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Excavations at the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B ritual site of Naḥal Roded 110 in the Southern Negev, Israel, have revealed evidence—unique to this region—for on-site flint knapping and abundant raptor remains.
In the 1998-99 flight, BOOMERanG has produced maps of ∼4% of the sky at high Galactic latitudes, at frequencies of 90, 150, 240 and 410 GHz, with resolution ≳ 10'. The faint structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background at horizon and sub-horizon scales is evident in these maps. These maps compare well to the maps recently obtained at lower frequencies by the WMAP experiment. Here we compare the amplitude and morphology of the structures observed in the two sets of maps. We also outline the polarization sensitive version of BOOMERanG, which was flown early this year to measure the linear polarization of the microwave sky at 150, 240 and 350 GHz.
The Arcminute Cosmology Bolometer Array Receiver (Acbar) is a multifrequency millimeter-wave receiver optimized for observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in clusters of galaxies. Acbar was installed on the 2.1 m Viper telescope at the South Pole in January 2001 and the results presented here incorporate data through July 2002. The power spectrum of the CMB at 150 GHz over the range ℓ = 150 — 3000 measured by Acbar is presented along with estimates for the values of the cosmological parameters within the context of ΛCDM models. The inclusion of ΩΛ greatly improves the fit to the power spectrum. Three-frequency images of the SZ decrement/increment are also presented for the galaxy cluster 1E0657–67.
We show how estimates of parameters characterizing inflation-based theories of structure formation localized over the past year when large scale structure (LSS) information from galaxy and cluster surveys was combined with the rapidly developing cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, especially from the recent Boomerang and Maxima balloon experiments. All current CMB data plus a relatively weak prior probability on the Hubble constant, age and LSS points to little mean curvature (Ωtot = 1.08±0.06) and nearly scale invariant initial fluctuations (ns = 1.03±0.08), both predictions of (non-baroque) inflation theory. We emphasize the role that degeneracy among parameters in the Lpk = 212 ± 7 position of the (first acoustic) peak plays in defining the Ωtot range upon marginalization over other variables. Though the CDM density is in the expected range (Ωcdmh2 = 0.17 ± 0.02), the baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.030 ± 0.005 is somewhat above the independent 0.019 ± 0.002 nucleosynthesis estimates. CMB+LSS gives independent evidence for dark energy (ΩΛ = 0.66 ± 0.06) at the same level as from supernova (SN1) observations, with a phenomenological quintessence equation of state limited by SN1+CMB+LSS to wQ < −0.7 cf. the wQ=−1 cosmological constant case.
BOOMERanG has recently resolved structures on the last scattering surface at redshift ˜ 1100 with high signal to noise ratio. We review the technical advances which made this possible, and we focus on the current results for maps and power spectra, with special attention to the determination of the total mass-energy density in the Universe and of other cosmological parameters.
Color-magnitude diagrams reaching from the giant branches to Vlim ~ 27.0, or about three magnitudes fainter than the turnoff, have been obtained in V and I with WFPC2 on HST for NGC 2419, Pal 3, Pal 4 and Eridanus, whose relative ages are discussed.
HST V, I color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of four outer-halo clusters, NGC 2419, Pa13, Pal4 and Eridanus, provide insight into the relative ages of old star clusters throughout the 200 kpc diameter volume sampled, and thus into the formation epoch of the Milky Way galaxy.
On May 22, 1989 the Japanese Ginga Team discovered a new X-ray source that was cataloged as GS 2023+338. This source was subsequently identified as coincident in position with a previously known nova cataloged as V404 Cygni. Its last recorded outburst was in 1938 when it rose to about 12th mag. Spectroscopic data were obtained and confirmed the nature of the outburst. Additional ground based data were obtained by us at CTIO and the VLA. The X-ray behavior of this object has been reported to be very unusual and it reached a peak of about 17 crab about one week after discovery. Since then it has varied widely in magnitude at all wavelengths at which it has been studied. We present a brief summary of the observations that have been obtained up to the time of the meeting and shortly thereafter.
How does living in a battleground state during a presidential election affect an individual’s political engagement? We utilize a unique collection of 113 million Facebook status updates to compare users’ political discussion during the 2008 election. “Battleground” state users are significantly more likely to discuss politics in the campaign season than are users in uncompetitive “blackout” states. Posting a political status update—a form of day-to-day engagement with politics—mediates ∼20 percent of the relationship between exposure to political competition and self-reported voter turnout. This paper is among the first to use a massive quantity of social media data to explain the microfoundations of how people think, feel, and act on a daily basis in response to their political environment.
A 2,3-dibutoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene comonomer was incorporated into a distyrylbenzene derivative 11. Novel 1,2-disubstituted-3,6-dibromobenzene comonomers 15 and 18 were prepared by directed metallation. Copolymerization of 11with a 9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diboronate ester 1 yielded a green fluorescent polymer while copolymerization of 15 and 18 with the 9,9-dihexylfluorene-2,7-diboronate 22 afforded promising blue fluorescent polymers 23 and 24 respectively.
Indium Phosphide (InP) based multilayer structures are becoming increasingly important in the semiconductor industry with optoelectronic applications being the main growth area. Mesa type structures with finely controlled width and etch angle, often form the building blocks for many of these photonic devices. Traditional wet etching techniques have often proved to be inadequate for the required anisotropie removal of material. This paper presents the results of etching semi-insulating InP (100) using a combination of an Argon ion beam and a reactive gas, CCl2F2 (Freon 12). It was found that the etch rate was enhanced by increasing the ion energy and by the addition of CCl2F2. Auger electron spectroscopy revealed that the increased etch rate was accompanied by an increase in the surface indium concentration and at low ion beam energies carbon build-up retarded the etch rate. The optimum etch angle to fabricate 3μm waveguides was found to be 22° to the surface normal, however Schottky contacts to these structures were unsuccessful.
Decubital shoulder ulcers are lesions on the shoulders of sows kept in production systems, reported to have a relatively high prevalence, and to some extent be comparable with human pressure ulcers. In sows, the ulcers are caused by pressure inflicted by the flooring, leading to oxygen deficiency in the skin and the underlying tissue. This paper reviews existing knowledge about decubital shoulder ulcers in sows, focusing on the pathogenesis, classification and consequences in terms of pain and animal welfare. On the basis of available human as well as animal literature, we describe the primary causal factors, underlying mechanisms, suggested direction of progression as well as temporal development. We review suggested scales for the classification of decubital shoulder ulcers, and argue that none of these are useful for the classification of decubital shoulder ulcers in live sows. The knowledge of the welfare consequences of decubital shoulder ulcers is limited. On the basis of the tissue structures that are involved, we assume that the development and presence of decubital shoulder ulcers in sows are a painful and prolonged condition. It is concluded that the extent of the welfare problem related to decubital shoulder ulcers cannot be fully determined until a valid ante-mortem classification system is available, and knowledge about the duration of the condition (including the various stages), as well as the possible consequences in terms of pain or discomfort have been established.
Major advances in our understanding of the Universe have historically come from dramatic improvements in our ability to accurately measure astronomical quantities. The astrometric observations obtained by modern digital sky surveys are enabling unprecedentedly massive and robust studies of the kinematics of the Milky Way. For example, the astrometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), together with half a century old astrometry from the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS), have enabled the construction of a catalog that includes absolute proper motions as accurate as 3 mas/year for about 20 million stars brighter than V=20, and for 80,000 spectroscopically confirmed quasars which provide exquisite error assessment. We discuss here several ongoing studies of Milky Way kinematics based on this catalog. The upcoming next-generation surveys will maintain this revolutionary progress. For example, we show using realistic simulations that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will measure proper motions accurate to 1 mas/year to a limit 4 magnitude fainter than possible with SDSS and POSS catalogs, or with the Gaia survey. LSST will also obtain geometric parallaxes with accuracy similar to Gaia's at its faint end (0.3 mas at V=20), and extend them to V=24 with an accuracy of 3 mas. We discuss the impact that these LSST measurements will have on studies of the Milky Way kinematics, and potential synergies with the Gaia survey.
We have observed SBS 1150+599A spectroscopically in the UV using HST to derive C/H $\sim$ 7.6 and N/H $\sim$ 7.0 for the first time. The central star temperature is now better constrained to $\sim$130,000K, but still is not well determined. This uncertainty dominates the error in O/H, which has been the subject of debate, yet with these data, SBS 1150+599A has the lowest O/H of any PN. Furthermore, the physics of this object are so extreme that minor differences in atomic modeling impact the composition analysis strongly. We also find that the binary central star, based on photometric and kinematic variations, exhibits CV-like properties with an amplitude of 13% and an orbital period of 3.924 hours.
Adults and pupae of the Colorado potato beetle were controlled by treatment with methyl bromide at levels that did not injure new potatoes at 25°C. At lower temperatures the tolerance of the new potatoes was slightly reduced. A dosage schedule that will control adults and pupae without injury to the potatoes is given.
Overwintering stages of the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch), and the McDaniel spider mite, Tetranychus mcdanieli McGregor, on harvested apples were destroyed with ethylene dibromide using a dosage of 6 mg/l. for 4 h at 24 °C. Some control was achieved at lower temperatures but the dosage had to be increased accordingly. No injury of the fruit occurred. Taste tests showed that flavour of the apples was not adversely affected even after treatment with 10 mg/l. for 4 h.
Rectal and surface temperatures, and respiration and pulse rates, were obtained for groups of Duroc pigs that were exposed to air temperatures that varied sinusoidally over a 24-hour period. Two groups averaging 37 and 108 kg were exposed to a constant temperature of 21·1°C and then to temperatures that cycled about a mean of 21·1°C (15·6–26·7°C, 10·0–32·2°C, and 4·4–37·8°C). For a third group averaging 53 kg, the minimum was always near 21·1°C, and the maximum air temperature of the cycle was 33·2, 42·5 or 48·8°C.
The response of rectal and surface temperatures, and pulse and respiration rates, to the various 24-hour cycling air temperatures are discussed and com-pared with inherent daily fluctuations in these responses that are present even when there is no variation in air temperature.