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Targets have been developed to measure supersonic radiation transport in aerogel foams using absorption spectroscopy. The target consists of an aerogel foam uniformly doped with either titanium or scandium inserted into an undoped aerogel foam package. This creates a localized doped foam region to provide spatial resolution for the measurement. Development and characterization of the foams is a key challenge in addition to machining and assembling the two foams so they mate without gaps. The foam package is inserted into a beryllium sleeve and mounted on a gold hohlraum. The target is mounted to a holder created using additive manufacturing and mounted on a stalk. The manufacturing of the components, along with assembly and metrology of the target are described here.
Using an alternate arsenic source, namely, Tertiary Butyl Arsine, a concentrator GaAs solar cell has been grown in a low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition reactor. Under 72 sun, air mass 1.5 illumination, the cell had an open circuit voltage of 1.1 V, a fill factor of 83% and an overall efficiency of 21%.
In a prospective randomized study in children, we compared caudal bupivacaine–clonidine with bupivacaine–morphine to evaluate whether clonidine can be used as an alternative to morphine in caudal anaesthesia. Caudal anaesthesia was administered in 36 children undergoing orchidopexy, hernia repair or circumcision, using 1.5 mL kg−1 bupivacaine 0.18% with either 1 μg kg−1 clonidine (group 1) or 30 μg kg−1 morphine (group 2). Haemodynamic and respiratory parameters, anaesthetic requirements, recovery time and pain score were monitored for 24 h. Eleven children in group 1 and nine children in group 2 did not need any supplementary systemic analgesics throughout the 24-h observation period. Mean (±SD) duration of analgesia in the remaining patients was 6.3 h (±3.3 h) in group 1 and 7.1 h (±3.4 h) in group 2 (P=0.43). Recovery time after anaesthesia was significantly longer in group 1 (16.6±8.8 min) than in group 2 (11.5±4.7 min) (P< 0.05). We conclude that analgesia provided by 1 μg kg−1 clonidine added to caudal bupivacaine is comparable with that provided by 30 μg kg−1 caudal morphine with bupivacaine. Clonidine at this low dose did not cause respiratory depression.
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