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Childhood adversity is associated with poor mental and physical health outcomes across the life span. Alterations in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis are considered a key mechanism underlying these associations, although findings have been mixed. These inconsistencies suggest that other aspects of stress processing may underlie variations in this these associations, and that differences in adversity type, sex, and age may be relevant. The current study investigated the relationship between childhood adversity, stress perception, and morning cortisol, and examined whether differences in adversity type (generalized vs. threat and deprivation), sex, and age had distinct effects on these associations. Salivary cortisol samples, daily hassle stress ratings, and retrospective measures of childhood adversity were collected from a large sample of youth at risk for serious mental illness including psychoses (n = 605, mean age = 19.3). Results indicated that childhood adversity was associated with increased stress perception, which subsequently predicted higher morning cortisol levels; however, these associations were specific to threat exposures in females. These findings highlight the role of stress perception in stress vulnerability following childhood adversity and highlight potential sex differences in the impact of threat exposures.
Much of the interest in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis has been in understanding conversion. Recent literature has suggested that less than 25% of those who meet established criteria for being at CHR of psychosis go on to develop a psychotic illness. However, little is known about the outcome of those who do not make the transition to psychosis. The aim of this paper was to examine clinical symptoms and functioning in the second North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS 2) of those individuals whose by the end of 2 years in the study had not developed psychosis.
In NAPLS-2 278 CHR participants completed 2-year follow-ups and had not made the transition to psychosis. At 2-years the sample was divided into three groups – those whose symptoms were in remission, those who were still symptomatic and those whose symptoms had become more severe.
There was no difference between those who remitted early in the study compared with those who remitted at one or 2 years. At 2-years, those in remission had fewer symptoms and improved functioning compared with the two symptomatic groups. However, all three groups had poorer social functioning and cognition than healthy controls.
A detailed examination of the clinical and functional outcomes of those who did not make the transition to psychosis did not contribute to predicting who may make the transition or who may have an earlier remission of attenuated psychotic symptoms.
The use of monthly intranasal mupirocin was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission and Staphylococcus aureus invasive infection in a large neonatal intensive care unit. Resistance to mupirocin emerged over time, but it was rare and was not associated with adverse clinical outcomes.
This review considers the likely impact of changing consumer requirements, political pressure, economics and technological advances on the dairy production industry of the future. The vision is one of diverse strategies of production, the majority of milk being produced from cows managed technologically with much greater regard for welfare, with a number of ‘romantic’ strategies such as organic, extensive or dual-purpose production supplying niche markets. The important novel feature of the technological strategy will be an escape from the intensive twelve-month lactation cycle to extended lactations of, say, eighteen months, since this will reduce the number of times the cow is exposed to metabolic and other stresses associated with parturition, peak lactation and rebreeding.
Reliable and affordable technology for collecting and managing livestock production process information is being developed. The advances in data measurement, collection and transfer technology enable us to retrieve information from one or more remote sites to be processed and managed centrally. This opens up the opportunity to advance from open loop, prescriptive production to closed loop systems where factors influencing the actual performance of animals are used to modify and improve their production parameters (feed, environment, medication). We strive from producing animals by predicting what is needed using outdated data, to measuring what is actually happening as they grow, processing this information and acting to optimise animal performance by modifying production parameters in real time.
This paper describes commercially available systems that make possible the retrieval, collection, processing and distribution of near real time production information. Various aspects of production management using this technology are discussed, and examples of how it can be applied to monitor water usage, how it relates to pig performance and how energy usage can be influenced, are considered.
The developmental course of daily functioning prior to first psychosis-onset remains poorly understood. This study explored age-related periods of change in social and role functioning. The longitudinal study included youth (aged 12–23, mean follow-up years = 1.19) at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis (converters [CHR-C], n = 83; nonconverters [CHR-NC], n = 275) and a healthy control group (n = 164). Mixed-model analyses were performed to determine age-related differences in social and role functioning. We limited our analyses to functioning before psychosis conversion; thus, data of CHR-C participants gathered after psychosis onset were excluded. In controls, social and role functioning improved over time. From at least age 12, functioning in CHR was poorer than in controls, and this lag persisted over time. Between ages 15 and 18, social functioning in CHR-C stagnated and diverged from that of CHR-NC, who continued to improve (p = .001). Subsequently, CHR-C lagged behind in improvement between ages 21 and 23, further distinguishing them from CHR-NC (p < .001). A similar period of stagnation was apparent for role functioning, but to a lesser extent (p = .007). The results remained consistent when we accounted for the time to conversion. Our findings suggest that CHR-C start lagging behind CHR-NC in social and role functioning in adolescence, followed by a period of further stagnation in adulthood.
The Antarctic Roadmap Challenges (ARC) project identified critical requirements to deliver high priority Antarctic research in the 21st century. The ARC project addressed the challenges of enabling technologies, facilitating access, providing logistics and infrastructure, and capitalizing on international co-operation. Technological requirements include: i) innovative automated in situ observing systems, sensors and interoperable platforms (including power demands), ii) realistic and holistic numerical models, iii) enhanced remote sensing and sensors, iv) expanded sample collection and retrieval technologies, and v) greater cyber-infrastructure to process ‘big data’ collection, transmission and analyses while promoting data accessibility. These technologies must be widely available, performance and reliability must be improved and technologies used elsewhere must be applied to the Antarctic. Considerable Antarctic research is field-based, making access to vital geographical targets essential. Future research will require continent- and ocean-wide environmentally responsible access to coastal and interior Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Year-round access is indispensable. The cost of future Antarctic science is great but there are opportunities for all to participate commensurate with national resources, expertise and interests. The scope of future Antarctic research will necessitate enhanced and inventive interdisciplinary and international collaborations. The full promise of Antarctic science will only be realized if nations act together.
Since the date of the 1935 Paris meeting two total eclipses have been successfully observed. Throughout the long path crossing Siberia and Japan the weather on June 19, 1936 on the whole about lived up to predictions. On account of widely scattered clouds neighbouring expeditions had quite different luck with the weather. In contrast, the June 8, 1937 eclipse was seen throughout the whole track under universally clear skies, which is all the more surprising for the reason that eclipse expeditions to the tropics usually fare badly with the weather. Stewart and Stokley in a ship at sea were able to observe the eclipse with a measured duration of 7 min. 6 sec., the longest period of totality in 1200 years.
This is the last triennial report of Commission 42 for this millennium. A great deal has been accomplished in the study of Close Binary Stars (CBS) since the discovery of the first close (eclipsing) binary, Algol, in 1783 by John Goodricke. Now, over 10,000 CBS (most eclipsing variables) are known. More than 5000 of these CBS were discovered over the last several years alone! And many more are expected to be detected over the next few years. Most of these stars were found as spin-offs of microlensing surveys. Interestingly, nearly half of these stars are found outside our Galaxy, primarily in the Magellanic Clouds and M31. Every type of star is represented as a member of a close binary. These include main sequence (as well as pre-main sequence) stars, giants, and supergiants, with the entire possible range of of spectral types and masses represented. Moreover, “dying” stars and “dead” stars, such as white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, and, more recently, even brown dwarfs and giant planets (e.g., 51 Peg) have been found as members of close binary systems.
The Report in the part dealing with the minor planets and satellites has been compiled at the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy in collaboration of S. G. Makover (minor planets) and V. A. Shor (satellites). Contributions to this report have been received from S. Arend, H. Debehogne, J. Dommanget, P. Herget, S. Herrick, G. M. Jannini, B. G. Marsden, V. V. Michkovitch, B. Milet, Z. M. Pereyra, B. Popovič, E. Rabe, E. Roemer, J. Schubart, W. Strobel, C. Torres, H. Wood. The part on comets has been prepared by E. Roemer.
The main feature of minor planet research during this triennium has been the further application of modern electronic computing machines to the practice of computing. The time has gone when the computations of orbits and ephemerides were performed with the aid of logarithmic tables or with desk calculators. Therefore it is no wonder that all computational work in the field of the motion of minor planets is nowadays concentrated in a limited number of institutions provided with powerful up-to-date computing techniques, like the following.
(1)Institute of Theoretical Astronomy, Leningrad has used till recently a computer BESM-2 and now has at its disposal a new more powerful computer BESM-4.
(2)The Observatory of Cincinnati has used till recently a powerful computer NORC. Unfortunately this machine has been nowadays dismantled, but the observatory can perform some kinds of computations with an IBM-360 computer.
(3)Latvian State University, Riga, has made a large amount of computations with the computer BESM-2.
(4)University of California, Los Angeles, makes a large amount of computations with its own computer.
While the chief function and methods of operation of the Commission have remained much the same as in the past, there has been a gradual evolution in the nature of the proposals submitted. A greater fraction now come from countries in which the study of astronomy on a professional basis is as yet very recent and more proposals are being received from relatively young astronomers, although admittedly the distinction between a “young” and an “established” astronomer is not always easy to make. The commission may wish to consider whether or not it is advisable to reconsider its guidelines. Grants awarded during the interval 30 November 1981 and 31 January 1985 were the following.
Flickering is a poorly understood phenomenon associated with accretion processes, but this does not suffice to make it interesting. Why then should we bother studying this ‘noise’? Three reasons come to mind: (i) flickering is a fundamental signature of accretion, to the point of being a necessary characteristic (if it doesn’t flicker, it’s not a CV); (ii) energetically, flickering is not a small effect and can contribute up to a few tens of percent of the total luminosity of the system (hence it is often more luminous than the entire secondary star); (iii) flickering is inherently a time-dependent phenomenon and it is hoped that it can provide clues to the nature of the disc viscosity, something that time-independent theory cannot provide.
Flickering is a phenomenon associated with all known accretion powered processes. Yet despite its energetic importance and universality, our understanding of flickering remains elementary. Only recently has the flickering itself become a topic of serious investigation. This paper briefly addresses two fundamental observational questions: “Where is the flickering coming from?” and “What is the spectrum of the flickering?”.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and disabling condition with well-established heritability and environmental risk factors. Gene–environment interaction studies in MDD have typically investigated candidate genes, though the disorder is known to be highly polygenic. This study aims to test for interaction between polygenic risk and stressful life events (SLEs) or childhood trauma (CT) in the aetiology of MDD.
The RADIANT UK sample consists of 1605 MDD cases and 1064 controls with SLE data, and a subset of 240 cases and 272 controls with CT data. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were constructed using results from a mega-analysis on MDD by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. PRS and environmental factors were tested for association with case/control status and for interaction between them.
PRS significantly predicted depression, explaining 1.1% of variance in phenotype (p = 1.9 × 10−6). SLEs and CT were also associated with MDD status (p = 2.19 × 10−4 and p = 5.12 × 10−20, respectively). No interactions were found between PRS and SLEs. Significant PRSxCT interactions were found (p = 0.002), but showed an inverse association with MDD status, as cases who experienced more severe CT tended to have a lower PRS than other cases or controls. This relationship between PRS and CT was not observed in independent replication samples.
CT is a strong risk factor for MDD but may have greater effect in individuals with lower genetic liability for the disorder. Including environmental risk along with genetics is important in studying the aetiology of MDD and PRS provide a useful approach to investigating gene–environment interactions in complex traits.
Background: Schema Theory proposes that the development of maladaptive schemas are based on a combination of memories, emotions and cognitions regarding oneself and one's relationship to others. A cognitive model of psychosis suggests that schemas are crucial to the development and persistence of psychosis. Little is known about the impact that schemas may have on those considered to be at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing psychosis. Aims: To investigate schemas over time in a large sample of CHR individuals and healthy controls. Method: Sample included 765 CHR participants and 280 healthy controls. Schemas were assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months using the Brief Core Schema Scale (BCSS). Baseline schemas were compared to 2-year clinical outcome. Results: CHR participants evidenced stable and more maladaptive schemas over time compared to controls. Schemas at initial contact did not vary amongst the different clinical outcome groups at 2 years although all CHR outcome groups evidenced significantly worse schemas than healthy controls. Although there were no differences on baseline schemas between those who later transitioned to psychosis compared to those who did not, those who transitioned to psychosis had more maladaptive negative self-schemas at the time of transition. Associations between negative schemas were positively correlated with earlier abuse and bullying. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate a need for interventions that aim to improve maladaptive schemas among the CHR population. Therapies targeting self-esteem, as well as schema therapy may be important work for future studies.