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Neospora caninum is a commonly diagnosed cause of reproductive losses in farmed ruminants worldwide. This study examined 495 and 308 samples (brain, heart and placenta) which were collected from 455 and 119 aborted cattle and sheep fetuses, respectively. DNA was extracted and a nested Neospora ITS1 PCR was performed on all samples. The results showed that for bovine fetuses 79/449 brain [17.6% (14.2–21.4)], 7/25 heart [28.0% (12.1–49.4)] and 5/21 placenta [23.8% (8.2–47.2)] were PCR positive for the presence of Neospora DNA. Overall 82/455 [18.0% (14.6–21.7)] of the bovine fetuses tested positive for the presence of N. caninum DNA in at least one sample. None (0/308) of the ovine fetal samples tested positive for the presence of Neospora DNA in any of the tissues tested. The results show that N. caninum was associated with fetal losses in cattle (distributed across South-West Scotland), compared to sheep in the same geographical areas where no parasite DNA was found. Neospora is well distributed amongst cattle in South-West Scotland and is the potential cause of serious economic losses to the Scottish cattle farming community; however, it does not appear to be a problem amongst the Scottish sheep flocks.
The shearing and ablation of “cold” ice that leads to the formation of ablation and end moraines and the characteristic form of the S.E. edge of the Barnes ice cap are discussed. Some evidence suggests the existence of considerable areas of dead glacier ice extending well beyond the current moraines and completely insulated from melting by glacial debris. This debris consists of old moraines whose relief has been inverted and subdued. An appendix by Mason E. Hale on the current moraine plant succession suggests that the last stable position of the S.E. edge of the ice cap occurred about 1860 and has been followed by retreat at an average rate of about 3 m. per year.
Improving neurocognitive outcomes following treatment for brain metastases have become increasingly important. We propose that a brief telephone-based neurocognitive assessment may improve follow-up cognitive assessments in this palliative population. Aim: To prospectively assess the feasibility and reliability of a telephone based brief neurocognitive assessment compared to the same tests delivered face-to-face. Methods: Brain metastases patients to be treated with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) were assessed using a brief validated neurocognitive battery at baseline, at 1 month and 3 months following WBRT (in person and over the phone). The primary outcome was feasibility and inter-procedural (in person versus telephone) reliability. The secondary objective was to evaluate the change in neurocognitive function before and after WBRT. Results: Out of 39 patients enrolled, 82% of patients completed the baseline in-person and telephone neurocognitive assessments. However, at 1 month, only 41% of enrolled patients completed the in-person and telephone cognitive assessments and at 3 months, only 10% of patients completed them. Results pertaining to reliability and change in neurocognitive function will be updated. Conclusion: The pre-defined definition of feasibility (at least 80% completion for face to face and telephone neurocognitive assessments) was met at baseline. However, a large proportion of participants did not complete either telephone or in person neurocognitive follow-up at 1 month and at 3 months post-WBRT. Attrition remained a challenge for neurocognitive testing in this population even when a telephone-based brief assessment was used.
In the 1998-99 flight, BOOMERanG has produced maps of ∼4% of the sky at high Galactic latitudes, at frequencies of 90, 150, 240 and 410 GHz, with resolution ≳ 10'. The faint structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background at horizon and sub-horizon scales is evident in these maps. These maps compare well to the maps recently obtained at lower frequencies by the WMAP experiment. Here we compare the amplitude and morphology of the structures observed in the two sets of maps. We also outline the polarization sensitive version of BOOMERanG, which was flown early this year to measure the linear polarization of the microwave sky at 150, 240 and 350 GHz.
BOOMERanG has recently resolved structures on the last scattering surface at redshift ˜ 1100 with high signal to noise ratio. We review the technical advances which made this possible, and we focus on the current results for maps and power spectra, with special attention to the determination of the total mass-energy density in the Universe and of other cosmological parameters.
We present multi-instrument observations of AR 8048, made between June 3 and June 5 1997 as part of SoHO JOP033. This active region (AR) has a sigmoid-like global shape and undergoes transient brightenings through which the stored energy is released.
Using a magneto-hydrostatic model, we compute coronal magnetic field. The large-scale magnetic lines confirm the sigmoidal characteristics of the AR. The field lines most closely matching the hotter SoHO/CDS loops extend along the quasi-separatrix-Iayers (QSLs) of the coronal field. Transition region (TR) brightenings observed with SoHO/CDS can be associated with both QSL intersections with the photosphere, and places where separatrices corresponding to bald patches (BPs, sites where field lines are tangent to the photosphere) lie at the photospheric plane. There are suggestions that the element abundances measured in the TR may depend on the type of topological structure present. TR brightenings associated with QSLs have coronal abundances, while those associated with BP separatrices have abundances closer to photospheric values.
1.1.1. In October 1980 the Council of the Faculty of Actuaries set up a Working Party with the following brief:—
(1) To investigate the criteria by which the solvency of life assurance companies should be assessed and to determine the amount of the solvency margin which should be required in practice by supervisory authorities. The existing requirements of the E.E.C. Life Establishment Directive should be considered with a view to recommending any desirable alterations thereto to be made when those requirements are reviewed in due course by the E.E.C. Commission. In carrying out its work the Working Party should co-operate with Working Parties or Committees of other actuarial bodies.
(2) To report the result of their investigations to Council.
Using resistor-capacitor networks, sources of experimental artifacts in impedance spectroscopy were investigated, such sources include machine limitations, rig/cabling contributions at high frequencies, and artifacts due to high impedance reference electrodes and their geometrical placement. In the instance of electrode placement, computer simulations with a pixel-based model were in agreement with the experimental observations. Remedies for these artifacts such as rig shielding/grounding, geometrical adjustments, and null corrections are also discussed.
Hole transporting properties and energy barriers at organic-organic interfaces relevant to electrophotographic and organic electroluminescent (EL) devices are described. Three wellknown hole transporting molecules, 1,1-bis(di-4-tolylaminophenyl)cyclohexane (TAPC), N,N′- diphenyl-N,N′-bis(1 -naphthyl)-(1,1 ′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPB), and N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(4- tolyl)-(1,1 ′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (TTB) are used in this study. The ionization potentials (IP) and oxidation potentials (Eox) of these materials are determined by photoemission spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements, from which a conversion formula is obtained (IP ∼ 4.5 eV + eEox). Hole transport across organic-organic interfaces is investigated by time-of-flight transient photocurrent techniques. The efficiencies of hole injection are consistent with the energy barriers, when present, at these interfaces.
We investigate low-temperature epitaxial growth of thin silicon films on Si  substrates and polycrystalline template layers formed by selective nucleation and solid phase epitaxy (SNSPE). We have grown 300 nm thick epitaxial layers at 300°C on silicon  substrates using a high H2:SiH4 ratio of 70:1. Transmission electron microscopy confirms that the films are epitaxial with a periodic array of stacking faults and are highly twinned after approximately 240 nm of growth. Evidence is also presented for epitaxial growth on polycrystalline SNSPE templates under the same growth conditions.
Quadruple vaccine containing 75 D antigen units of killed type 1 poliovirus was given to children at ages 2, 3 and 4 months followed by a booster dose at 15 months.
The serological response to the primary course was difficult to assess owing to maternal antibody. Antibody titres to the type 1 component after the booster dose were very satisfactory and about 10 times higher than those observed in a similar group of children given attenuated vaccine. Response to the poliovirus types 2 and 3 in the quadruple vaccine was less satisfactory.
Graded doses of attenuated poliovirus type 1 were fed to the children 2 months after the primary course and 1 month after the booster dose. Children who had received no poliovaccine and children immunized with attenuated vaccine were included for comparison.
Immunization with killed vaccine did not greatly affect the size of the minimal infecting dose of live virus but reduced both the duration of the subsequent infection and the titre of virus in the faeces.
The epidemiological significance of these findings is discussed.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety mixtures represent a relatively unexplored avenue for maintaining and stabilizing yield for both organic and conventional producers. The present study examined the responses of three Canadian western red spring wheat varieties in sole crop and in variety mixtures to varying levels of simulated and natural competition, as well as environmental stress at one conventionally and two organically managed locations in central Alberta, Canada, between 2003 and 2005. Three modern hard red spring wheat varieties (Superb, semi-dwarf; AC Intrepid, early maturing and 5600HR, tall), along with 13 two- and three-way variety mixtures, were planted under two levels of simulated weed (Brassica juncea L.) competition at each of the eight location-years. The B. juncea weed competition treatment decreased yields at all locations. Overall yield was lowest at the certified organic farm and highest under conventional management. Sole-crop semi-dwarf Superb and all three Superb–Intrepid mixture entries consistently yielded among the highest, regardless of management system, testing location or competition treatment. The 1:1 and 1:2 Superb–Intrepid mixture entries were the most stable of all entries tested. Early season vigour was strongly associated with yield, with the strongest correlation occurring under low-moisture, low-nutrient, high-competition conditions at the certified organic farm. Spring wheat variety mixtures may provide greater stability with little or no reduction in yield, while providing greater competitive ability.
Tracheostomy self care at home can be a problem for some patients. The Nottingham System attributes a competence ratio to each patient. Those liable to develop problems can be identified early and the appropriate support provided. The Nottingham System is described.
The eruption of Mount St. Helens in southwestern Washington on 18 May 1980, ejected tons of volcanic ash that settled over large portions of eastern Washington, northern Idaho, and western Montana. Although most of these areas received only a light dusting, the heaviest deposits in the central path of the ash plume formed a layer of ash 5 to 8 cm thick (Cook et al. 1981). The ash consisted of microscopic, jagged particles that were highly abrasive and easily damaged the epicuticular wax layer of insects, causing desiccation and eventual death (Brown and Hussain 1981). The impact of ash on a variety of agricultural-related insects in the fallout area has been described (Akre et al. 1981; Fye 1983; Howell 1981; Johansen et al. 1981; Klostermeyer et al. 1981). This note reports the effects of ash on small larvae of a major forest defoliator, the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough), as determined in laboratory and field experiments.
An experimental study has been made of the flow produced by an internal heat source as it moves around a fixed annulus of fluid. The mean surface flow relative to the annulus is found to be in the opposite direction to the movement of the heat source. The variation in its magnitude with changes in the external parameters is investigated. Thermocouple measurements and streak photography are used to examine the interior temperature and flow structure.
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