To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
It is not an exaggeration to say that we live in an era preoccupied with the problems and challenges of obtaining justice in civil cases. Concerns expressed about the civil justice system range from warnings that civil court dockets are clogged by disputants too litigious for their own good to complaints that the legal system is used too rarely in civil cases.
The authors approach their analysis with a sense that this subject area is in need of more and better theory. It is an unfortunate fact that discussions of civil justice—and suggestions for reform—have been marked by contradiction and confusion and have been engrossed with small matters that tend to obscure from view the system as a whole.
The first part of this essay focuses on what the civil justice system is and does. It presents a five-stage model of civil case processing and examines relationships between this model and the criminal justice system. The second part of the essay considers this model in a broader context. Here the authors examine two paradigms of civil case processing and their implications for the implementation of legal norms and the pursuit of justice in society.
We report the discovery of one unique cataclysmic variable drawn from the Hamburg Quasar Survey, HS 2331 + 3905. Follow-up observations obtained over three years unveiled a very unusual picture. The large amplitude 3.5 h radial velocity variations obtained from our optical spectroscopy is not the orbital period of the system, as one would normally expect. Instead, extensive CCD photometry strongly suggests that HS 2331 + 3005 is a short orbital period cataclysmic variable with Рorb = 81.09 min, containing a cold white dwarf which appears to exhibit ZZ Ceti pulsations.
We introduce the newly developed database of circumstellar maser sources. Until now, the compilations comprehensively including the three major maser species in evolved stars (i.e., SiO, H2O, OH) has been practically limited only to the Benson’s catalog (Benson et al. 1990), which was published more than a quarter of a century ago. For OH masers alone, there exists the University of Hamburg (UH) database, but there is no updated compilation work for H2O and SiO masers. In order to utilize the information of masers in actual studies, it is highly desirable to have a database containing all the three masers. We are currently constructing a database covering SiO, H2O and OH masers. This database consists of a web-service, which accesses compiled maser observations in available archives and combines them with the data we newly collected and IR databases. The archives currently used are the OH maser archive from Engels & Bunzel (2015), and H2O and SiO archives, which are currently under construction. So far, the information of about 27,000 observations (about 10,000 objects) has been implemented. We also have a plan to extend the database by including higher transitions and other types of objects, such as young stellar objects, in future. In this paper, we briefly summarize, (1) outline of the data collected, and (2) future development plans of the eDAMS system. The URL of the database is as follows: http://maserdb.ins.urfu.ru/
Stereotypies are used as indicators of poor animal welfare and it is, therefore, important to understand underlying factors mediating their development. In calves, two oral stereotypies, that is, tongue playing and object manipulation, result mostly from insufficient structure in the diet. Three hypotheses were studied: (1) oral stereotypies in calves are one of two alternative strategies, the alternative being hypo-activity; (2) stereotyping and non-stereotyping calves differ in terms of cortisol secretion; (3) oral stereotypy development in calves rests on a gene by environment interaction. Eight-week-old bull calves (n=48) were assigned to one of four solid feed allowances (0, 9, 18 or 27 g dry matter/kg metabolic weight per day) with the following composition: 50% concentrate, 25% maize silage and 25% straw on dry matter basis. The calves received milk replacer in buckets, the provision of which was adjusted to achieve equal growth rates. At 14 to 18 weeks of age, calves were exposed to a challenge, that is, tethering inside cages. Oral stereotypies and inactivity were recorded in the home pens in the 4 weeks before the challenge using instantaneous scan sampling. Salivary cortisol levels were measured at −120, +40, +80, +120 min and +48 h relative to the challenge. Individual differences in behaviour were recorded in the first 30 min after challenge implementation using focal animal sampling and continuous recording, and these elements were entered into a principal component (PC) analysis to extract PCs. Regression analyses were performed to find relationships between stereotypies and inactivity, stereotypies and cortisol, and stereotypies and PCs (individual differences, genes) and solid feed (environment). Relationships between PCs and cortisol were also investigated to help with the interpretation of PCs. Hypotheses 1 and 2 were rejected. Hypothesis 3, however, was supported: calves with a zero solid feed allowance, that is, in the most barren environment, showed links between stereotypies and two of the PCs. Calves that displayed high levels of idle and rapid locomotion and low levels of oral contact with the cage during the challenge also displayed high levels of object manipulation in the home pens. Calves that displayed low levels of stepping and turning attempts during the challenge also displayed high levels of tongue playing in the home pens. This study corroborates the gene by environment interaction on the development of oral stereotypies in calves.
The Hamburg Quasar Survey is carrying out an objective-prism survey on Schmidt plates taken at the Spanish-German Astronomical Centre (DSAZ) on Calar Alto/Spain. We use a 1.7 deg objective-prism providing unwidened spectra with a dispersion of 1390 å/mm at Hγ on hypersensitized KODAK IIIa-J plates. The field size is 5.5 × 5.5 deg. For each field, two prism plates are taken to improve the recognition of faint spectra. A direct plate is taken to determine accurate positions, and to recognize overlaps and extended objects. The coverage of the extragalactic fields up to 1993 is given in Engels et al. (1993).
In the context of an identification program of sources from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) on Schmidt objective prism plates (Bade et al. 1992a, b) we discovered two galaxy pairs, which contain a narrow-line Seyfert 1 component with an X-ray luminosity of Lx ∼ 1044 erg s−1 and an HII–region galaxy. Apparently they are interacting. Their redshifts are 0.1 < z < 0.3 and their brightnesses 17.5 < B < 19.5. A third one was found among EINSTEIN sources. Typical separations between the components are 10″. Near the pairs other galaxies were found, and although their physical association is not confirmed spectroscopically it is quite probable that they form a small cluster of galaxies. ROSAT HRI observations indicate that the X-ray emission is not extended and originate from the AGN alone. It is remarkable that the AGN in all physical pairs identified so far have rather narrow permitted emission lines with linewidths ≤ 1500 km s−1.
Welfare Quality® (WQ) assessment protocols place the emphasis on animal-based measures as an indicator for animal welfare. Stakeholders, however, emphasize that a reduction in the time taken to complete the protocol is essential to improve practical applicability. We studied the potential for reduction in time to complete the WQ broiler assessment protocol and present some modifications to the protocol correcting a few errors in the original calculations. Data was used from 180 flocks assessed on-farm and 150 flocks assessed at the slaughter plant. Correlations between variables were calculated, and where correlation was moderate, meaningful and promising (in terms of time reduction), simplification was considered using one variable predicted from another variable. Correlation analysis revealed a promising correlation between severe hock burn and gait scores on-farm. Therefore, prediction of gait scores using hock burn scores was studied further as a possible simplification strategy (strategy 1). Measurements of footpad dermatitis, hock burn, cleanliness and gait score on-farm correlated moderately to highly with slaughter plant measurements of footpad dermatitis and/or hock burn, supporting substitution of on-farm measurements with slaughter plant data. A simplification analysis was performed using footpad dermatitis, hock burn, cleanliness and gait scores measured on-farm predicted from slaughter plant measurements of footpad dermatitis and hock burn (strategy 2). Simplification strategies were compared with the full assessment protocol. Close agreement was found between the full protocol and both simplification strategies although large confidence intervals were found for specificity of the simplified models. It is concluded that the proposed simplification strategies are encouraging; strategy 1 can reduce the time to complete the on-farm assessment by ~1 h (25% to 33% reduction) and strategy 2 can reduce on-farm assessment time by ~2 h (50% to 67% reduction). Both simplification strategies should, however, be validated further, and tested on farms with a wide distribution across the different welfare categories of WQ.
We have used in situ polar Kerr effect measurements to study the magnetic coercivity and anisotropy of MBE-grown Pd (111) /Co/X and Au (111) /Co/X trilayers, where χ is the nonmagnetic noble or transition metal overlayer Ag, Cu or Pd. Polar hysteresis curves were Measured in situ for systematically varied Co and overlayer thicknesses 2 Å ≤ tco ≤ 20 Å and 0 Å ≤ tx ≤ 50 Å. We find the coercivity and total anisotropy display a strongly peaked perpendicular contribution at ∼1 atomic layer (2 Å) non-Magnetic Metal coverage. For Cu, where the effect is strongest, the total anisotropy energy rapidly decreases by a factor of 3 from its peak value after a total coverage of ∼2 atomic layers (4 A) of Cu.
The human–animal relationship is an important component of the welfare of farm animals and for this reason animal responsiveness tests to humans are included in on-farm welfare assessment schemes that provide indicators for this. However, apart from the behaviour of stockpersons towards their animals, other factors may also influence animals’ reactivity to humans as observed through behavioural tests, which can add a further layer of complexity to the interpretation of test results. Knowledge of these factors may help a better interpretation of differences from one farm to another in the outcome of human–animal relationship tests, and may provide clues for improving the relationship between animals and humans. The main objective of this study was to identify whether management or environmental factors could influence the outcome of human–animal relationship tests in veal calves. Two tests were performed when calves were aged 14.9 ± 1.6 (SD) weeks in 148 veal farms: the voluntary approach of an unfamiliar human standing at the feeding fence and the reaction towards an unfamiliar human who entered the home pen and tried to touch each calf in a standardised way (Calf Escape Test (CET) – score 0 to 4). Questionnaires were filled in and interviews with the stockpersons were performed in order to obtain information on stockpersons, management, animal and building characteristics. The latency to touch an unfamiliar human at the feeding fence was significantly correlated with the CET scores. Total number of calves on the farm, space allowance, breed, environmental enrichment, stockperson's experience and season of observation influenced the percentage of calves that scored 0 in CET (i.e. calves that could not be approached). Type of milk distribution, type of breed and number of calves per stockperson influenced the percentage of calves that scored 4 in CET (i.e. calves could be touched). For both CET0 and CET4, the level of self-reported contacts by the stockperson (analysed only on the French subset of 36 farms) did not influence the results. This paper concludes that according to the tests conducted on veal calves on commercial farms, factors such as milk distribution method, breed of the calves or the level of experience of stockpersons with veal farming can have an impact on the results of tests focusing on human–animal relationships.
The physiological range of respiratory rates and heart rates in neonates is approximately 40 per min and 120 per min, respectively, which yields a theoretical ventilation-compression ratio of 1:3ratherthan 1:5.
Thirty-six anesthetized pigs with an average body weight of 4–5 kg were used in the study. After establishing a steady state by artificial ventilation with 100% oxygen, a cardiac arrest was induced by an intravenous injection of potassium chloride. Following the cardiac arrest, the animals were resuscitated with ventilation rates of 30 and 40 per min, respectively, while external cardiac compression was performed at rates between 60 and 160 per min. Randomly selected animals were resuscitated with ventilation-compression ratios of 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 for 10 min each, 6 animals each were ventilated using a ventilation rate of 30 per min, 40 per min, or positive end-expiratory pressure.
Progress in achieving improved performance in the generation and utilization of hydrogen depends on our ability to identify materials with optimized electrical and (photo)- electrochemical performance. Given their high volume fraction of interfaces, high chemical stability and versatility (ionic, electronic, optical property control), nanocrystalline electroceramic materials are of growing interest for advanced energy conversion and storage technologies. As grain size decreases towards the Debye length and grain boundaries come in closer proximity, space charge properties begin to dominate, resulting in modified charge transport. Through systematic variation of grain boundary properties by heterogeneous indiffusion of cations, the electronic and ionic carrier profiles in the space charge region may be altered. The relationships between space charge potential and defect profiles in the space charge regions are quantitatively analyzed, and implications for nano-ionic materials in thin film solid oxide fuel cells are discussed. From the standpoint of photoelectrochemical water splitting for hydrogen generation, optimizing the band gap, band alignments, and transport properties while retaining stability has remained a challenging objective. Novel nanocrystalline composite structures are discussed which exhibit features amenable to optimization of required properties and electrical measurements to determine key transport properties of titanium dioxide nanopowder, a photoanode material are introduced.
We have studied the damage and strain produced in Ge (100) single crystals by implantation of various doses of 300 keV 28Si ions at room temperature. The analyzing tools were x-ray double-crystal diffractometry, and MeV 4He channeling spectrometry. The damage induced by implantation produces positive strain in Ge (100). The maximum perpendicular strain and maximum defect concentration rise nonlinearly with increasing dose. These quantities are linearly related with a dose-independent coefficient of ∼ 0.013 for Ge (100) single crystals implanted at room temperature. The results are compared with those available for Si (100) self-implantation. We have also monitored the strain and defects generated in pseudomorphic Ge0.1Si0.9/Si (100) films induced by room temperature 28Si ion implantation. It is found that the relationship between the strain and defect concentration induced by ion implantation is no longer a simple linear one.
Si1−xGex/Si heterostructures with varying layer-thicknesses have been characterized using photoluminescence and magnetic resonance detected on photoluminescence. Three of the four samples studied exhibit sharp photoluminescence bands at different energies. For a 120 Å Si/40 Å Si1−xGex heterostructure, magnetic resonance of an electron in the Si and of a hole in the Sil. xGex layers were observed. These results indicate cross-interface, or Type II, excitonic recombination. Further, anisotropie magnetic resonance spectra indicate the presence of dangling-bonds defects in the heterostructures.
We have used in situ polar Kerr effect measurements to study the magnetic anisotropy of X/Co/Y sandwich structures grown by MBE on Cu(111) buffers, where X and Y are variable thicknesses of Au. For fixed values of Y and in the case of an underlayer wedge, e.g. variable X value, we have found a sharp minimum in both coercive field and perpendicular anisotropy at ≈1 atomic layer of the Au underlayer. This anisotropy behavior is opposite to that of an Au overlayer deposited on a Co film, i.e. variable Y and fixed X.
In this paper we report on the measurement of electrical properties of multielement ceramics in the ternary Si-C-N system using the impedance spectroscopy. The results were correlated to the chemical composition, the hybridization state and the microstructural characteristics investigated by chemical analysis, X-Ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), Raman Spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD).
The behavioural patterns of humpback whales are known to vary according to the social function of individuals in a group. To identify behavioural patterns related to specific group compositions, we observed events and behavioural states of humpback whales during research cruises in the Abrolhos Bank, Brazil, in the reproductive seasons from 1992 to 2003. We monitored 3022 groups and found a predominance of competitive groups without calves, when compared to competitive groups with calves. A Bayesian network analysis supplied occurrence probabilities for the behaviours analysed, indicating higher probabilities of occurrence for the behavioural patterns designated travelling and socializing. The model, generated from a binomial logistic regression, was able to predict competitive groups in association with the occurrence of the following aggressive behaviours: head-lunging, trumpet and bubblestreams. This study suggests the existence of behavioural patterns associated with specific group compositions and reinforces the concept that there is a clear-cut relation between competitive groups and the occurrence of aggressive behaviours. The preferential association of males to females with high reproductive potential for the following year (i.e. females without a calf) was also identified.
Molecular analysis has become a powerful tool in cetacean ecology since it supports efficient conservation policies. Remote biopsy sampling is the most efficient method to obtain epithelial material for analysis purposes; however, as an intrusive technique it presents inherent costs, evidenced by behavioural reactions. Clarifying which factors influence these responses is essential to assess its impact and prevent possible long-term effects. For eleven winters, samples from humpback whales were collected in the Abrolhos Bank, the main breeding ground of this species in the western South Atlantic. We analysed the influence of several characteristics of the shot, vessels, groups and behaviour on the frequency and intensity of the whales' response. The majority of biopsied whales did not show any detectable response. Among those that responded, a low-level category of reaction was most frequent. The use of larger boats resulted in less intense responses. Responses were influenced by group size and behavioural state: large groups, which were involved in aggressive mating behaviour, reacted less frequently than smaller groups. Females with calves showed less intense reactions than non-lactating females. The behaviour of the animals prior to and during the boat approach also affected their response: resting whales responded more intensely than whales involved in social or travel activities. Comparison with previous studies confirmed that reactions vary in intensity according to location: whales biopsied in feeding grounds responded with more intensity than those in breeding grounds, which in turn responded more intensely than whales in migration. This study reinforces existing evidence that biopsy sampling is unlikely to have long-term effects and can thus continue to be used as one of the main tools to access information which is vital for conservation.