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The use of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis as a standard analytical tool in the study of trace elements is well known. In the present investigation, an attempt is made to correlate human diseases with the presence or absence of trace elements and/or the changes in their concentration in healthy and diseased tissues. If such correlations do actually exist, trace element analysis could certainly be used as a diagnostic tool for the early detection of diseases and there is considerable interest in such information.
The Einstein Observatory demonstrated the existence of hot envelopes, i.e., stellar coronae, around most classes of normal stars (Vaiana et al. 1981). The coronae of late type stars of spectral type F through M are generally thought to be solar-like, i.e., structured and organised by the magnetic field topology and heated by some process(es) involving magnetic energy. Here the property “solar-like” does not refer to the optical appearance of a star, but rather to the role played by magnetic fields in the outer stellar envelope (Linsky 1985). Since it is difficult to measure magnetic fields on other stars directly, a number of indirect indicators is used in order to infer whether a corona should be considered “solar-like” or not.
X-ray variability in the 0.1–2.4 keV ROSAT energy band with a doubling timescale of 800 s and a factor of 4 within a few hours has been detected in a 20 ksec pointing on the IRAS AGN 13224-3809. The optical spectrum indicates that IRAS 13224-3809 is a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy with strong permitted Fe II emission, a member of the unusual I Zw 1 class objects. IRAS 13224-3809 appears to be one of the most rapidly variable AGN known so far. This is the first time that variability on a timescale smaller than 1000 s is reported at such high L (0.1–2.4 keV) = 3·1044erg · s−1 X-ray luminosity in Seyfert galaxies. It is also the first reported X-ray variability in I Zw 1 class objects. The δt = 800 s variation indicates that the X-rays come from a compact region of about 17 light minutes in size. Our results from the X-ray spectral analysis favour a scenario in which a hard X-ray source irradiates the accretion disk which reemits at soft X-ray energies. The absence of broad H I wings can be explained if only a part of the BLR, far from the centre, is observed and the bulk of the region, which emits the wings, is hidden. We want to draw attention to the fact that rapid X-ray variability could also be connected with the absence of broad H I lines in IRAS 13224-3809.
In the context of an identification program of sources from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) on Schmidt objective prism plates (Bade et al. 1992a, b) we discovered two galaxy pairs, which contain a narrow-line Seyfert 1 component with an X-ray luminosity of Lx ∼ 1044 erg s−1 and an HII–region galaxy. Apparently they are interacting. Their redshifts are 0.1 < z < 0.3 and their brightnesses 17.5 < B < 19.5. A third one was found among EINSTEIN sources. Typical separations between the components are 10″. Near the pairs other galaxies were found, and although their physical association is not confirmed spectroscopically it is quite probable that they form a small cluster of galaxies. ROSAT HRI observations indicate that the X-ray emission is not extended and originate from the AGN alone. It is remarkable that the AGN in all physical pairs identified so far have rather narrow permitted emission lines with linewidths ≤ 1500 km s−1.
We report results of an international UV – X-ray campaign in 1990–1992 involving the IUE, Rosat and Ginga satellites to observe E1615+061, a Seyfert 1 galaxy with peculiar spectral and intensity behaviour over the last 20 years. The source has been found to be stable in its medium state during the observations. The Ginga (1–20 keV) spectrum of E1615+061 is adequately represented by a simple power law with a photon index α = 1.8 ± 0.1. However, α ∼ 2, as expected for the intrinsic power law component in a reflection model, cannot be ruled out statistically. The Rosat PSPC (0.1–2 keV) spectra collected during the All Sky Survey and the AO-1 phase can be well-described by a simple power law (α = 2.2 ± 0.1) with cold absorber (NH = 3.5 ± 0.3 · 10λ20 H/cmλ2). Both the photon index being significantly different than that obtained from the Ginga spectrum and the column density being smaller than the galactic column (NH ∼ 4.2 · 10λ20 H/cmλ2) give an indication of a soft excess over and above the hard component seen in the Ginga spectrum. E1615+061 has been observed with IUE in 1990 and in 1992. The source was stable and the colour excess E(B-V) derived from the data = 0.1 is in good agreement with that expected from the galactic absorption.
To parameterise the soft excess we fitted the Rosat data with a two-component model consisting of a power law, and a blackbody or thermal bremsstrahlung, with a single galactic absorption term. The column density and the slope of the power law were kept constant. The blackbody temperature was 80 ± 6 eV and 63 ± 12 eV for photon index equal to 1.8 and 2.0, respectively, whereas the bremsstrahlung temperature was 220 ± 40 eV and 115 ± 30 eV for the two cases.
An attempt to model the soft excess seen in the Rosat PSPC spectrum has been made assuming that the soft excess is the high energy tail of a disc spectrum which peaks in the UV part of the spectrum. Additionally it was assumed that there is a hard component contributing to the spectrum from UV to X-rays with parameters as described by the Ginga spectrum. The best fit parameters: the mass of the central source and the mass accretion rate were around 5 ± 1 · 10λ6 M⊙ and 0.2 ± 0.04 M⊙/yr, respectively.
Our modelling shows that the soft X-ray excess can be described (χredλ2 < 1.2) as the high energy tail of an accretion disk spectrum if the intrinsic power law is quite steep (α = 2). The main contribution to the residuals in the Rosat PSPC range comes from 0.3–0.6 keV, with a tendency for these residuals to increase when the slope gets flatter. The accretion luminosity is ∼ 6.5 · 10λ44 erg/s for the best fit parameters, i.e. about the Eddington luminosity.
A programme to obtain soft X-ray spectra of bright BL Lac's from pointed observations with ROSAT has been started. So far 13 objects have been observed and another 6 have been accepted for observation. Available data for the following sources were reduced: OQ 530, OJ 287, B2 0912+29, GB 1011+496, ON 231, B2 1215+30, B2 1308+32, and Mrk 421.
In this sample the most outstanding observation clearly is that of Mrk 421. This source was observed with the ROSAT PSPC for a total of 34 ksec between May 5 and May 7, 1992, at a mean countrate of 159 cts/s (see Fink et al., 1991, A&A246, L6 for ROSAT survey results). At the time of the observations Mrk 421 was also very luminous in the optical bands (see poster by S. Kikuchi, this conference). Within the ROSAT band the spectrum is flatter at the soft end (photon index for broken power law model between −2.2 and −2.0) than at the hard end (photon index between −2.6 and −2.4). The countrate increases during the first 5 orbits with a maximum e-folding time of 1.5 days, reaching a maximum luminosity of 4 × 1045erg/s in the energy range of 0.1 to 2.4 keV (for H0 = 75km/s/Mpc). It is followed by a slow decline until a second rise starts which is much stronger in harder X-rays than at low energies. Plotting the hardness ratio (defined as the difference in the countrates above and below 0.5 keV divided by the total countrate) versus the total countrate the second rise displays a much steeper gradient than the first one (see figure 1a).
For most of the other BL Lac's the countrates are too low to detect variability on these timescales of hours to days, except for B2 1215+30 and OQ 530, where the chance probability for the observed variations is 4 × 10−4 and 10−10, respectively. Also no clear correlation between hardness ratio and countrate could be found. Spectral fits of single power law models with absorption result in photon indizes ranging from −3.1 to −1.9 with no detectable absorption above the galactic value for 5 of these sources, and some additional absorption for GB 1011+496 and B2 1215+30 (see figure 1b).
Optical identification of bright sources from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey has led to the discovery of 40 new Seyfert galaxies with very soft X-ray spectra. Nearly half of these are narrow-line Seyfert 1 (Hβ-FWHM < 2000 km/s) with strong optical FeII emission, suggesting the presence of an unseen hard X-ray component. The remainder are Sy1.5 and a few broad-line Sy1.
Simultaneous observations of 8 Seyfert 1 type AGN (Fairall-9, Mrk 590, NGC 4051, 3C 273, NGC 5548, Mrk 841, Q 1821+643 and 3C 390.3) obtained with ROSAT and IUE (RIASS program), and for 5 sources (Fairall-9, NGC 4051, 3C 273, Mrk 841 and Q 1821+643) with Ginga, have been analysed with the aim of describing the UV to soft X-ray spectral component in these sources.
Disparity appears to decrease or remain stable over geological time in numerous groups. This pattern is sometimes explained in terms of developmental constraints, but labile developmental systems might produce the same pattern should novelties interact, counterbalancing their individual effects. We test the hypothesis that counterbalancing can reduce disparity by comparing ontogenies of shape among nine species of piranhas to identify the developmental novelties. All three parameters examined change multiple times, sometimes dramatically. By comparing levels of disparity between species at two developmental phases, at the transition from larval to juvenile phases, and at maximum adult body size, we find that disparity decreases significantly and substantially over ontogeny. That reduction occurs because of, rather than despite, novelties of postlarval morphogenesis. Some interacting novelties are historically independent and affect different developmental phases, others are historically independent and affect the same developmental phase, and still others are historically correlated and affect either the same or different developmental phases. By modeling hypothetical ontogenies, constraining developmental parameters mathematically to one of the observed values, we find that variation in each parameter, taken by itself, and combinations of them taken two at a time, tend to increase disparity. It is the interactions among all three that reduce disparity. In this group divergent ontogenies transform disparate larvae into similar adults.
Prebiotic oligosaccharides, including galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), are used in infant formula to mimic human milk oligosaccharides, which are known to have an important role in the development of the intestinal microbiota and the immune system in neonates. The maturation of the intestines in piglets closely resembles that of human neonates and infants. Hence, a neonatal piglet model was used to study the multi-faceted effect of dietary GOS in early life. Naturally farrowed piglets were separated from the mother sow 24–48 h postpartum and received a milk replacer with or without the addition of GOS for 3 or 26 d, whereafter several indicators of intestinal colonisation and maturation were measured. Dietary GOS was readily fermented in the colon, leading to a decreased pH, an increase in butyric acid in caecum digesta and an increase in lactobacilli and bifidobacteria numbers at day 26. Histomorphological changes were observed in the intestines of piglets fed a GOS diet for 3 or 26 d. In turn, differences in the intestinal disaccharidase activity were observed between control and GOS-fed piglets. The mRNA expression of various tight junction proteins was up-regulated in the intestines of piglet fed a GOS diet and was not accompanied by an increase in protein expression. GOS also increased defensin porcine β-defensin-2 in the colon and secretory IgA levels in saliva. In conclusion, by applying a neonatal piglet model, it could be demonstrated that a GOS-supplemented milk replacer promotes the balance of the developing intestinal microbiota, improves the intestinal architecture and seems to stimulate the intestinal defence mechanism.
Vegetable production systems are often characterized by excessive nitrogen (N) fertilization and the incorporation of large amounts of post-harvest crop residues. This makes them particularly prone to ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Yet, urgently needed management strategies that can reduce these harmful emissions are missing, because underlying processes are not fully understood. The present study therefore focuses on the effects of residue placement on NH3 and N2O emissions. For this, cauliflower leaf residues (286 kg N/ha) were either applied as surface mulch (mulch) or mixed with the topsoil (mix) and in situ NH3 and N2O emissions were investigated. The experiment took place on a sandy soil in Northeastern Germany during summer 2012. Residue application created a high peak in N2O emissions during the first 2 weeks, irrespective of residue placement. There was no significant difference in the emission sums over the experimental period (65 days) between the mix (5·8 ± 0·68 kg N2O-N/ha) and the mulch (9·7 ± 1·53 kg N2O-N/ha) treatment. This was also the case for NH3 emissions, which exhibited a lower initial peak followed by a prolonged decline. Measured emission sums were 4·1 ± 0·33 (mix) and 5·1 ± 0·73 (mulch) kg NH3-N/ha. It was concluded that substantial NH3 and N2O emissions can occur after high input of available organic carbon and N even in a coarse-textured soil with low water-holding capacity. Other than expected, surface-application does not enhance NH3 emissions at the expense of N2O emissions compared with residue mixing into the soil, at least under the conditions of the present study.
Converging evidence indicates that a considerable amount of variance in self-estimated emotional competency can be directly attributed to genetic factors. The current study examined the associations between the polymorphisms of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Met158Val) and the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and specific measures of the self-estimated effectiveness of an individual’s emotion perception and regulation. Emotional competence was measured in a large sample of 289 healthy women by using the Self-report Emotional Ability Scale (SEAS), which includes two subscales for the assessment of emotion perception and regulation in the intra-personal domain and two subscales for the assessment of emotion perception and regulation in the inter-personal domain. Participants’ reports of effective emotion regulation in everyday life were associated with the COMT Met-allele, with women homozygous for the Val-allele scoring lowest on this scale. Self-estimated effectiveness of emotion perception of the individual’s own emotions was related to the 5-HTTLPR. Both homozygous groups (s/s and l/l) rated their intra-personal emotion perception less effective than participants in the heterozygous s/l group. Taken together, the results indicate that genetic variants of the COMT and 5HTTLPR genes are differentially associated with specific measures of the self-estimated effectiveness of an individual’s emotion perception and regulation in the intra-personal domain. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–9)