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Psychosocial interventions that mitigate psychosocial distress in cancer patients are important. The primary aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of an adaptation of the Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) program among adult cancer patients. A secondary aim was to examine pre–post-program changes in psychosocial wellbeing.
The research design was a feasibility and acceptability study, with an examination of pre- to post-intervention changes in psychosocial measures. A study information pack was posted to 173 adult cancer patients 6 months–5 years post-diagnosis, with an invitation to attend an eight-week group-based adaptation of the MSC program.
Thirty-two (19%) consented to the program, with 30 commencing. Twenty-seven completed the program (mean age: 62.93 years, SD 14.04; 17 [63%] female), attending a mean 6.93 (SD 1.11) group sessions. There were no significant differences in medico-demographic factors between program-completers and those who did not consent. However, there was a trend toward shorter time since diagnosis in the program-completers group. Program-completers rated the program highly regarding content, relevance to the concerns of cancer patients, and the likelihood of recommending the program to other cancer patients. Sixty-three percent perceived that their mental wellbeing had improved from pre- to post-program; none perceived a deterioration in mental wellbeing. Small-to-medium effects were observed for depressive symptoms, fear of cancer recurrence, stress, loneliness, body image satisfaction, mindfulness, and self-compassion.
Significance of results
The MSC program appears feasible and acceptable to adults diagnosed with non-advanced cancer. The preliminary estimates of effect sizes in this sample suggest that participation in the program was associated with improvements in psychosocial wellbeing. Collectively, these findings suggest that there may be value in conducting an adequately powered randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy of the MSC program in enhancing the psychosocial wellbeing of cancer patients.
Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
This chapter reviews the state of our knowledge about Saturn’s polar atmosphere that has been revealed through Earth- and space-based observation as well as theoretical and numerical modeling. In particular, the Cassini mission to Saturn, which has been in orbit around the ringed planet since 2004, has revolutionized our understanding of the planet. The current review updates a previous review by Del Genio et al. (2009), written after Cassini’s primary mission phase that ended in 2008, by focusing on the north polar region of Saturn and comparing it to the southern high latitudes. Two prominent features in the northern high latitudes are the northern hexagon and the north polar vortex; we extensively review observational and theoretical investigations to date of both features. We also review the seasonal evolution of the polar regions using the observational data accumulated during the Cassini mission since 2004 (shortly after the northern winter solstice in 2002), through the equinox in 2009, and approaching the next solstice in 2017. We conclude the current review by listing unanswered questions and describing the observations of the polar regions planned for the Grand Finale phase of the Cassini mission between 2016 and 2017.
This paper examines how state and non-state actors govern through pursuing speculative conservation among resource-dependent people who must renegotiate altered livelihoods amidst extractivism in ruptured landscapes. As donor aid declines and changes form, bilaterals, state agencies, and civil society now pursue advocacy in overlapping spaces of intensifying extractivism and speculative governance in the ruptured frontiers of Southeast Asia. In these spaces, bilaterals and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) struggle to work with upland farmers who negotiate the contrasting expectations of the abstract, speculative nature of conservation initiatives and the lucrative nature of extractive labour in the face of dramatic transformations of agrarian livelihoods and landscapes. Through a case study of the Philippine uplands, we demonstrate that as speculative conservation unfolds and manifests within and beyond these landscapes, it endeavours to revalue nature monetarily in ways that help reorganise labour and capital in an effort to overcome the exhaustion of capital wrought by rupture. We propose that during moments of rupture speculative conservation coproduces value from ruin by renewing and preserving capital flows.
This section under the above designation was first established by Pax in Engler's Bot. Jahrb., x, 205 (1889). The species chosen as representative of the section was P. nivalis Pall. This species with its numerous and widespread immediate allies affords an admirable centre for an exposition of the members of the section. The original definition of the sectionis still reasonably adequate, but its clarity was somewhat obscured by the admission of several species which indubitably belong elsewhere. Of the nine components quoted by Pax, five must be removed—P. sikkimensis and P. secundiflora, as well as the American P. Rusbyi and its two associates. In his Monograph (1) published in 1905 Pax made certain additions and corrections. The number of species indicated as within the section was increased to 15. He removed P. Rusbyi to what is now Candelabra, but P. Cusickiana and P. angustifolia were retained; so also were P. sikkimensis and P. secundiflora. On good grounds were included P. pumila, P. Aitchisonii, and P. eximia, but dubiously P. pulchella and P. Prattii. Correctly in our opinion came in P. Maximowiczii and its two allies P. szechuanica and P. tangutica.
Coastal plain stratigraphy is often over looked in paleo–sea-level reconstructions because carbonate sediments do not precisely constrain former sea level. Pacific Island sedimentology provides an invaluable record of geomorphic and environmental consequences of coastal evolution in response to changes in sea level and local tectonics. A series of coastal auger cores obtained from eastern ʻUpolu reveal a subsurface carbonate sand envelope predominately composed of coral and coralline algae derived from the reef framework. Coupling the sedimentological record with geophysical models of Holocene sea level, we identify a critical value (0.3–1.0 m) during the falling phase of the sea-level high stand (1899–2103 cal yr BP) that represents the transition from a transgressive to a regressive environment and initiates coastal progradation. Correlating the critical value with time, we observe nearly a millennium of coastal plain development is required before a small human population is established. Our findings support previous studies arguing that Sāmoa was colonized by small and isolated groups, as post–mid-Holocene drawdown in regional sea level produced coastal settings that were morphologically attractive for human settlement. As future sea level approaches mid-Holocene high stand values, lessons learned from Pacific Island sedimentological records may be useful in guiding future decisions related to coastal processes and habitat suitability.
Recent spectropolarimetric surveys of bright, hot stars have found that ~10% of OB-type stars contain strong (mostly dipolar) surface magnetic fields (~kG). The prominent paradigm describing the interaction between the stellar winds and the surface magnetic field is the magnetically confined wind shock (MCWS) model. In this model, the stellar wind plasma is forced to move along the closed field loops of the magnetic field, colliding at the magnetic equator, and creating a shock. As the shocked material cools radiatively it will emit X-rays. Therefore, X-ray spectroscopy is a key tool in detecting and characterizing the hot wind material confined by the magnetic fields of these stars. Some B-type stars are found to have very short rotational periods. The effects of the rapid rotation on the X-ray production within the magnetosphere have yet to be explored in detail. The added centrifugal force due to rapid rotation is predicted to cause faster wind outflows along the field lines, leading to higher shock temperatures and harder X-rays. However, this is not observed in all rapidly rotating magnetic B-type stars. In order to address this from a theoretical point of view, we use the X-ray Analytical Dynamical Magnetosphere (XADM) model, originally developed for slow rotators, with an implementation of new rapid rotational physics. Using X-ray spectroscopy from ESA’s XMM-Newton space telescope, we observed 5 rapidly rotating B-types stars to add to the previous list of observations. Comparing the observed X-ray luminosity and hardness ratio to that predicted by the XADM allows us to determine the role the added centrifugal force plays in the magnetospheric X-ray emission of these stars.
With strategically important diagnostic lines of, e.g., [O II], [O III] and [S II], secured with the Keck I HIRES, we obtained electron densities and temperatures, while retaining 3-D spatial information for the well-known elliptical nebula NGC 7009: we found that the temperature fluctuations exceeded those reported in the HST imaging study, i.e. Te ~9500 – 11500 K; we also found large velocity dispersions in the [S II] maps (with extremely high density fluctuations, i.e. log Ne = 3.8 – 4.5), but not in the [O II] ones. The [S II] map indicates that this emission is from numerous small-scale blobs of size ~ 1″ spread over a wider region, while [O II] shows no such evidence. The [S II] emission is likely to be due to shock excitation, while the [O II] emission is perhaps due to photoionization.
Acceleration, propagation, and energy loss of particles energized in solar flares cannot be studied separately because their radiative signatures observed in the form of hard X-ray bremsstrahlung or radio gyrosynchrotron emission represent a convolution of all these processes. We analyze hard X-ray emission from solar flares using a kinematic model that includes free-streaming electrons (having an energy-dependent time-of-flight delay) as well as temporarily trapped electrons (which are pitch-angle scattered by Coulomb collisional scattering) to determine various physical parameters (trapping times, flux asymmetry, loss-cone angles, magnetic mirror ratios) in flare loops with asymmetric magnetic fields.
We present multi-instrument observations of AR 8048, made between June 3 and June 5 1997 as part of SoHO JOP033. This active region (AR) has a sigmoid-like global shape and undergoes transient brightenings through which the stored energy is released.
Using a magneto-hydrostatic model, we compute coronal magnetic field. The large-scale magnetic lines confirm the sigmoidal characteristics of the AR. The field lines most closely matching the hotter SoHO/CDS loops extend along the quasi-separatrix-Iayers (QSLs) of the coronal field. Transition region (TR) brightenings observed with SoHO/CDS can be associated with both QSL intersections with the photosphere, and places where separatrices corresponding to bald patches (BPs, sites where field lines are tangent to the photosphere) lie at the photospheric plane. There are suggestions that the element abundances measured in the TR may depend on the type of topological structure present. TR brightenings associated with QSLs have coronal abundances, while those associated with BP separatrices have abundances closer to photospheric values.
Relatively little is known about the importance of phonological and orthographic processing skills for reading and spelling in monolingual and bilingual adults. We compared these underlying skills, using a series of phonological and orthographic tasks, in English monolingual (n = 28), English first language and Chinese second language bilingual (n = 21), and Chinese first language and English second language bilingual adults (n = 22) who were equally proficient in reading and spelling English, and examined the contributions of these skills to English word reading and spelling for each group. The results showed group differences in phonological processing, with English monolingual adults having better phonological skills than both groups of bilingual adults. No significant group differences were found for orthographic processing. Regression analyses showed phonological skills were a unique predictor of English word reading for both bilingual groups, but not for the English monolingual group. Orthographic skills were a significant predictor of English word spelling, but only for the English monolingual adults. This suggests there may be a long-lasting influence of being exposed to two contrasting languages on skills underlying literacy in bilingual individuals.
In situ Pleistocene reefs form a gently sloping nearshore terrace around the island of Oahu. TIMS Th–U ages of in situ corals indicate that most of the terrace is composed of reefal limestones correlating to Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 7 (MIS 7, ~ 190–245 ka). The position of the in situ MIS 7 reef complex indicates that it formed during periods when local sea level was ~ 9 to 20 m below present sea level. Its extensiveness and geomorphic prominence as well as a paucity of emergent in situ MIS 7 reef-framework deposits on Oahu suggest that much of MIS 7 was characterized by regional sea levels below present. Later accretion along the seaward front of the terrace occurred during the latter part of MIS 5 (i.e., MIS 5a–5d, ~ 76–113 ka). The position of the late MIS 5 reefal limestones is consistent with formation during a period when local sea level was below present. The extensiveness of the submerged Pleistocene reefs around Oahu compared to the relative dearth of Holocene accretion is due to the fact that Pleistocene reefs had both more time and more accommodation space available for accretion than their Holocene counterparts.
The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) has established use with older adult populations in New Zealand but few studies have evaluated its psychometric properties. Research with the psychometric properties of the HADS in elderly populations has primarily used correlational methods that do not allow for the effects of measurement error to be observed. The hypothesized tripartite model of anxiety and depression within the HADS was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) methods.
Overall, 203 community-dwelling older adults who were recruited from older adult community groups completed the HADS. Competing two- and three-factor structures were trialled using CFA.
A three-factor model indicated a lack of differentiation between factors and poor clinical utility and was rejected in favor of a two-factor model. Significant correlations were observed between the anxiety and depression factors on the two-factor model, but it was considered to have validity for older adult samples. Good internal consistency was found for the HADS.
A two-factor model of the HADS was favored due to the lack of differentiation between factors on the three-factor model, and the higher clinical utility of a two-factor solution. The validity of the HADS may be limited by over-diagnosing anxiety in non-clinical populations. It is recommended that the HADS be used to measure change over time through treatment and not be used as a diagnostic tool until future research establishes appropriate norms and cut-offs.
The Business Meeting of Commission 10 was held as part of the Business Meeting of Division II (Sun and Heliosphere), chaired by Valentin Martínez-Pillet, the President of the Division. The President of Commission 10 (C10; Solar activity), Lidia van Driel-Gesztelyi, took the chair for the business meeting of C10. She summarised the activities of C10 over the triennium and the election of the incoming OC.
Infants with Spina Bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing infants (TD) using a conjugate reinforcement paradigm at 6 months-of-age (n = 98) to evaluate learning, and retention of a sensory-motor contingency. Analyses evaluated infant arm-waving rates at baseline (wrist not tethered to mobile), during acquisition of the sensory-motor contingency (wrist tethered), and immediately after the acquisition phase and then after a delay (wrist not tethered), controlling for arm reaching ability, gestational age, and socioeconomic status. Although both groups responded to the contingency with increased arm-waving from baseline to acquisition, 15% to 29% fewer infants with SB than TD were found to learn the contingency depending on the criterion used to determine contingency learning. In addition, infants with SB who had learned the contingency had more difficulty retaining the contingency over time when sensory feedback was absent. The findings suggest that infants with SB do not learn motor contingencies as easily or at the same rate as TD infants, and are more likely to decrease motor responses when sensory feedback is absent. Results are discussed with reference to research on contingency learning in infants with and without neurodevelopmental disorders, and with reference to motor learning in school-age children with SB. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–10)
The establishment of Primula petiolaris and its allies as representing a distinct section of the genus was the work of Pax in Engler's Bot. Jahrb., x, 173 (1889). His definition of the section was reasonably adequate, allowance being made for the scanty material available to him. The main information at his disposal came from Wallich's diagnosis (1) of P. petiolaris in 1824 and Hooker's treatment (2) of that species and its varieties in 1882. The chief diagnostic marks instanced by Pax were the membranous leaves with very broad midrib and with sharply and closely erose-denticulate margin, the great variability in leaf-shape and in the degree of development of the scape, the rose-coloured flowers and the globose capsule. Very apposite were his comments on the difficulty in distinguishing the component species and his conviction that the many varieties of P. petiolaris may quite well represent individual species, although the lack of careful observations on living material compelled him to leave within that aggregate even such plants as P. Tanneri. Pax's conception of the confines of his section was better exemplified by his choice of its components than by his diagnosis.