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When comparing the efficay of antipsychotics in clinical studies it would be of high practical relevance to know which doses of the respective drugs would result in equivalent blocking of dopamine-D2-receptors. This study aimed to find clinically applicable dose equivalents for haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine.
As the occurrence of EPS correlates closely with a blockade of about 80% or more of dopamin-D2-receptors the proportion of patients developing EPS in relation to various doses of either Haloperidol (n=5252), risperidone (n=5017) or olanzapine (n =5029) was calculated. This retrospective, observational study included 20.252 inpatients from 20 hospitals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and related disorders (ICD10 F20-25). The prescription of anticholinergic medication was utilized as surrogate parameter for the occurrence of EPS. OR, RR and NNH under different doses of AP were calculated and data entered into a probit model to predict the risk of EPS over a continuous dose range. For filtering the data ToscanaJ (FBA) was used.
1.) Same doses of risperidone and haloperidol induced the same proportion of EPS, reflected in a constant dose ratio of both drugs of ∼ 1:1 over the whole dose range.
2.) Over the whole dose range there was no linear relation between olanzapine on one hand and haloperidol and risperidone on the other hand.
3.) The results were corroborated by the probit analysis.
Previous clinical trials comparing olanzapine, risperidone and haloperidol found higher risks of EPS for Haloperidol. We propose a new model to calculate dose equivalents.
Defendants commonly claim amnesia for their criminal actions especially in cases involving extreme violence. While some claims are malingered or result from physiological factors, other cases may represent genuine partial or complete amnesia resulting from the psychological distress and/or extreme emotion associated with the perpetration of the crime.
To identify possible psychological differences among homicide or severe violence offenders presenting amnesia for the event and those who do not. Due to a small number of offenders commiting such a sever violent crimes. We are presenting results of ongoing research. The preliminary data were presented at the EPA meeting 2013.
We examined homicide or severe violence offenders presenting amnesia for the event (n=20) and those who do not (n=20) with a complex psychological a psychiatrical assessment. Further we evaluated social and criminal anamnesis. Offenders with psychotic or schizophrenic symptoms were excluded.
The ongoing study still shows no differences in cognition or personality in the studeid group (p < 0.01). Elevated levels of dissociation and score in IES questionnaire was found in offenders presenting amnesia for the event.
Results and conclusion
This ongoing study supports hypothesis that there are no any neuropsychological impairments in nonpsychiatric offenders of murder or severe violence presenting amnesia. Higher level of dissociation and score of impact of events scale (p < 0.05) suggest, that this group of offenders may be more predisposed to dissociative and stressful reactions in overloading events. Thus the question whether the amnesia is malingered or not is still unclear.
Arrhythmia is a potentially fatal side effect of antipsychotics. A biologic predictive tool to prevent it is missing.
Identification of a genetic profile at risk for antipsychotic induced arrhythmia.
Identifying a molecular pathway enriched for antipsychotic induced QT-modifications.
Seven hundred and sixty-five SKZ individuals, M = 556, age = 40.93 ± 11.03 were included. QT-variation was a phase-specific created variable. A nested mixed regression served in R for clinical and molecular pathway analyses. Plink served for genetic analyses. Quality checking was standard, inflation factor was controlled by lambda values.
Quetiapine and Perphenazine were associated with QT variation (P = 0.002; Estimate = 5.79 and P = 5.67e-06; Estimate = 8.96 respectively). No other significant association was detected. No inflation was detected. Axon guidance and Collagen biosynthesis (Table 1) were associated with QT variation at a conservative (adjusted) P value < 0.01.
Two molecular pathways were identified as possibly involved in QT modifications during antispsychotic treatment in SKZ patients. Previous evidence supports a role of the same pathways in cardiac disorders [1,2]. Interaction of specific SNPs with the drugs will be focus of further research.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This paper outlines a pilot validation study of the newly developed Behavioural Couple Therapy Scale for Depression (BCTS-D). The BCTS-D aims to assess therapist competence in delivering behavioural couple therapy (BCT) and provide therapists with summative and formative feedback on their performance. Completed by both therapist and supervisor, this will aid therapists’ reflection on practice and improve performance. This paper will report on two stages in the development of the BCTS-D: (a) a study evaluating content validity, face validity and usability and (b) a focus group examining usability and utility. Both parts of the study were conducted in the context of a BCT training course and included 20 participants who were either BCT supervisors or BCT trainees. Results suggest that the BCTS-D has good face validity, content validity and usability, and provides a useful tool for promoting self-reflection and providing formative feedback. The studies also provided insight into the strengths of the scale and into areas of refinement, and a number of modifications were undertaken to improve the BCTS-D in response to feedback collected. Future research will need to focus on evaluating the psychometric properties of the BCTS-D and continue to adapt the scale to its users’ needs.
Key learning aims
(1) Readers will understand the importance of measuring therapists’ competence to improve practice.
(2) Readers will understand the development of the BCTS-D scale and its initial psychometric properties.
(3) Readers will know how to use the BCTS-D in everyday clinical practice.
(4) Readers will know about the challenges of developing a therapist competence measure within a real-world clinical context.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of air stable cobalt and nickel complexes based on tridentate enaminones N,N-(4,4,4-trifluorobut-1-en-3-on)-dimethylethyldiamine (Htfb-dmeda) and N,N-(4,4,4-trifluorobut-1-en-3-on)-dimethylpropyldiamine (Htfb-dmpda) successfully produced metallic cobalt and nickel thin films. Detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies on the binding interaction of the first precursor monolayer with the surface functional groups elucidated the chemisorption behavior of the new precursor systems. A reactive remote hydrogen plasma was used as the co-reactant to activate the precursor decomposition yielding metal hydroxide intermediates. Subsequent hydrogen plasma etching of as-deposited films resulted in phase-pure metallic films through a recrystallization process, verified by surface and sub-surface XPS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses revealed pinhole-free films, with low surface roughness (0.2 ± 0.06 nm root mean square, RMS) for both, cobalt and nickel thin films. Herein, the competitive role of hydrogen as etchant and reactant was demonstrated as prolonged plasma exposure time periods resulted in the formation of metal hydrides. This is mostly due to the catalytic dissociation of molecular hydrogen on transition metal surfaces, which already occurs upon low energy input.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
The physical processes driving the chemical evolution of galaxies in the last ~ 11Gyr cannot be understood without directly probing the dust-obscured phase of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei. This phase, hidden to optical tracers, represents the bulk of the star formation and black hole accretion activity in galaxies at 1 < z < 3. Spectroscopic observations with a cryogenic infrared observatory like SPICA, will be sensitive enough to peer through the dust-obscured regions of galaxies and access the rest-frame mid- to far-infrared range in galaxies at high-z. This wavelength range contains a unique suite of spectral lines and dust features that serve as proxies for the abundances of heavy elements and the dust composition, providing tracers with a feeble response to both extinction and temperature. In this work, we investigate how SPICA observations could be exploited to understand key aspects in the chemical evolution of galaxies: the assembly of nearby galaxies based on the spatial distribution of heavy element abundances, the global content of metals in galaxies reaching the knee of the luminosity function up to z ~ 3, and the dust composition of galaxies at high-z. Possible synergies with facilities available in the late 2020s are also discussed.
A far-infrared observatory such as the SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, with its unprecedented spectroscopic sensitivity, would unveil the role of feedback in galaxy evolution during the last ~10 Gyr of the Universe (z = 1.5–2), through the use of far- and mid-infrared molecular and ionic fine structure lines that trace outflowing and infalling gas. Outflowing gas is identified in the far-infrared through P-Cygni line shapes and absorption blueshifted wings in molecular lines with high dipolar moments, and through emission line wings of fine-structure lines of ionised gas. We quantify the detectability of galaxy-scale massive molecular and ionised outflows as a function of redshift in AGN-dominated, starburst-dominated, and main-sequence galaxies, explore the detectability of metal-rich inflows in the local Universe, and describe the most significant synergies with other current and future observatories that will measure feedback in galaxies via complementary tracers at other wavelengths.
Small seabird species are often threatened by predation from invasive species at their breeding colonies and considerable efforts are invested into mitigating this threat. However, invasive predators may not be the only onshore threat affecting small seabird species. The South Georgia Diving-petrel Pelecanoides georgicus (SGDP) is a small seabird species, considered ‘Nationally Critical’ in New Zealand. Our objective was to identify terrestrial threats to the species at their sole remaining breeding colony in New Zealand, Codfish Island (Whenua Hou), following the successful eradication of invasive predators. To achieve our objective, we assessed the influence of five physical, three competition/attraction and three plant variables on SGDP nest site selection with generalised linear models (GLMs) and compared models using an information theoretic approach. Models including the distance to sea, slope, aspect, and sand flux outperformed other models and showed selection for steep seaward-facing foredunes with mobile soils. No invasive plant and competition/attraction variables were included in the best performing models. These results suggest that, due to the proximity of their preferred nesting habitat to the springtide line and the overall fragility of the foredunes, SGDPs on Codfish Island are extremely vulnerable to stochastic events and catastrophes, such as storms and storm surges. Eradication efforts directed at invasive predators on Codfish Island appear thus insufficient to safeguard this SGDP colony, necessitating further conservation strategies to secure the continued survival of this population.
Gervais & Fessler assert that contempt is (a) not an emotion (or an attitude) but (b) a sentiment. Here, we challenge the validity and empirical basis of these two assertions, arguing that contempt, like many other emotions, can be both an emotion and a sentiment.
We appreciate Rejmánek and Simberloff's (2017; henceforth R&S) response to our paper, as well as their review of the biological studies showing that non-native species are a ‘non-random’ group of species that are more likely to cause problems at some point in time than would be expected by chance. We note that the focus of their response lies almost exclusively on recently introduced species, which suggests that their argument might be less defensible for established introductions such as the ones covered by our study (Van der Wal et al. 2015). Moreover, R&S appear to have missed the major point of our paper, which is socio-cultural rather than strictly biological, so we briefly respond here in order to clarify our objective and results.
A new generation of solar instruments provides improved spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution, thus facilitating a better understanding of dynamic processes on the Sun. High-resolution observations often reveal multiple-component spectral line profiles, e.g., in the near-infrared He i 10830 Å triplet, which provides information about the chromospheric velocity and magnetic fine structure. We observed an emerging flux region, including two small pores and an arch filament system, on 2015 April 17 with the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ of the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS) situated at the 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. We discuss this method of obtaining fast (one per minute) spectral scans of the solar surface and its potential to follow dynamic processes on the Sun. We demonstrate the performance of the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ by tracking chromospheric high-velocity features in the arch filament system.