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Transoral robotic surgery is frequently described, driven by the desire to offer a less morbid alternative to chemoradiation. However, the objective evaluation of post-operative function has rarely been reported. Therefore, high-resolution manometry was used in this study to evaluate the impact of changes in peri-operative swallowing function on pharyngeal pressure events.
Ten patients with various stages of oropharyngeal cancer underwent transoral surgery. High-resolution manometry and videofluoroscopic swallow studies were performed before surgery and two months afterwards. The following parameters were obtained: velopharyngeal and mesopharyngeal post-deglutitive upper oesophageal sphincter pressures, velo-meso-hypopharyngeal contractile integral, upper oesophageal sphincter relaxation pressure, and pharyngeal velocity.
There was no significant difference in pharyngeal pressure or contractile integral pre- versus post-operatively. However, pharyngeal velocity was significantly higher post-operatively than pre-operatively.
High-resolution manometry showed that transoral surgery in patients without pre-operative dysphagia preserved pharyngeal constriction. However, transoral surgery might produce scar formation in the pharynx, which could lead to narrowing of the pharynx.
The neutral beam (NB) fast ion confinement in the Large Helical Device (LHD) is studied for several full field (
) magnetic configurations by a combination of neutron measurement and simulations. To investigate the NB fast ion confinement, we have performed a series of short-pulse NB injection experiments. The experiment results are analysed by the integrated code TASK3D-a. From this investigation, the effective particle diffusion coefficients of the tangential and perpendicular NBs are approximately
in the standard configuration. It is clarified that the NB fast ion confinement improves when the plasmas are shifted inward. Moreover, it is also found that the simulation, which considers the deuteron dilution effect due to the presence of impurity ions, can describe a neutron emission rate consistent with the measurement.
This study examines the relationship between paternal height or body mass index (BMI) and birth weight of their offspring in a Japanese general population. The sample included 33,448 pregnant Japanese women and used fixed data, including maternal, paternal and infant characteristics, from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS), an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study. Relationships between paternal height or BMI and infant birth weight [i.e., small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA)] were examined using a multinomial logistic regression model. Since fetal programming may be a sex-specific process, male and female infants were analyzed separately. Multivariate analysis showed that the higher the paternal height, the higher the odds of LGA and the lower the odds of SGA in both male and female infants. The effects of paternal BMI on the odds of both SGA and LGA in male infants were similar to those of paternal height; however, paternal height had a stronger impact than BMI on the odds of male LGA. In addition, paternal BMI showed no association with the odds of SGA and only a weak association with the odds of LGA in female infants. This cohort study showed that paternal height was associated with birth weight of their offspring and had stronger effects than paternal BMI, suggesting that the impact of paternal height on infant birth weight could be explained by genetic factors. The sex-dependent effect of paternal BMI on infant birth weight may be due to epigenetic effects.
In endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy, surgeons sometimes have concerns about performing an adequate incision with only a narrow intra-cavital view from one direction. In order to overcome these issues, fluoroscopic radiography was used during endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy.
Peri-operative fluoroscopic radiography was utilised to check the position of the diverticuloscope, and to confirm the extent of the incision during surgery. A balloon catheter was used to determine whether the cricopharyngeal muscle was sufficiently resected. Blood loss, peri-operative complications, and functional oral swallowing scale and penetration aspiration scale scores were evaluated.
In 12 out of 15 patients, intra-operative fluoroscopic radiography showed the diverticuloscope positioned in the post-cricoid area, and the cricopharyngeal muscle was raised and the surgery completed without adverse effect. Swallowing functions improved following surgery.
Intra-operative fluoroscopy might improve endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy by allowing surgeons to confirm the extent of resection, and by reducing peri-operative morbidity and complication rates.
This study evaluated the relationship between radiation and Eustachian tube dysfunction, and examined the radiation dose required to induce otitis media with effusion.
The function of 36 Eustachian tubes in 18 patients with head and neck cancer were examined sonotubometrically before, during, and 1, 2 and 3 months after, intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Patients with an increase of 5 dB or less in sound pressure level (dB) during swallowing were categorised as being in the dysfunction group. Additionally, radiation dose distributions were assessed in all Eustachian tubes using three dose–volume histogram parameters.
Twenty-two of 25 normally functioning Eustachian tubes before radiotherapy (88.0 per cent) shifted to the dysfunction group after therapy. All ears that developed otitis media with effusion belonged to the dysfunction group. The radiation dose threshold evaluation revealed that ears with otitis media with effusion received significantly higher doses to the Eustachian tubes.
The results indicate a relationship between radiation dose and Eustachian tube dysfunction and otitis media with effusion.
Females of the white grub beetle, Dasylepida ishigakiensis, release both (R)- and (S)-2-butanol as sex pheromones, but the males are only attracted to (R)-2-butanol. In laboratory-reared females, the proportion of the (R)-isomer decreased significantly as their calling opportunities increased and as they aged. We examined whether such qualitative changes also occur in field populations. We collected virgin females from the field and then trapped and analysed the volatiles emitted during their first and second callings. The ratio of (R)- to (S)-2-butanol (R/S) was 78:22 at the first calling, but shifted to 39:61 at the second calling. While investigating the composition of the female pheromones, the question arose as to whether the male preferences change in response to the shift in female pheromone composition. To answer this question, we observed the behaviour of young and old males in response to various R/S ratios as lures in the laboratory and in the field. In the flight tunnel assay of laboratory-reared individuals, young males touched female models with a 9:1 R/S ratio lure less than those with pure (R)-2-butanol; however, older males touched the two groups with equivalent frequency. In the field trap test, older males were much more attracted to (R)-2-butanol-scented lures. When we tested using lures with the same amount of (R)-2-butanol but added different amounts of the (S)-isomer, we found that increased levels of (S)-2-butanol resulted in lower attractiveness to males. (S)-2-butanol was confirmed to have an inhibitive activity in the attractiveness of (R)-2-butanol.
Blue and Green long-persistent luminescence materials have been fully developed, and are well featured in production and application. However, long-wavelength emitting materials are very rare relatively. This paper presents some work from our laboratory on the recent progress in long-wavelength emitting long-persistent luminescence materials: Sr3Al2O5Cl2: Eu2+, Tm3+, Sr2SnO4: Sm3+ and Ca2BO3Cl: Eu2+, Dy3+. The initial intensity of Sr3Al2O5Cl2: Eu2+, Tm3+ can reach nearly 5000 mcd/m2 and its afterglow can last about 220 min at recognizable intensity level. Sr2SnO4: Sm3+ has a red emission and its afterglow time of which sintered in vacuum atmosphere increased substantially. With optimum doping concentration and sufficient excitation with UV light, the yellow afterglow of Ca2BO3Cl: Eu2+, Dy3+ can persist over 48 h.
Excitation of multiple Er3+ ions upon absorption of a single high-energy photon increases Er-related emission at 1.5 μm, and therefore enhances UV/visible-to-IR photon conversion efficiency. Here we investigate this effect for layers of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with silicon nanocrystals by measuring the quantum yield of 1.5 µm Er-related emission. We demonstrate dramatic increase of the emission commencing for excitation energies above a certain threshold value, as the number of Er3+ ions excited upon absorption of a single incoming photon increases. By comparing differently prepared materials, we show that the actual value of this threshold energy and the rate of the observed increase of the quantum yield depend on sample characteristics – the size of Si nanocrystals and the ratio of Er3+ ions and nanocrystals concentrations.
A series of Ce3+ doped Ca8La2(PO4)6O2 phosphors with tunable emission were successfully synthesized by traditional solid state reaction. The crystal structure and photoluminescence properties were studied through X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra. The results indicated that Ca8La2(PO4)6O2:Ce3+ exhibited color-tunable emission due to the 5d-4f transitions of Ce3+ ions under different wavelength excitation. The optimal doping content of Ce3+ ions in Ca8La2(PO4)6O2 was found to be 5 mol%. The site-selective photoluminescence property and the reason for red-shift of the emission band along with Ce3+ content and the excitation wavelength were also studied in detail.
Spectral shifts of the emission lines of Erbium ions in Lithium Niobate are used to determine the build-up of intrinsic electric fields under intense light irradiation. The observed spectral shifts can be translated into internal electric fields through a calibration using applied external fields. The studies show that a substantial field can be created locally (up to 150kV/mm) with observed occasional electric breakthroughs that have a corresponding field strength of up to 35kV/mm. In addition, a modification of some Erbium incorporation sites is observed suggesting its relationship with a defect that can by photo-ionized, such as Fe2+/Fe3+.
The crystallinity of a GaN epitaxial layer on a sapphire substrate after the mechanical ding process was estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopic analysis. TEM observation results showed that, the screw dislocations as a threading dislocation were induced by the mechanical dicing process in the limited area up to approximately 1.2 μm from the dicing-line. On the other hand, the crystal strains were up to approximately 7 μm from the dicing-line edge measured by the Raman spectroscopic analysis. The distance difference between the area of the screw dislocations and of the residual strain is caused by the stress relaxation.
The females of the white grub beetle, Dasylepida ishigakiensis, release two enantiomers of 2-butanol, (R)-2-butanol and (S)-2-butanol. The ratio describing the relative proportions of these two enantiomers (R/S ratio) has not yet been investigated. (R)-2-Butanol has been shown to attract males in laboratory and field experiments, whereas (S)-2-butanol tends to inhibit them. To determine the R/S ratio of the 2-butanol emitted by virgin females, we collected 2-butanol from young (53 days old), mature (63 days old) and old females (73 days old) using water, extracted with an SPME fibre and subsequently injected into GC-MS. The major component of the 2-butanol emitted by the young females was (R)-2-butanol, but as the females aged, the component ratio favoured (S)-2-butanol. Young females released an 80:20 mixture of (R)- and (S)-2-butanol, whereas old females released a 45:55 mixture. The EAG response of male antennae to a 50:50 ratio (racemic mixture) showed a similar dose-response curve to that of (R)-2-butanol. The male orientation responses to (R)-2-butanol decreased when the relative proportion of (S)-2-butanol increased. An inhibitory and/or masking effect of (S)-2-butanol on male orientation behaviour was also observed in the flight tunnel assay. These results suggest that males are more strongly attracted to young females than to old females. We also discuss the possibility of using 2-butanol isomers as a control or monitoring agent for this insect.
It is well discussed about biological effect to high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal and known that the biofilm is considered to be the uncertain factor to estimate for migration of radioactive elements. The objective of this research is to estimate the microbial effect of Cs migration in groundwater interacted with rock surface. Specially, we focus on Cs behavior at the rock surface surrounded by biofilm. The most important factor is the Cs sorption and diffusion to the microbe and/or their biofilm. Generation of bio-colloid absorbed with Cs and retardation of Cs by their matrix diffusion in rock will be influenced by these phenomena. We introduce about scenario analysis for biofilm and a simple Cs diffusion test with and without sulfur reducing bacteria (SRB) which is well known as easy to produce biofilm on the rock surface in order to clarify the existence effect of the bacteria at the rock surface. The Cs diffusion experiment, using Desulfovivrio desullfuricans as SRB, indicated that microbial effect was less to through their biofilm in the experimental condition. We consider that Cs is easy to contact the rock surface even if surrounded biofilm and not effect to retardation by matrix diffusion scenario.
A serious sugarcane pest, Dasylepida ishigakiensis, remains in the soil during most of its life cycle except for a short period for mating. Mating disruption by an artificial release of the sex pheromone (R)-2-butanol (R2B), therefore, may be a feasible method to control this pest. We examined the effects of artificial release of R2B and its related compounds, (S)-2-butanol (S2B) and the racemic 2-butanol (rac-2B), on the mating success of this beetle both in the laboratory and in the field. In flight tunnel experiments, almost all males orientated towards a R2B-releasing source and 40% of them landed on the source. When the atmosphere was permeated with R2B, the frequency of males landing on the model was significantly reduced. Both rac-2B and S2B were less effective, but substantial reduction in landing success by males was achieved at higher rac-2B concentrations. R2B released from polyethylene dispensers in sugarcane plots greatly reduced not only the proportion of females mated with males but also the number of males caught by R2B-baited traps, indicating that male mate-searching behaviour was strongly affected by the released R2B. Similar inhibitory effects on male behaviour were also observed when tube- or rope-type dispensers released high rac-2B concentrations in the field. These results indicate that it would be highly possible to control D. ishigakiensis through the disruption of the sexual communication by releasing either synthetic R2B or rac-2B.
X-ray-excited luminescence of GaN doped with Eu ions as a luminescent center was observed in the wavelength range from 350 nm to 650 nm. Three peaks at 375 nm, 550 nm and 622 nm were found. To survey the mechanism of the photoluminescence due to non-resonance excitation, photoluminescence X-ray excitation spectra are also measured. The mechanism of the luminescence occurrence was briefly discussed based on the model developed by Emura et al.
In this study, the pn hetero-interface between Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer and Cu(InGa)(SSe)2 (CIGSS) surface layers is discussed in order to achieve the fill factor (FF) over 0.73 and the circuit efficiency of 16 % on aperture area of over 800 cm2. Two resistances, i.e. shunt resistance (Rsh) and series resistance (Rs), in the circuits are employed as a yardstick to evaluate the interface quality. Since there are no realistic yardsticks on the Rs, the difference between Voc and optimum-power voltage (Vop) (i.e. Voc-Vop [V/cell]) is applied as a simple tool to evaluate the Rs. It is emphasized that it is important to reduce the Rs mainly correlated to the buffer deposition process and, as a result, the interface quality. We consider the Rs is dependent on the remaining Zn(OH)2 concentration in the Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer deposited by a chemical-bath deposition (CBD) technique. As an approach to make the Rs minimize and the Rsh maximize simultaneously, adjusting the thickness of a CBD-Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer layer and a non-doped ZnO layer deposited by a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique has been effective to reduce the remaining Zn(OH)2 concentration. Determining the optimized deposition procedure to achieve the FF over 0.700 consistently, the circuit efficiency of 15.3 % with aperture area of 856 cm2 and the FF of 0.717 has been achieved.
We report that the nonlinear optical response of polarity controlled ZnO films grown by selective growth technique of Zn-polar and O-polar ZnO layers on sapphire substrate using Cr-compound buffer layers. ZnO layers grown on CrN/sapphire show Zn polar, while those grown on Cr2O3/sapphire result in O-polar ZnO films. In order to verify the origin of nonlinear optical response of ZnO, the polarity-controlled ZnO thin films grown on different buffer layers were investigated as nonlinear optical materials for second harmonic generation (SHG). The effective nonlinear optical coefficient (deff) of ZnO grown on Cr-compound buffer layers showed a higher value than that of ZnO grown on MgO buffer layers. Finally, by combining suggested in-situ polarity control technique with photolithography technique, we have fabricated 1D and 2D periodically-polarity-inverted (PPI) hetro-structures with periodicity ranging from 60 μm to 2 μm. The lateral polarity inversion is confirmed by piezo response microscopy. Such PPI ZnO heterostructures show the enhancement of SHG intensity comparing with the ZnO films.
One-way to improve organic solar cell efficiency is blending conjugated polymer with a second nanocomposite. We report on blending of freestanding boron- and phosphorous-doped environmental friendly silicon nanocrystals (Si-ncs) with two conjugated polymers i.e. (poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly[methoxy-ethylexyloxy-phenylenevinilene] (MEH PPV)). The electrochemical etching and pulverization of doped porous silicon films are used for fabrication of photesensitive Si-ncs/polymers blends. Processing of Si-ncs dispersed in polymers allows simple tuning of the Si-ncs concentrations in the blends. The blends with high Si-ncs concentrations are prepared and opto-electric properties are compared and discussed. Both types of polymers containing doped Si-ncs showed a photoconductivity response under illumination AM1.5 at ambient temperature and atmosphere.