To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We conducted joint analyses from five randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of online family problem-solving therapy (OFPST) for children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to identify child and parent outcomes most sensitive to OFPST and trajectories of recovery over time.
We examined data from 359 children with complicated mild to severe TBI, aged 5–18, randomized to OFPST or a control condition. Using profile analyses, we examined group differences on parent-reported child (internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, executive function behaviors, social competence) and family outcomes (parental depression, psychological distress, family functioning, parent–child conflict).
We found a main effect for measure for both child and family outcomes [F(3, 731) = 7.35, p < .001; F(3, 532) = 4.79, p = .003, respectively], reflecting differing degrees of improvement across measures for both groups. Significant group-by-time interactions indicated that children and families in the OFPST group had fewer problems than controls at both 6 and 18 months post baseline [t(731) = −5.15, p < .001, and t(731) = −3.90, p = .002, respectively, for child outcomes; t(532) = −4.81, p < .001, and t(532) = −3.80, p < .001, respectively, for family outcomes].
The results suggest limited differences in the measures’ responsiveness to treatment while highlighting OFPST’s utility in improving both child behavior problems and parent/family functioning. Group differences were greatest at treatment completion and after extended time post treatment.
Whole grain cereal breakfast consumption has been associated with beneficial effects on glucose and insulin metabolism as well as satiety. Pearl millet is a popular ancient grain variety that can be grown in hot, dry regions. However, little is known about its health effects. This study investigated the effect of a pearl millet porridge (PMP) compared with a well-known Scottish oats porridge (SOP) on glycaemic, gastrointestinal, hormonal and appetitive responses. In a randomized, two way crossover trial, 26 healthy participants consumed two iso-energetic/volumetric PMP or SOP breakfast meals, served with a drink of water. Blood samples for glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GIP and PYY, gastric volumes and appetite ratings were collected for two hours postprandially, followed by an ad libitum meal and food intake records for the remainder of the day. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC2h) for blood glucose was not significantly different between the porridges (p ˃ 0.05). The iAUC2h gastric volume was larger for PMP compared with SOP (p = 0.045). The iAUC2h GIP concentration was significantly lower for PMP compared with SOP (p = 0.001). Other hormones and appetite responses were similar between meals. In conclusion, this study reports, for the first time, data on glycaemic and physiological responses to a pearl millet breakfast, showing that this ancient grain could represent a sustainable, alternative, with health-promoting characteristics comparable to oats. GIP is an incretin hormone linked to triacylglycerol absorption in adipose tissue, therefore the lower GIP response for PMP may be an added health benefit.
We studied the genetic diversity and the population structure of human isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum, the causative agent of histoplasmosis, using a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) assay to identify associations with the geographic distribution of isolates from Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia and Argentina. The RAPD-PCR pattern analyses revealed the genetic diversity by estimating the percentage of polymorphic loci, effective number of alleles, Shannon's index and heterozygosity. Population structure was identified by the index of association (IA) test. Thirty-seven isolates were studied and clustered into three groups by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Group I contained five subgroups based on geographic origin. The consistency of the UPGMA dendrogram was estimated by the cophenetic correlation coefficient (CCCr = 0.94, P = 0.001). Isolates from Mexico and Colombia presented higher genetic diversity than isolates from Argentina. Isolates from Guatemala grouped together with the reference strains from the United States of America and Panama. The IA values suggest the presence of a clonal population structure in the Argentinian H. capsulatum isolates and also validate the presence of recombining populations in the Colombian and Mexican isolates. These data contribute to the knowledge on the molecular epidemiology of histoplasmosis in Latin America.
For the quantitative analysis of a 65 Cu-30 Ni-S Fe alloy, a 96 Cu-3 Si-1 Mn alloy, and a 78 Cu-20 Zn-2 Al alloy, the Ziebold empirical method of correcting electron-microbeam-probe data was used. Four binary standards, of single-phase Cu-Ni, Ni-Fe, Cu-Mn, and Cu-Zn alloys, were cast and the a correction factor found for each element in each binary by Ziebold's relationship (1 – K)/K – α (1 – C)/C, where K – I/I0 found in the probe and C is the weight fraction found by wet chemistry. The ARL EMX probe was used at 30 kV with a 25-μ beam diameter to negate inhomogeneities. Experience with these binaries indicated that in the presence of secondary fluorescence, the experimental α values agreed poorly with theoretically calculated K values; however, where secondary fluorescence was negligible, agreement between the experimental and theoretical α values was good. The α values for Cu–Si, Cu–Al, Al-Zn, and Mn–Si alioys, were therefore calculated from the theoretical equations. The α values for Cu–Fe alloys were also calculated from theoretical considerations because single-phase binaries over the composition range of interest could not be made for this system. All these α values were used in Ziebold's ternary equations to correct probe data (again using a 25-μ beam) from specimens of Cu–Ni-Fe, Cu–Si–Mn, and Cu-Zn–Al. These results were compared to wet-chemistry analyses for the same specimens with quite good correlation between the two sets of data. Calibration curves for the binary systems Cu-Ni, Cu-Fe, Ni-Fe, Cu-Mn, Cu-Si, Mn-Si, Cu-Al, Cu-Zn, and Al-Zn were made and are reproduced.
The study of cultural stability requires a knowledge of cultural development over a reasonably long span of time. The definition of this time perspective is one of the major contributions of archaeology to the study of culture. The archaeologist therefore should be in a position to make a significant contribution to the appraisal of the stability problem itself. However, the lack of a commonly accepted anthropological definition of the concept of cultural stability imposes semantic difficulties which hinder the determination of practical limits for the stability- instability problem area. Moreover, the nature of the data available to the archaeologist conditions the kind of contribution he can make.
Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) present in wheat and barley can act as anti-nutrients leading to an increase in digesta viscosity and a reduction in nutrient digestibility. Xylanase, an NSP-degrading enzyme, has been shown to increase nutrient digestibility in pigs. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the optimum inclusion level of xylanase in grower pig diets by measuring the effect of increasing enzyme levels on growth performance, the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and peptide YY concentration in portal and peripheral blood of grower pigs and (2) to increase our understanding of the interrelationships between xylanase inclusion, VFA production and peptide YY secretion. A total of 512 grower pigs ((Large White×Landrace)×MAXGRO) were allocated to pens creating 32 replicates of four pigs per pen per treatment. Pigs were allocated to trial weighing 14.2±0.31 kg and remained on trial until ~41.5±3.31 kg. The experiment was a dose response design with four inclusion levels (0, 8000, 16 000 or 32 000 BXU/kg) of xylanase (Econase XT). Diets were cereal-based wheat, barley mix formulated to meet or exceed the nutrient requirements of grower pigs. Body weight and feed intake were recorded to calculate growth performance. Pen faecal samples were collected to estimate DM, organic matter (OM) and crude fibre (CF) apparent total-tract digestibility. At the end of the trial 16 pigs per treatment were euthanised by schedule 1 procedures. Peripheral and portal blood samples were collected for peptide YY and VFA analysis. The addition of xylanase to the diet had no effect on growth performance, DM, OM or CF total-tract digestibility; however, xylanase tended to have a quadratic effect on ileum pH with higher pH values recorded for pigs fed a diet supplemented with 8000 and 16 000 BXU/kg xylanase (P<0.1). Xylanase had no effect on peptide YY levels or VFA concentration. Total VFA concentration was higher in portal compared with peripheral blood (P<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of xylanase had no effect on grower pig performance, nutrient digestibility, VFA concentration or peptide YY concentration when fed up to 32 000 BXU/kg over a 35-day period. Pig performance was good for all treatments throughout the trial suggesting that diet quality was sufficient thus there were no beneficial effects of adding xylanase.
Research on the cities of the Classical Greek world has traditionally focused on mapping the organisation of urban space and studying major civic or religious buildings. More recently, newer techniques such as field survey and geophysical survey have facilitated exploration of the extent and character of larger areas within urban settlements, raising questions about economic processes. At the same time, detailed analysis of residential buildings has also supported a change of emphasis towards understanding some of the functional and social aspects of the built environment as well as purely formal ones. This article argues for the advantages of analysing Greek cities using a multidisciplinary, multi-scalar framework which encompasses all of these various approaches and adds to them other analytical techniques (particularly micro-archaeology). We suggest that this strategy can lead towards a more holistic view of a city, not only as a physical place, but also as a dynamic community, revealing its origins, development and patterns of social and economic activity. Our argument is made with reference to the research design, methodology and results of the first three seasons of fieldwork at the city of Olynthos, carried out by the Olynthos Project.
On 1 December 2011 the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice-core project reached its final depth of 3405 m. The WAIS Divide ice core is not only the longest US ice core to date, but is also the highest-quality deep ice core, including ice from the brittle ice zone, that the US has ever recovered. The methods used at WAIS Divide to handle and log the drilled ice, the procedures used to safely retrograde the ice back to the US National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL) and the methods used to process and sample the ice at the NICL are described and discussed.
This paper presents both linear and nonlinear analyses of extreme responses for a multi-body wave energy converter (WEC) in severe sea states. The WEC known as M4 consists of three cylindrical floats with diameters and draft which increase from bow to stern with the larger mid and stern floats having rounded bases so that the overall system has negligible drag effects. The bow and mid float are rigidly connected by a beam and the stern float is connected by a beam to a hinge above the mid float where the rotational relative motion would be damped to absorb power in operational conditions. A range of focussed wave groups representing extreme waves were tested on a scale model without hinge damping, also representing a more general system of interconnected cylindrical floats with multi-mode forcing. Importantly, the analysis reveals a predominantly linear response structure in hinge angle and weakly nonlinear response for the beam bending moment, while effects due to drift forces, expected to be predominantly second order, are not accounted for. There are also complex and violent free-surface effects on the model during the excitation period driven by the main wave group, which generally reduce the overall motion response. Once the main group has moved away, the decaying response in the free-vibration phase decays at a rate very close to that predicted by simple linear radiation damping. Two types of nonlinear harmonic motion are demonstrated. During the free-vibration phase, there are only double and triple frequency Stokes harmonics of the linear motion, captured using a frequency doubling and tripling model. In contrast, during the excitation phase, these harmonics show much more complex behaviour associated with nonlinear fluid loading. Although bound harmonics are visible in the system response, the overall response is remarkably linear until temporary submergence of the central float (‘dunking’) occurs. This provides a strong stabilising effect for angular amplitudes greater than
and can be treated as a temporary loss of part of the driving wave as long as submergence continues. With an experimentally and numerically derived response amplitude operator (RAO), we perform a statistical analysis of extreme response for the hinge angle based on wave data at Orkney, well known for its severe wave climate, using the NORA10 wave hindcast. For storms with spectral peak wave periods longer than the RAO peak period, the response is controlled by the steepness of the sea state rather than the wave height. Thus, the system responds very similarly under the most extreme sea states, providing an upper bound for the most probable maximum response, which is reduced significantly in directionally spread waves. The methodology presented here is relevant to other single and multi-body systems including WECs. We also demonstrate a general and potentially important reciprocity result for linear body motion in random seas: the averaged wave history given an extreme system response and the average response history given an extreme wave match in time, with time reversed for one of the signals. This relationship will provide an efficient and robust way of defining a ‘designer wave’, for both experimental testing and computationally intensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD), for a wide range of wave–structure interaction problems.
Sleep problems are associated with increased risk of physical and mental illness. Identifying risk factors is an important method of reducing public health impact. We examined the association between maternal postnatal depression (PND) and offspring adolescent sleep problems.
The sample was derived from Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) participants. A sample with complete data across all variables was used, with four outcome variables. A sensitivity analysis imputing for missing data was conducted (n = 9633).
PND was associated with increased risk of sleep problems in offspring at ages 16 and 18 years. The most robust effects were sleep problems at 18 years [adjusted odds ratio (OR) for a 1 s.d. increase in PND, 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15–1.39, p < 0.001] and waking more often (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.05–1.25, p = 0.003). This remained after controlling for confounding variables including antenatal depression and early sleep problems in infancy.
PND is associated with adolescent offspring sleep problems. Maternal interventions should consider the child's increased risk. Early sleep screening and interventions could be introduced within this group.
We utilized a disease progression model to predict the number of viraemic infections, cirrhotic cases, and liver-related deaths in the state of Rhode Island (RI) under four treatment scenarios: (1) current HCV treatment paradigm (about 215 patients treated annually, Medicaid reimbursement criteria fibrosis stage ⩾F3); (2) immediate scale-up of treatment (to 430 annually) and less restrictive Medicaid reimbursement criteria (fibrosis stage ⩾F2); (3) immediate treatment scale-up and no fibrosis stage-specific Medicaid reimbursement criteria (⩾F0); (4) an ‘elimination’ scenario (i.e. a continued treatment scale-up needed to achieve >90% reduction in viraemic cases by 2030). Under current treatment models, the number of cirrhotic cases and liver-related deaths will plateau and peak by 2030, respectively. Treatment scale-up with ⩾F2 and ⩾F0 fibrosis stage treatment criteria could reduce the number of cirrhotic cases by 21·7% and 10·0%, and the number of liver-related deaths by 19·3% and 7·4%, respectively by 2030. To achieve a >90% reduction in viraemic cases by 2030, over 2000 persons will need to be treated annually by 2020. This strategy could reduce cirrhosis cases and liver-related deaths by 78·9% and 72·4%, respectively by 2030. Increased HCV treatment uptake is needed to substantially reduce the burden of HCV by 2030 in Rhode Island.
New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration data sets extend an additional 2000 yr, from 0–26 cal kyr BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision, and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically-dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0–10.5 cal kyr BP. Beyond 10.5 cal kyr BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific 14C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5–26.0 cal kyr BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the 14C age to calculate the underlying calibration curve (Buck and Blackwell, this issue). The marine data sets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring data sets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al. (this issue).
Having worked on several approaches to CO2 capture over the past decade, we have studied a great number of physical and chemical solvents as well as polymer and composite membranes. Initially, most of these materials were based upon ionic liquids (ILs), however due to challenges encountered in applying ILs to meet the demanding requirements in CO2 separation processes, there is a need to reconsider what role (if any) ILs might play in CO2 capture technologies. Ultimately, more promising and robust materials will not come from ILs themselves, but from retrosynthetic analysis and a reconsideration of which structural variables and properties are (and are not) important. The hybridization of the constituent parts into entirely new, yet seemingly familiar substances, can yield greatly improved properties and economics. This manuscript highlights recent work from our group based on lessons learned from ILs that have spurred the development of new amine solvents and polymer materials to better address the demanding process conditions and requirements of CO2 capture and related separations.
Background: Planning for neurology training necessitated a reflection on the experience of graduates. We explored practice characteristics, and training experience of recent graduates. Methods: Graduates from 2010-2014 completed a survey. Results: Response rate was 37% of 211. 56% were female. 91% were adult neurologists. 65% practiced in an outpatient setting. 63% worked in academics. 85% completed subspecialty training (median 1 year). 36% work 3 days a week or less. 82% took general call (median 1 night weekly). Role preparation was considered very good or excellent for most; however poor or fair ratings were 17% in advocacy and 8% in leadership. Training feedback was at least “good” for 87%. Burnout a few times a week or more was noted by 5% (6% during residency, particularly PGY1 and 5). 64% felt overly burdened by paperwork. Although most felt training was adequate, it was poor or fair at preparing for practice management (85%) and personal balance (55%). Most conditions were under-observed in training environment. Many noted a need for more independent practice development and community neurology. Conclusions: Although our training was found to be very good, some identified needs included advocacy training, and more training in general neurology in the longitudinal outpatient/community settings.
Interest in minor planets and comets continued to grow during the triennium, sparked in part by the highly successful 1983 mission of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) as well as by activities associated with the return of P/Halley and the first spacecraft missions to comets. A trial of the Astrometry Network of the International Halley Watch (IHW) on P/Crommelin was quite successful. Yet with an increasing need for precise ephemerides, there continued to be concern for acquisition and timely reporting of astrometric observations of even the best known comets.
The SPECTRUM - X-GAMMA mission is being developed by the Space Research Institute (IKI), USSR, together with many other countries and is scheduled for launch in 1993 ( Sunyaev,1990; Schnopper,1990). Mission objectives include broad and narrow band imaging spectroscopy over a wide range of energies from the EUV through gamma rays, with an emphasis on studying galactic and extragalactic X-ray sources. The Danish Space Research Institute (DSRI) and IKI will provide two thin-foil X-ray telescopes (SODART), each with an aperture of 60 cm and focal length of 8 m. They are designed to have a half-power width of less than 2 arc minutes and will have collecting areas of 1700, 1200 and 100 cm2 at 1, 8 and 20 keV, respectively. Images and polarization will be recorded by position-sensitive proportional counters. Moderate resolution spectroscopy will be done by the segmented solid state detector SIXA (Silicon X-ray Array), designed and to be constructed by a consortium in Finland, Denmark and USSR. Finland will have the main responsibility in financing and delivering the detector. The Institute of Electromechanics in Moscow will provide its passive cooling system (110 K). The detector will consist of 19 segments (Si(Li)), each with a diameter of about 8 mm. The spectral resolution of 160 eV (at 6 keV), combined with the large collecting area, provide good opportunities for time-resolved iron line spectroscopy ( 6-8 keV). The potential observing program includes stellar coronae, cataclysmic variables and X-ray binaries, accretion discs and coronae of neutron stars and black hole candidates, supernova-remnants, active galactic nuclei, clusters of galaxies and the diffuse cosmic X-ray background. We demonstrate the instrument’s power through some astrophysical simulations.
We have built a new radio astronomical receiving system designed specifically for very high precision timing and polarimetry of fast pulsars. Unlike most detectors currently used to study pulsars, this intrument does not square the received signal at the time of observation. Instead, voltages proportional to the instantaneous electric vectors of incoming signals are digitized, time-tagged, and recorded on high speed magnetic media. We have tested the system using a 5 MHz bandwidth signal with 2-bit digitization at the Greenbank 140 foot telescope. Full polarization information was obtained with a 0.2 μs time resolution. We have used this system to study the giant pulses emitted by PSR B0531+21 and PSR B1937+21, to determine high precision dispersion measures, and to perform high precision timing and polarimetry.
We present Arecibo observations of PSR B1534+12 which confirm previous suggestions that the pulse profile is evolving secularly. This effect is similar to that seen in PSR B1913+16, and is almost certainly due to general relativistic precession of the pulsar’s spin axis.
This paper considers science aspects of a 1980 spacecraft reconnaissance of Comet Encke. The mission discussed is a ballistic flyby (more exactly, a fly-through) of P/Encke, using either a spin-stabilized spacecraft, without despin of instruments, or a 3-axis-stabilized spacecraft. Celestial mechanics and imaging aspects of such a mission have been considered in more detail by Bender (1) and by Jaffe et al (2), respectively. Engineering designs (3, 4) and more detailed accounts of science aspects are given in other documents. A different approach to an Encke ballistic flyby has been suggested by Farquahar et al (5). Yeomans (6) has considered ephemeris uncertainties associated with such missions.
We discuss observations of giant pulses from the millisecond pulsar PSR B1937+21 at 430 MHz, with a baseband sampling system at Arecibo (Shrauner et al., these proceedings) and coherent dedispersion techniques. About one pulse or interpulse per hundred thousand is stronger than 100 times the mean flux density, and the giant pulse strengths follow a power law distribution somewhat shallower than that of the Crab giant pulses. The individual giant pulses appear consistent with impulses shorter than a few microseconds, convolved with an exponential due to interstellar scattering. They are systematically delayed with respect to the average emission, and many are nearly 100% circularly polarized.