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In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology has expanded to include UAV sprayers capable of applying pesticides. Very little research has been conducted to optimize application parameters and measure the potential of off-target movement from UAV-based pesticide applications. Field experiments were conducted in Raleigh, NC during spring 2018 to characterize the effect of different application speeds and nozzle types on target area coverage and uniformity of UAV applications. The highest coverage was achieved with an application speed of 1 m s−1 and ranged from 30% to 60%, whereas applications at 7 m s−1 yielded 13% to 22% coverage. Coverage consistently decreased as application speed increased across all nozzles, with extended-range flat-spray nozzles declining at a faster rate than air-induction nozzles, likely due to higher drift. Experiments measuring the drift potential of UAV-applied pesticides using extended-range flat spray, air-induction flat-spray, turbo air–induction flat-spray, and hollow-cone nozzles under 0, 2, 4, 7, and 9 m s−1 perpendicular wind conditions in the immediate 1.75 m above the target were conducted in the absence of natural wind. Off-target movement was observed under all perpendicular wind conditions with all nozzles tested but was nondetectable beyond 5 m away from the target. Coverage from all nozzles exhibited a concave-shaped curve in response to the increasing perpendicular wind speed due to turbulence. The maximum target coverage in drift studies was observed when the perpendicular wind was 0 and 8.94 m s−1, but higher turbulence at the two highest perpendicular wind speeds (6.71 and 8.94 m s−1) increased coverage variability, whereas the lowest variability was observed at 2.24 m s−1 wind speed. Results suggested that air-induction flat-spray and turbo air–induction flat-spray nozzles and an application speed of 3 m s−1 provided an adequate coverage of target areas while minimizing off-target movement risk.
Although most non-typhoidal Salmonella illnesses are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment is critical for invasive infections. To describe resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne outbreaks in the United States, we linked outbreaks submitted to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System to isolate susceptibility data in the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Resistant outbreaks were defined as those linked to one or more isolates with resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug. Multidrug resistant (MDR) outbreaks had at least one isolate resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. Twenty-one per cent (37/176) of linked outbreaks were resistant. In outbreaks attributed to a single food group, 73% (16/22) of resistant outbreaks and 46% (31/68) of non-resistant outbreaks were attributed to foods from land animals (P < 0·05). MDR Salmonella with clinically important resistance caused 29% (14/48) of outbreaks from land animals and 8% (3/40) of outbreaks from plant products (P < 0·01). In our study, resistant Salmonella infections were more common in outbreaks attributed to foods from land animals than outbreaks from foods from plants or aquatic animals. Antimicrobial susceptibility data on isolates from foodborne Salmonella outbreaks can help determine which foods are associated with resistant infections.
The main question that Firestone & Scholl (F&S) pose is whether “what and how we see is functionally independent from what and how we think, know, desire, act, and so forth” (sect. 2, para. 1). We synthesize a collection of concerns from an interdisciplinary set of coauthors regarding F&S's assumptions and appeals to intuition, resulting in their treatment of visual perception as context-free.
A widely produced chemical, chlorine is used in various industries including automotive, electronics, disinfectants, metal production, and many others. Chlorine is usually produced and transported as a pressurized liquid; however, as a gas it is a significant pulmonary irritant. Thousands of people are exposed to chlorine gas every year, and while large-scale exposures are uncommon, they are not rare. Symptoms are usually related to the concentration and length of exposure, and although treatment is largely supportive, certain specific therapies have yet to be validated with randomized controlled trials. The majority of those exposed completely recover with supportive care; however, studies have shown the potential for persistent inflammation and chronic hyperreactivity. This case report describes an incident that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina, when a train derailment exposed hundreds of people to chlorine gas. This report reviews the events of January 6, 2005, and the current treatment options for chlorine gas exposure.(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-6)
The rearing period has a key influence on the later performance of cattle, affecting future fertility and longevity. Producers usually aim to breed replacement heifers by 15 months to calve at 24 months. An age at first calving (AFC) close to 2 years (23 to 25 months) is optimum for economic performance as it minimises the non-productive period and maintains a seasonal calving pattern. This is rarely achieved in either dairy or beef herds, with average AFC for dairy herds usually between 26 and 30 months. Maintaining a low AFC requires good heifer management with adequate growth to ensure an appropriate BW and frame size at calving. Puberty should occur at least 6 weeks before the target breeding age to enable animals to undergo oestrous cycles before mating. Cattle reach puberty at a fairly consistent, but breed-dependent, proportion of mature BW. Heifer fertility is a critical component of AFC. In US Holsteins the conception rate peaked at 57% at 15 to 16 months, declining in older heifers. Wide variations in growth rates on the same farm often lead to some animals having delayed first breeding and/or conception. Oestrous synchronisation regimes and sexed semen can both be used but unless heifers have been previously well-managed the success rates may be unacceptably low. Altering the nutritional input above or below those needed for maintenance at any stage from birth to first calving clearly alters the average daily gain (ADG) in weight. In general an ADG of around 0.75 kg/day seems optimal for dairy heifers, with lower rates delaying puberty and AFC. There is some scope to vary ADG at different ages providing animals reach an adequate size by calving. Major periods of nutritional deficiency and/or severe calfhood disease will, however, compromise development with long-term adverse consequences. Infectious disease can also cause pregnancy loss/abortion. First lactation milk yield may be slightly lower in younger calving cows but lifetime production is higher as such animals usually have good fertility and survive longer. There is now extensive evidence that as long as the AFC is >23 months then future performance is not adversely influenced. On the other hand, delayed first calving >30 months is associated with poor survival. Underfeeding of young heifers reduces their milk production potential and is a greater problem than overfeeding. Farmers are more likely to meet the optimum AFC target of 23 to 25 months if they monitor growth rates and adjust feed accordingly.
Virginia creeper and wild grape are troublesome perennial vines that often infest Christmas tree plantations. Field studies were conducted to evaluate Fraser fir injury and Virginia creeper and wild grape control with directed applications of triclopyr (1,680 g ai/ha) alone and in combination with 2,4-D (1,120 g ai/ha), clopyralid (280 g ai/ha), and halosulfuron (36 g ai/ha). Additional treatments included 2,4-D, clopyralid, glyphosate (1,120 g ai/ha), halosulfuron, hexazinone (560 g ai/ha), mesotrione (105 g ai/ha), and sulfometuron (71 g ai/ha) applied alone; and a mixture of hexazinone plus mesotrione. In the triclopyr-containing treatments, Fraser fir injury ranged from 6 to 13% at 1 mo after treatment (MAT) and was 4 to 8% at 11 MAT. Leader growth was not impacted by the herbicide treatments. At 11 MAT, all triclopyr-containing treatments controlled Virginia creeper 93 to 98% and wild grape 98 to 100%, which was greater than the control observed with glyphosate at 63 and 59%, respectively. Virginia creeper and wild grape control with 2,4-D was 88 to 90%. Clopyralid, halosulfuron, hexazinone, hexazinone plus mesotrione, mesotrione, and sulfometuron provided less than 66% control of both perennial vines. Directed applications of triclopyr-containing treatments or 2,4-D were effective management tools for selective removal of wild grape and Virginia creeper from Fraser fir Christmas tree plantations. Additional research is needed on the potential sensitivity of other commonly grown Christmas tree species to triclopyr-containing treatments.
Objective: To examine the potential impact of elderly age on
response to participation in a structured, multidisciplinary
quality-of-life (QOL) intervention for patients with advanced cancer
undergoing radiation therapy.
Methods: Study design was a randomized stratified, two group,
controlled clinical trial in the setting of a tertiary care comprehensive
cancer center. Subjects with newly diagnosed cancer and an estimated
5-year survival rate of 0%–50% who required radiation therapy were
recruited and randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a
standard care group. The intervention consisted of eight 90-min sessions
designed to address the five QOL domains of cognitive, physical,
emotional, spiritual, and social functioning. QOL was measured using
Spitzer uniscale and linear analogue self-assessment (LASA) at baseline
and weeks 4, 8, and 27.
Results: Of the 103 study participants, 33 were geriatric (65
years or older), of which 16 (mean age 72.4 years) received the
intervention and 17 (mean age 71.4 years) were assigned to the standard
medical care. The geriatric participants who completed the intervention
had higher QOL scores at baseline, at week 4 and at week 8, compared to
the control participants.
Significance of results: Our results demonstrate that
geriatric patients with advanced cancer undergoing radiation therapy will
benefit from participation in a structured multidisciplinary QOL
intervention. Therefore, geriatric individuals should not be excluded from
participating in a cancer QOL intervention, and, in fact, elderly age may
be an indicator of strong response to a QOL intervention. Future research
should further explore this finding.
Customer requirements and vision in aerospace dictate that the next generation of civil transport aircraft should have a strong emphasis on increased safety, reduced environmental impact and reduced cost without sacrificing performance. In this context, the School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the Queen’s University of Belfast and Bombardier have, in recent years, been conducting research into some of the key aerodynamic technologies for the next generation of aircraft engine nacelles. Investigations have been performed into anti-icing technology, efficient thrust reversal, engine fire zone safety, life cycle cost and integration of the foregoing with other considerations in engine and aircraft design. A unique correlation for heat transfer in an anti-icing system has been developed. The effect of normal vibration on heat transfer in such systems has been found to be negligible. It has been shown that carefully designed natural blockage thrust reversers without a cascade can reduce aircraft weight with only a small sacrifice in the reversed thrust. A good understanding of the pressure relief doors and techniques to improve the performance of such doors have been developed. Trade off studies between aerodynamics, manufacturing and assembly of engine nacelles have shown the potential for a significant reduction in life cycle cost.
We have investigated the thermo-optical properties of gold NPs embedded in an ice matrix . Resonant laser light of relatively weak intensity is able to melt ice with embedded Au NPs, whereas even a very intense laser beam does not melt ice alone. This comes from strong absorption in Au NPs in the regime of plasmon resonance. By recording time-resolved Raman signals, we observe the melting process and determine the threshold melting power , where is the background temperature. We also observe relatively large scattering in the threshold laser intensity that leads to melting of the ice because of the mesoscopic nature of the sample. We can understand this observation using the TEM images of NPs, showing that geometry of NP complexes varies greatly. In our recent theoretical paper we showed that the local temperature inside and around a NP complex depends strongly on its geometry, and this leads to large scattering for the measured as a function of the reduced temperature, for different complexes .
We recently discovered that NPs immobilized on glass surfaces can be characterized by single particle spectroscopy. Single and small NP clusters can be discriminated using the integrated intensity of the plasmon emission band. A cluster of four gold NPs has ∼ 4 times the intensity of a single gold NP. When the NPs are aggregated into a cluster then broadening of the intensity profile plot is not observed Gold NPs that are not clustered together but are found within the excitation volume will lead to a broadening of a cross sectional slice. We will use these principles to determine the amount of heat generation from single and clustered gold NPs.
 H. H. Richardson, Z. N. Hickman, A. O. Govorov, A. C. Thomas, W. Zhang, M. E. Kordesch, Nano Lett. (2006); DOI: 10.1021/nl060105l.
 A. O. Govorov, H. H. Richardson, W. Zhang, and T. Skeini, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 1, 100101 (2005).
The human pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 is thought to be spread by direct or indirect contact with infected animal or human faeces. The present study investigated the effects of the plant coumarin esculin and its aglycone esculetin on the survival of a strain of E. coli O157 under gut conditions. The addition of these compounds to human faecal slurries and in vitro continuous-flow fermenter models simulating conditions in the human colon and rumen caused marked decreases in the survival of an introduced strain of E. coli O157. When four calves were experimentally infected with E. coli O157 and fed esculin, the pathogen was detected in five of twenty-eight (18 %) of faecal samples examined post-inoculation, compared with thirteen of thirty-five (37 %) of faecal samples examined from five control calves not fed esculin. Coumarin compounds that occur naturally in dietary plants or when supplemented in the diet probably inhibit the survival of E. coli O157 in the gut.
Praseodymium (Pr) doped aluminum nitride (AlN), gallium nitride (GaN) and boron nitride (BN) thin films deposited on Si (111) substrate are studied with cathodoluminescence. AlN:Pr and GaN:Pr films are deposited at 77 K and room temperature respectively while BN:Pr films at 750 K by reactive sputtering, using 100–200 Watts RF power, 5–10 mTorr nitrogen. Metal targets of Al and B with Pr and a liquid target of Ga with solid Pr are used. The dominant peaks observed in the visible range result from 3P0 → 3H4, 3P1→ 3H5, and 3P0 → 3F2 transitions in AlN:Pr, 3P0 → 3H4, 3P0 → 3H6, and 3P0 → 3F2 transitions in GaN:Pr and from 3P0 → 3H4, 3P1→ 3H5, 3P0 → 3H6, and 3P0 → 3F2 transitions in BN:Pr. Additional peaks are observed from AlN:Pr at 335 nm and 385 nm from 1S0 → 1D2 and 1S0 → 1I6 which are not observed in GaN:Pr and BN:Pr films.
Dense ceramics with composition Ba(Ce0.7Zr0.2Yb0.1)O3-β (BCZY) were synthesized by solid state reactions, and their structures were characterized by Rietveld refinements of time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffraction data collected for the samples at high-temperature and controlled atmospheres. The structure phase transition from orthorhombic Imma to cubic Pm3m was observed at the temperature between 500 and 700°C and in flowing 100ppm H2/Ar gases. At 900°C, the sample was subsequently exposed to different oxygen partial pressures (pO2, ranging from ∼10−17 to ∼10−23 atm) and water vapor pressures (pH2O) up to ∼0.18 atm. The expansion of lattice parameters of BCZY, instead of following the normally expected relationship with pO2, was actually correlated with the increase of pH2O, implying proton incorporation into the structures. The presence of H-containing species in the structure was confirmed by comparing both inelastic neutron scattering spectra and neutron diffraction data collected for dry and “wet” samples at 10K. The observed vibrational peaks at 104 and 150 meV and absence of a peak around 420 meV indicate the hydrogen occupation in the structure but the absence of any hydroxyl groups (hydrogen covalently bonded to oxygen). Electrical conductivities of BCZY were investigated at different temperatures in both dry and wet conditions.