. It was found that surface morphology of GaAs films on the CaF2/Si(111) structures was drastically improved by growth of the “type-A” CaF2 films.
This paper reports in situ measurement of Young’s modulus and residual stress of electroless nickel films through the use of microfabricated nickel test structures, including electrostatic microactuators and passive devices. The test structures are fabricated in a new surface micromachining process, termed “nickel surface micromachining”, using electroless plated nickel as the structural layer and polysilicon as the sacrificial layer. Subsequent to fabrication, lateral resonant-type electrostatic microactuators of different geometries are resonated by electrical excitation. Using the measured resonant frequencies and knowledge of the device geometry, the Young’s modulus of the film is determined. The passive electroless nickel microstructures deform upon completion of the fabrication process due to residual stress in the film. Measurement of this deformation in conjunction with an appropriate mechanical model is used to determine the residual stress in the films.
We have successfully grafted polythiophene on polyethylene (PE) film with a three reactions step: gas phase bromination on PE, yielding PE-Br; substitution reaction of PE-Br with 2-thiophene thiolate anion, following by chemical oxidative polymerization. The polymerization was carried out in a suspension solution of anhydrous FeCl3 in CHCl3, yielding a reddish PE-PT film after dedoping with ethanol. ATR-FTIR shows that the polythiophene (PT) was grafted on PE in the 2,5-position; on the other hand, PT homopolymer shows a small amount of 2,4 coupling. XPS reveals higher intensity of the S2p, including neutral and positive sulfur. SEM image reveals the island of PT on the PE film. AFM analysis found the thickness of the island is in the range of 120–145 nm. The conductivity of these thin films is in the range of 10−6 S/cm.
The shape of several waveguide end of samples for photoluminescence absorption spectroscopy (PLAS) was studied by atomic force microscope (AFM), because there was an experimental problem where some samples for PLAS did not work. Using the result of AFM, the waveguide end was reshaped by plasma dry etching. The shortening of the etching time was an effective method to improve the structure of the waveguide end. Secondly, the PLAS method was extended to the other materials from a-Si:H. The PLAS signal of amorphous carbon nitride a-CNx was detected for the first time. Amorphous carbon nitride a-CNx film itself and the interface between a-CNx and a-Si02 are found as good as a-Si:H and the interface between a-Si:H and a-Si 3N4+x:H, respectively.
Effects of ion-irradiation on oxidation of silicon at low temperatures (130°C) in an argon and oxygen mixed plasma excited by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) interaction are investigated. First, dependence of energy and flux of incident ions on the flow rate and the microwave power is evaluated. It is shown that the flow rate and the microwave power are key parameters for controlling the energy and the flux of incident ions, respectively. Second, growth kinetics of the oxide films are studied. The growth rate depends on the energy and the flux of argon ions irradiated to the substrate, and the growth thickness increases proportionally to the root square of the oxidation time. Thus, the growth rate is limited by diffusion of oxidants enhanced by irradiation with argon ions. The effect of substrate bias on oxidation characteristics is also discussed. The electrical properties of the oxide films are improved by increasing the bias. The improvement is due to the reduction of damage at the surface of the substrate induced by the irradiation.