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We assess the gas-phase abundances of Si, C, and Fe from our recent measurements of Si++, C++, and Fe++ in the Orion Nebula by expanding on our earlier “blister” models. The Fe++ 22.9 μm line measured with the KAO yields Fe/H ~ 3 × 10−6 - considerably larger than in the diffuse ISM, where relative to solar, Fe/H is down by ~ 100. However, in Orion, Fe/H is still lower than solar by a factor ~ 10. The C and Si abundances are derived from new IUE high dispersion spectra of the C++ 1907, 1909 Å and Si++ 1883, 1892 Å lines. Gas-phase Si/C = 0.016 in the Orion ionized volume and is particularly insensitive to uncertainties in extinction and temperature structure. The solar value is 0.098. Gas-phase C/H = 3 × 10−4 and Si/H = 4.8 × 10−6. Compared to solar, Si is depleted by 0.135 in the ionized region, while C is essentially undepleted. This suggests that most Si and Fe resides in dust grains even in the ionized volume.
We obtained new HST/STIS long-slit spectra and WFPC2 imagery of the planetary nebula NGC 7009 in order to obtain high spatial resolution of the intrinsic flux ratio [O III] 4364/5008, which is a well-known diagnostic for electron temperature (Te). Our primary purpose was to quantify Te variations across the nebula. We address whether the observational data support the possibility that the [fractional] mean-square Te variation (t2) (Peimbert 1967) in NGC 7009 may be as large as ~0.1. Such large values are required to reconcile the “abundance dichotomy” by Te variations alone. The abundance dichotomy (discussed by Liu at greater length elsewhere in this volume) refers to the significantly higher heavy element abundances derived from optical recombination lines (e.g., a factor of ~5 for NGC 7009, Liu et al. 1995) compared with the corresponding values deduced from collisionally-excited lines.
High-quality archaeological surveys and data are vital to preservation planning and mitigation efforts. Federal and state historic preservation offices (SHPOs) are accumulating and reviewing more data at an ever-faster pace. Given the critical nature of this information, a SAA task force was charged with assessing current survey practices and concerns. Our review indicates that survey policies and archaeological standards have improved substantially over the last two decades, but SHPOs remain challenged by insufficient professional training for field archaeologists, the need for standardization and integration of new technologies in field work, reporting, and review, as well as the sheer quantity and variety of digital data. A number of analytical tools and metrics are available to assess data quality, but seemingly there is not time or money for states to evaluate how to improve existing and future survey data. We draw upon a survey of SHPOs, a review of current literature, and our own experience to assess archaeological survey quality, data utility and durability for current and anticipated future uses. We offer suggestions on how to move forward, including consideration of an e-106 system for streamlining transfer and exchange of digital data and upgrading current approaches to survey and planning.
The synthesis and texturization processes of fluorinated surfaces by means of atmospheric plasma are investigated and presented through an integrated study of both the plasma phase and the resulting material surface. Three methods enhancing the surface hydrophobicity up to the production of super-hydrophobic surfaces are evaluated: (i) the modification of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface, (ii) the plasma deposition of fluorinated coatings and (iii) the incorporation of nanoparticles into those fluorinated films. In all the approaches, the nature of the plasma gas appears to be a crucial parameter for the desired property. Although a higher etching of the PTFE surface can be obtained with a pure helium plasma, the texturization can only be created if O2 is added to the plasma, which simultaneously decreases the total etching. The deposition of CxFy films by a dielectric barrier discharge leads to hydrophobic coatings with water contact angles (WCAs) of 115°, but only the filamentary argon discharge induces higher WCAs. Finally, nanoparticles were deposited under the fluorinated layer to increase the surface roughness and therefore produce super-hydrophobic hybrid coatings characterized by the nonadherence of the water droplet at the surface.
The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) virulence markers (stx1, stx2, eae, ehxA) in E. coli strains isolated from young calves aged fewer than 7 days (bobby calves). In total, 299 recto-anal mucosal swabs were collected from animals at two slaughter plants and inoculated onto tryptone bile X-glucuronide and sorbitol MacConkey agar supplemented with cefixime and potassium tellurite. Isolates were analysed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect stx1, stx2, eae and ehxA genes. The most common combination of virulence markers were eae, ehxA (n = 35) followed by eae (n = 9). In total, STEC and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) were isolated from 8/299 (2·6%) and 37/299 (12·3%) calves, respectively. All the isolates could be assigned to 15 genotype clusters with >70% similarity cut-off using XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. It may be concluded that healthy calves from the dairy industry are asymptomatic carriers of a diverse population of STEC and aEPEC in New Zealand.
NASA's NuSTAR observatory is the first focusing hard X-ray telescope. Launched in June 2012, NuSTAR is sensitive in the 3–79 keV range with unprecedented ~17″ FWHM angular resolution above 12 keV, a result of its multilayer-coated optics and 10-m focal length. With its large effective area (900 cm2 at 10 keV), NuSTAR has point-source sensitivity ~100 times better than previous hard X-ray telescopes. Here we describe NuSTAR and its planned work on rotation-powered pulsars and magnetars during its nominal 2-yr baseline mission that has just commenced.
Our Present Understanding of the Mechanisms of the transformation of SiO films under treatments in O2 or Ar plasma at room T, is presented. RBS, IR absorption, XPS, RHEED and TEM techniques have been used to investigate the composition, the chemical and structural nature of the films after oxidizing or non oxidizing treatments. In O2 plasma, SiO is converted into Si02 by room T plasma anodization. The initial step of SiO oxidation, which is believed to be the transformation 2SiO→Si+SiO2, was studied in Ar plasma. We show that the as deposited SiO (not a mixture of Si and SiO2) is subject to disproportionate into the later compounds and that the effects of irradiation by low energy electrons at room T (plasma treatment) are similar to those observed for high T treatments (rapid thermal annealing).
We observed several H ii regions in the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822 using the infrared spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our aim is twofold: first, to examine the neon to sulfur abundance ratio in order to determine how much it may vary and whether or not, it is fairly ‘universal’; second, to discriminate and test the predicted ionizing spectral energy distribution between various stellar atmosphere models by comparing with our derivation of the ratio of fractional ionizations involving neon and sulfur. This work extends our previous similar studies of H ii regions in M83 and M33 to lower metallicities.
Suddendorf & Corballis (S&C) argue that animals are not capable of mental time travel (MTT) or its components. However, new results on chimpanzees suggest that they plan for the future and possess some MTT components. Moreover, future-oriented behaviour and episodic-like memory in other animals suggest that not all animals are limited to the present. Animals' capacities should not be dismissed without testing them.
Ecological factors may influence the number of parasites encountered and, thus, parasite species richness. These factors
include diet, gregarity, conspecific and total host density, habitat, body size, vagility, and migration. One means of
examining the influence of these factors on parasite species richness is through a comparative analysis of the parasites of
different, but related, host species. In contrast to most comparative studies of parasite species richness of fish, which have
been conducted by using data from the literature, the present study uses data obtained by the investigators. Coral reef
fishes vary widely in the above ecological factors and are frequently parasitized by a diverse array of parasites. We,
therefore, chose to investigate how the above ecological factors influence parasite species richness in coral reef fishes.
We investigated the endoparasite species richness of 21 species of butterfly fishes (Chaetodontidae) of New Caledonia. We
mapped the diet characters on the existing butterfly fish phylogeny and found that omnivory appears to be ancestral.
We also mapped the estimated endoparasite species richness, coded from low to high parasite species richness, on the
existing butterfly fish phylogeny and found that low parasite species richness appears to be associated with the ancestral
state of omnivory. Different dietary and social strategies appear to have evolved more than once, with the exception of
obligate coralivory, which appears to have evolved only once. Finally, after controlling for phylogenetic relationships, we
found that only the percentage of plankton in the diet and conspecific host density were positively correlated with
endoparasite species richness.
In the previous design, the maximum drive radiation
temperature was 4 MK or 350 eV (Holstein 1996). Different
beam configurations gave roughly the same uniformity with
the NIF-size cavity. Our best configuration used four cones
of beams illuminating three rings. An integrated 2D simulation
pointed out that the symmetry was good enough to reach
a gain of ten. Two evolutions took place in the design
of our MJ laser. We moved from a capsule adapted to 4 MK
(L1000) to another one adapted to 3.5 MK (L1215) in order
to minimize the parametric instabilities (the cavity size
is almost the same). This new capsule also has a better
hydrostability according to the “classical modelling”
(Lindl 1995). The second evolution is a simplification
of the target chamber. We restricted ourselves to two major
configurations for indirect drive (two-ring and three-ring
configurations). Therefore, only three cones of beams are
necessary instead of five cones in the first design. Finally,
the number of holes in the chamber is 80 instead of 100.
Tianeptine is a new tricyclic compound whose principal action is to increase the reuptake of serotonin. In a multicentre trial in which 380 depressed patients were treated for one year, tianeptine produced a significant reduction in the MADRS scores from day 14, with a sustained reduction maintained for up to 12 months; other measures of efficacy (HRSA, HSCL, and CGI) also reflected the improvement. Only 11% of patients withdrew because of recurrence of depression and 2% because of side-effects, which were mainly drowsiness, irritability, and gastrointestinal disturbance. Apart from a minor reduction in heart rate, unaccompanied by any conduction changes, no clinically relevant changes in vital signs or laboratory tests were seen. Seven subjects who attempted suicide by tianeptine overdose had favourable outcomes, in spite of also taking other psychotropic drugs or alcohol. No evidence of tolerance or withdrawal symptoms was seen after treatment was stopped. These results suggest that tianeptine has the potential to provide safe antidepressant activity in both the acute and chronic phases of treatment.
The efficacy of antidepressants is measured primarily by their ability to treat the acute symptoms of depression yet the underlying process may take longer to resolve. A period of emotional frailty follows resolution of the acute stage, during which the patient, although apparently symptom-free, is prone to suffer relapse of the original symptoms. Antidepressants should not be stopped immediately a response is observed, but should be given for a longer period to prevent early relapse. In those suffering from recurrent depression, long-term treatment may prevent later recurrences of new episodes of depression.
The distinction between relapse of old symptoms and recurrence of new episodes is of particular importance, both in assessing efficacy of antidepressants during the continuation phase of acute treatment and in the separate assessment of their prophylactic efficacy. Unfortunately, though, many investigations have failed to distinguish between these two distinct phenomena. Klerman & Paykel (1970) emphasised the need to distinguish between early return of depressive symptoms, which they label ‘relapses’, from the later new episodes which they term ‘recurrence’. However, there has been a general lack of systematic investigation of this question, as well as a failure to use sufficiently precise methodology to distinguish between relapse and recurrence. Some studies which purported to be of prophylaxis were in effect only examining the continuation phase of acute treatment.
A total of 177 sows representing five two-breed crosses were used in a 2×2 factorial experiment to study the effects of post-weaning stress (changing environment and group housing) and feeding regime (flushing by feeding ad libitum until mating) on the weaning-oestrus interval and other reproductive traits up to 30 days of pregnancy.
The group which was stressed had about 10% (P<0·05) fewer reproductive failures than those not stressed, while little difference was found between the two feeding regimes. About 61% of the flushed sows returned to oestrus within 7 days after weaning, 9% higher than for those not flushed. The stress treatment had little effect on the weaning-oestrus interval. Neither treatment affected ovarian and follicular-fluid weights, percentage of follicles of different sizes, ovulation rate nor number of viable embryos. The flushed group, however, had 9% lower embryo survival than the group not flushed. A positive relation was found between the number of days on ad libitum feeding and ovulation rate and embryonic mortality.
Differences among breeds were significant for all the traits, except weaning-oestrus interval, weight of follicular fluids, percentage of large follicles, ovulation and survival rates. The weaning-oestrus interval was not significantly correlated with any of the reproductive traits studied.
Nous avons l'honneur de vous communiquer une note rédigée par notre Président, M. Gustave Moynier, et-relative à la création d'une Institution judiciaire Internationale propre à prévenir et à réprimer les infractions à la Convention de Genève. Après avoir entendu la lecture de ce travail dans notre séance du 3 courant, nous croyons utile d'attirer, sur les idées qu'il renferme, l'attention des personnes compétentes et tout spécialement des membres des Comités centraux, dont il nous serait très-agréable de connaître l'opinion à ce sujet.
C'est avec un très-vif sentiment de tristesse que le Comité international a appris la mort si subite de votre vénérable Président, M. R. de Sydow.
Le Comité international a toujours apprécié hautement les services immenses que M. de Sydow a rendus avec un dévouement à toute épreuve à notre œuvre de la Croix rouge, à laquelle il s'était entièrement consacré depuis plusieurs années; aussi, sa mort laisse-t-elle dans les rangs de notre association un vide qui sera difficile à combler.
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