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Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a concept for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission that will achieve ground-breaking science in the fields of galaxy evolution, cosmology, Milky Way, and the Solar System. It is the follow-up space mission to Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), boosting its scientific return by obtaining deep 1–4 μm slit spectroscopy for ∼70% of all galaxies imaged by the ∼2 000 deg2 WFIRST High Latitude Survey at z > 0.5. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy will measure accurate and precise redshifts for ∼200 M galaxies out to z < 7, and deliver spectra that enable a wide range of diagnostic studies of the physical properties of galaxies over most of cosmic history. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe and WFIRST together will produce a 3D map of the Universe over 2 000 deg2, the definitive data sets for studying galaxy evolution, probing dark matter, dark energy and modifications of General Relativity, and quantifying the 3D structure and stellar content of the Milky Way. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe science spans four broad categories: (1) Revolutionising galaxy evolution studies by tracing the relation between galaxies and dark matter from galaxy groups to cosmic voids and filaments, from the epoch of reionisation through the peak era of galaxy assembly; (2) Opening a new window into the dark Universe by weighing the dark matter filaments using 3D weak lensing with spectroscopic redshifts, and obtaining definitive measurements of dark energy and modification of General Relativity using galaxy clustering; (3) Probing the Milky Way’s dust-enshrouded regions, reaching the far side of our Galaxy; and (4) Exploring the formation history of the outer Solar System by characterising Kuiper Belt Objects. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a 1.5 m telescope with a field of view of 0.4 deg2, and uses digital micro-mirror devices as slit selectors. It has a spectroscopic resolution of R = 1 000, and a wavelength range of 1–4 μm. The lack of slit spectroscopy from space over a wide field of view is the obvious gap in current and planned future space missions; Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy fills this big gap with an unprecedented spectroscopic capability based on digital micro-mirror devices (with an estimated spectroscopic multiplex factor greater than 5 000). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy is designed to fit within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission cost envelope; it has a single instrument, a telescope aperture that allows for a lighter launch vehicle, and mature technology (we have identified a path for digital micro-mirror devices to reach Technology Readiness Level 6 within 2 yr). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe will lead to transformative science over the entire range of astrophysics: from galaxy evolution to the dark Universe, from Solar System objects to the dusty regions of the Milky Way.
Intrauterine or fetal growth restriction (IUGR) is a major complication of pregnancy and leads to significant perinatal morbidities and mortality. Typically, induction of IUGR in animals involves the complete occlusion or ablation of vessels to the uterus or placenta, acutely impairing blood flow and fetal growth, usually with high fetal loss. We aimed to produce a model of reduced fetal growth in the spiny mouse with minimal fetal loss. At 27 days gestational age (term is 38–39 days), a piece of silastic tubing was placed around the left uterine artery to prevent the further increase of uterine blood flow with advancing gestation to induce IUGR (occluded). Controls were generated from sham surgeries without placement of the tubing. Dams were humanely euthanized at 37 days gestational age and all fetuses and placentas were weighed and collected. Of the 17 dams that underwent surgery, 15 carried their pregnancies to 37 days gestational age and 95% of fetuses survived to this time. The difference in fetal body weight between occluded and control was ~21% for fetuses in the left uterus side: there were no differences for fetuses in the right uterus side. Offspring from the occluded group had significantly lower brain, liver, lung, kidney and carcass weights compared with shams. Preventing the gestation-related increase of uterine blood flow induced significant growth restriction in the fetal spiny mouse, with minimal fetal loss. This technique could be readily adapted for other small animal.
Epidemiology formed the basis of ‘the Barker hypothesis’, the concept of ‘developmental programming’ and today’s discipline of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Animal experimentation provided proof of the underlying concepts, and continues to generate knowledge of underlying mechanisms. Interventions in humans, based on DOHaD principles, will be informed by experiments in animals. As knowledge in this discipline has accumulated, from studies of humans and other animals, the complexity of interactions between genome, environment and epigenetics, has been revealed. The vast nature of programming stimuli and breadth of effects is becoming known. As a result of our accumulating knowledge we now appreciate the impact of many variables that contribute to programmed outcomes. To guide further animal research in this field, the Australia and New Zealand DOHaD society (ANZ DOHaD) Animals Models of DOHaD Research Working Group convened at the 2nd Annual ANZ DOHaD Congress in Melbourne, Australia in April 2015. This review summarizes the contributions of animal research to the understanding of DOHaD, and makes recommendations for the design and conduct of animal experiments to maximize relevance, reproducibility and translation of knowledge into improving health and well-being.
The evidence underpinning the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is overwhelming. As the emphasis shifts more towards interventions and the translational strategies for disease prevention, it is important to capitalize on collaboration and knowledge sharing to maximize opportunities for discovery and replication. DOHaD meetings are facilitating this interaction. However, strategies to perpetuate focussed discussions and collaborations around and between conferences are more likely to facilitate the development of DOHaD research. For this reason, the DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand (DOHaD ANZ) has initiated themed Working Groups, which convened at the 2014–2015 conferences. This report introduces the DOHaD ANZ Working Groups and summarizes their plans and activities. One of the first Working Groups to form was the ActEarly birth cohort group, which is moving towards more translational goals. Reflecting growing emphasis on the impact of early life biodiversity – even before birth – we also have a Working Group titled Infection, inflammation and the microbiome. We have several Working Groups exploring other major non-cancerous disease outcomes over the lifespan, including Brain, behaviour and development and Obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic health. The Epigenetics and Animal Models Working Groups cut across all these areas and seeks to ensure interaction between researchers. Finally, we have a group focussed on ‘Translation, policy and communication’ which focusses on how we can best take the evidence we produce into the community to effect change. By coordinating and perpetuating DOHaD discussions in this way we aim to enhance DOHaD research in our region.
While a timely conceptual innovation for the digital age, the “map” proposed by Bentley et al. would benefit from strengthening through the inclusion of a non–clock-time perspective. In this way, there could be new hypotheses developed which could be applied and tested relevant to more diverse societies, cultures, and individuals.
The ablation of single crystal MgO irradiated with 248 nm excimer laser light is studied by means of time resolved spectroscopy and quadrupole mass spectrometry. Luminescence spectra and SEM observations indicate that repeated laser bombardment gradually increases the density of potentially absorbing defects. In polished samples, this progressive growth is preceded by an initial clean-up (reduction) of surface damage. Unlike many wide band gap materials, defect production in MgO by electronic mechanisms is not likely. Chemical etch techniques indicate the presence of high dislocation densities in regions etched by the laser, suggesting that point defect production by dislocation motion is important. The ablation plume is composed of charged particles, including cluster ions, as well as a high density of excited neutrals. The growth of the plume with repeated bombardment correlates with defect formation as indicated by luminescence intensities.
Highly p-doped ZnTe films have been grown on semi-insulating GaAs (001) substrates by pulsed-laser ablation (PLA) of a stoichiometric ZnTe target in a high-purity N2 ambient without the use of any assisting (DC or aC) plasma source. Free hole concentrations in the mid-1019 cm-3 to 1020 cm-3 range were obtained for a range of nitrogen pressures the maximum hole concentration equals the highest hole doping reported to date for any wide band gap II-VI compound. the highest hole mobilities were attained for nitrogen pressures of 50–100 mTorr (~6.5–13 Pa). Unlike recent experiments in which atomic nitrogen beams, extracted from RF and DC plasma sources, were used to produce p-type doping during molecular beam epitaxy deposition, spectroscopic measurements carried out during PLA of ZnTe in N2 do not reveal the presence of atomic nitrogen. This suggests that the high hole concentrations in laser ablated ZnTe are produced by a new and different mechanism, possibly energetic beam-induced reactions with excited molecular nitrogen adsorbed on the growing film surface, or transient formation of Zn-N complexes in the energetic ablation plume. This appears to be the first time that any wide band gap (Eg 2 eV) II-VI compound (or other) semiconductor has been impurity-doped from the gas phase by laser ablation. In combination with the recent discovery that epitaxial ZnSe1-xSx films and heterostructures with continuously variable composition can be grown by ablation from a single target of fixed composition, these results appear to open the way to explore PLA growth and doping of compound semiconductors as a possible alternative to molecular beam epitaxy.
Epitaxial layers of Si1-x-yGexCy on Si(100) (x=0.13 and y=0.014 at peak concentration) were formed by ion implantation of Ge ions and C ions at room temperature (RT) and by subsequent IBIEC (ion-beam-induced epitaxial crystallization) process with 400keV Ge and ar ions at 300-400°C and SPEG (solid phase epitaxial growth) process up to 840°C. Crystallization up to the surface both by IBIEC and SPEG processes has been confirmed with RBS-channeling analysis. X-ray diffraction experiments have demonstrated strain compensation by incorporation of C atoms for IBIEC-grown Si1-x-yGexCy/Si samples, whereas strain accommodation due to C precipitation has been observed for SPEG-grown Si1-x-yGexCy/Si samples. Photoluminescence (PL) observed at 2K from IBIEC-grown samples has shown intense I1 peak with/without I1 related (Ar) peak and that from SPEG-grown samples has shown G line emission. these optical properties could suggest that small vacancy agglomeration is dominant in IBIEC-grown samples and C agglomeration is dominant in SPEG-grown samples, respectively.
In this paper the results on p-type ZnS, ZnSe, CdS and CdSe thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition will be discussed. these films were deposited on GaAs substrates. Li-doping has been shown to be effective in producing p-type II-VI thin films, while in-doping is excellent for n-type CdS and CdSe thin films. No post-annealing process was used. these preliminary results suggest a possible new approach through pulsed laser deposition to solve the doping problem of II-VI compound semiconductors.
Diamond-like Carbon(DLC) films have been deposited at Los alamos National Laboratory by pulsed ion beam ablation of graphite targets. the targets are illuminated by an intense beam of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen ions at a fluence of 15-45 J/cm2. Ion energies are on the order of 350 keV, with beam current rising to 35 kA over a 400 ns ion current pulse.
Raman spectra of the deposited films indicate an increasing ratio of sp3 to sp2 bonding as the substrate is moved further away from the target and further off the target normal. Using a thin film platinum resistor at various positions, we have measured the heating of the substrate surface due to the kinetic energy and heat of condensation of the ablated material. Plume power density and energy input are inferred from the temperature measurements. This information is used to determine if substrate heating is responsible for the lack of DLC in positions close to the target and near the target normal.
A beam of metal cluster ions of variable size is deposited with variable kinetic energy on a substrate. Mirror-like and strongly adhering films are produced on unheated substrates for sufficiently high cluster impact energies. Numerical simulations provide the physical insight why this novel technique gives different, and sometimes superior results compared to conventional methods. Several examples are presented.
Planar laser-induced fluorescence has been used to acquire time sequence images of ground-state, neutral Si and SiO during laser ablation of an Si target in vacuum and in the presence of a background gas at a fluence of 3-4 J/cm2. the SiO images, taken in air, strongly suggest that the observed SiO is created through reaction of silicon with oxygen at the contact front as the plume expands.
GaN films were deposited on sapphire (0001) from triethylgallium (TEG) and NH3 seeded in separate He free jets. as the dissociative chemisorption of NH3 is expected to be rate-limiting in GaN growth, the NH3/He nozzle temperature was varied to control the incident kinetic energy of the NH3 molecules. Using an NH3/TEG flow ratio of 205 and an NH3/He nozzle temperature of 400°C, stoichiometric films were deposited at substrate temperatures ≥530°C. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that films deposited at 580°C are polycrystalline α-GaN with randomly oriented 0.5-μm grains. Films with a closely similar morphology are deposited by using an NH3/He nozzle temperature of 90°C. IN contrast, films deposited at 580°C using an NH3/He nozzle temperature of 510°C consist of whiskers (aspect ratio = c A. 4) which exhibit a-GaN (0001)/sapphire (0001) heteroepitaxy, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and reflection high-energy electron diffraction.
Superlattice structures, consisting of SrCuO2, (Sr,Ca)CuO2, and BaCuO2 layers in the tetragonal, "infinite layer" crystal structure, have been grown by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD). Superlattice chemical modulation is observed for structures with component layers as thin as a single unit cell (~3.4 Å), indicating that unit-cell control of (Sr,Ca)CuO2 growth is possible using conventional pulsed-laser deposition over a wide oxygen pressure regime. X-ray diffraction intensity oscillations, due to the finite thickness of the film, indicate that these films are extremely flat with a thickness variation of only ~20 Å over a length scale of several thousand angstroms. Using the constraint of epitaxy to grow metastable cuprates in the infinite layer structure, novel high-temperature superconducting structural families have been formed. IN particular, epitaxially-stabilized SrCuO2/BaCuO2 superlattices, grown by sequentially depositing on lattice-matched (100) SrTiO3 from BaCuO2 and SrCuO2 ablation targets in a PLD system, show metallic conductivity and superconductivity at Tc(onset) ~70 K. these results show that pulsed-laser deposition and epitaxial stabilization have been used to effectively "engineer" artificially-layered thin-film materials.