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The need to manage psychological symptoms after disasters can result in an increase in the prescription of psychotropic drugs, including antidepressants and anxiolytics. Therefore, an increase in the prescription of antidepressants and anxiolytics could be an indicator of general psychological distress in the community.
The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a change in the rate of prescription of antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs following Cyclone Yasi.
A quantitative evaluation of new prescriptions of antidepressants and anxiolytics was conducted. The total number of new prescriptions for these drugs was calculated for the period six months after the cyclone and compared with the same six month period in the preceding year. Two control drugs were also included to rule out changes in the general rate of drug prescription in the affected communities.
After Cyclone Yasi, there was an increase in the prescription of antidepressant drugs across all age and gender groups in the affected communities except for males 14-54 years of age. The prescription of anxiolytic drugs decreased immediately after the cyclone, but increased by the end of the six-month post-cyclone period. Control drug prescription did not change.
There was a quantifiable increase in the prescription of antidepressant drugs following Cyclone Yasi that may indicate an increase in psychosocial distress in the community.
UsherK, BrownLH, BuettnerP, GlassB, BoonH, WestC, GrassoJ, Chamberlain-SalaunJ, WoodsC. Rate of Prescription of Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Drugs after Cyclone Yasi in North Queensland. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2012;27(6):1-5.
Using a 337 μm gas maser (Gebbie, Stone & Findlay 1965; Gebbie, Stone, Slough, Chamberlain & Sheraton 1966) it is possible to obtain precise measurements of the submillimetre absorption and phase shift occurring in specimens of each of the phases of matter and results have already been reported for the soild, liquid and gaseous states (Chamberlain & Gebbie 1965; Gebbie, Stone, Findlay & Pyatt 1965; Chamberlain, Werner, Gebbie & Slough 1967;, Chamberlain, Findlay & Gebbie 1965).
A key question for the implementation of marker-assisted selection (MAS) using markers in linkage disequilibrium with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) is how many markers surrounding each QTL should be used to ensure the marker or marker haplotypes are in sufficient linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the QTL. In this paper we compare the accuracy of MAS using either single markers or marker haplotypes in an Angus cattle data set consisting of 9323 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 379 Angus cattle. The extent of LD in the data set was such that the average marker–marker r2 was 0·2 at 200 kb. The accuracy of MAS increased as the number of markers in the haplotype surrounding the QTL increased, although only when the number of markers in the haplotype was 4 or greater did the accuracy exceed that achieved when the SNP in the highest LD with the QTL was used. A large number of phenotypic records (>1000) were required to accurately estimate the effects of the haplotypes.
Jerry P. Nolan, Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Royal United Hospital, Bath BA1 3NG, UK,
Douglas Chamberlain, Department of Resuscitation Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Wales, UK,
William H. Montgomery, Department of Anesthesiology, Straub Clinic and Hospital, University of Hawaii School of Medicine, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA,
Vinay M. Nadkarni, Departments of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Clinical guidelines aredefinedby the Institute ofMedicine in the United States as“systematically developed statements to assist practitioner and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances.” The main objective of guidelines is to improve the quality of care received by patients by closing the gap between what clinicians do and what scientific evidence supports. Guidelines provide a point of referencefor auditing performanceof clinicians or hospitals and may improve effectiveness and efficiency. The development of guidelines requires appropriate resources: expert clinicians, group process leaders, and financial support. All these statements refer to guideline development in general, but they are particularly relevant to the development of resuscitation guidelines that have existed for at least 40 years. The steps involved in the process for developing evidence-based guidelines have been outlined by the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group (Table 71.1).
This chapter will review the history of consensus development in resuscitation, the role of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR), the process involved in undertaking a systematic review of resuscitation science, and the writing of clinical guidelines based on a consensus of the science.
The history of international CPR consensus and guideline development
The modern approach to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was described in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Although this was undoubtedly the birth of CPR, it was immediately realized that the challenge was to spread the word and educate healthcare workers and laypeople throughout the world. This same challenge faces us today whenever CPR guidelines are modified and updated.
It is estimated that 1.6 billion people worldwide have myopia, a refractive error, and this number is expected to increase to approximately 2.5 billion by the year 2020. It is now well established that both the environment and genetics play a role in the development of myopia. However, the exact contribution of each of these components to myopia development has yet to be completely determined. Twin studies (classical twin model) are commonly used to determine the weighting of genetic and environmental components in disease. Over the last century, twin studies have investigated the heritability of refractive errors in different sample populations and have collectively supported a genetic basis to refractive errors. However, different sample populations and methods of data collection have produced a wide range of heritability estimates ranging from .5 to .9. This article will review those twin studies that have investigated refractive error, particularly myopia, as well as biometric measures linked to refractive error, to compare heritability estimates and methodology designs.
We have found photometric indications that Interacting Eclipsing Binaries of early to mid F spectral type (and possibly A) have strong magnetic activity which would arise from convective atmospheres. Light curve solutions and periodicity studies revealing spots, magnetic breaking and magnetic cycles are presented in XZ CMi, V965 Cyg and V963 Cyg.
Legislation in the United Kingdom states that all pigs should have access to straw or other material or object suitable to satisfy their behavioural needs (Welfare of Livestock Regulations, 1994). However, the use of straw bedding has not been universally adopted as its use is incompatible with housing systems which contain perforated flooring, and 76% of pig producers in the UK currently employ fully- or part-slatted finishing housing systems. The aim of this study was to investigate whether different lengths of chopped straw would achieve enhancements in pig welfare, by exploring the possibility that small quantities of chopped straw, in preference to unchopped straw, could constitute adequate provision in part- and fully-slatted systems, thus avoiding the blockage of perforated flooring.
The mixing of unfamiliar sows at weaning leads to aggression whilst dominance hierarchies within the group are established (Kay et al, 1999). The objective of this study was to determine whether the presence of a boar would reduce the incidence of aggression and level of skin damage of newly mixed sows. The overall aim of the project was to improve welfare by designing a suitable strategy for mixing groups of newly-weaned sows
The general well-being of growing pigs is known to be affected by both the quantity/quality of stockperson input invested and the complexity of their housing environment (Pearce et. al., 1989). However, the nature of the interactions which exist between these two factors is still largely unknown. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the separate and interactive effects of handling and environmental enrichment on the welfare and performance of growing pigs.
The fabrication of large-area thin-film transistor (TFT) arrays on thin flexible plastic substrates requires deposition of thin film layers at relatively low temperatures since the upper working temperature of low-cost plastic films should not exceed ∼200°C. In this paper, we report a fabrication process of a-Si:H TFTs at 120°C on flexible polyimide substrates for large-area imaging applications.
Kapton HN (DuPont) films 50 and 125 μm thick and 3 inches in diameter, were used as substrates. Both sides of the polyimide substrate were first covered with 0.5 μm thick a-SiNx. The TFT structure includes: 120 nm thick room-temperature sputtered Al gate, 250 nm thick PECVD deposited a-SiNx for the gate dielectric, 50 nm thick a-Si:H deposited by PECVD from silane-hydrogen gas mixture, 50 nm thick n+ a-Si:H source- and drain contacts, and roomtemperature sputtered Al top contact metallization. We used dry etching for all layers except for the gate and top metal, which were patterned using wet etchants. For purpose of TFT performance comparison, Coming 7059 glass substrates were used.
The performance of the fabricated TFT and its improvement with use of optimized a-Si:H and a-SiNx quality will be presented along with a discussion of the intrinsic mechanical stress in the thin film layers will also be discussed.
The bresiliid shrimp Alvinocaris markensis is a predator that inhabits the base of sulphide mounds built by the black smoker chimneys of active hydrothermal vents at the Snake Pit site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Casual examination of animals collected with theDSV ‘Alvin’ suggests that, like other biesiliid shrimp from hydrothermal vents, the eyes of this species are adapted for vision in very dim light. However, examination of the structure and ultrastructure of eyes of animals collected and immediately fixed shows that the expected massive array of photoreceptors is partially or completely missing. The eye is enlarged, its dioptric apparatus has disappeared, its screening pigment is essentially gone, and its reflecting pigment cells have formed an enlarged mass of white diffusing cells behind the expected layer of photoreceptors. In half of the animals examined, there were no recognizable photoreceptors in the retina, and in the remaining animals there were only scattered photoreceptors with poorly organized microvillar arrays of photosensitive membrane. We conclude that this species is blind despite some retinal adaptations for vision in very dim light. Apparently, the ambient light of this animal's environment is below the quit point (the minimum level that can be exploited) so that the retina has begun to degenerate by losing its photoreceptors.
10B doped diamond films grown by hot filament chemical vapor deposition were neutron irradiated at moderately high fluence levels. The as-irradiated and annealed samples, along with an unirradiated sample, were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. It was found that a non-diamond amorphous phase was formed on irradiation. This phase transformed back to diamond on annealing. No graphite formation was observed. A comparison with nanodiamond powder was made. A similarity between irradiated diamond films and nanocrystalline diamond powder is discussed.
The bresiliid shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata, lives in large masses on the sides of hydrothermal vent chimneys at two sites on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Although essentially no daylight penetrates to depths of 3500 m, very dim light is emitted from the hydrothermal vents themselves. To exploit this light, R. exoculata has evolved a modified compound eye on its dorsal surface that occupies about 0.5% of the animal's body volume. The eye's morphology suggests that it is extremely sensitive to light. The cornea of the dorsal eye is smooth with no dioptric apparatus. The retina consists of two wing-shaped lobes that are fused across the midline anteriorly. The rhabdomeral segments of the 7000 ommatidia form a compact layer of photosensitive membrane with an entrance aperture of more than 26 mm2. Within this layer, the volume density of rhabdom is more than 70%. Below the rhabdomeral segments, a thick layer of white diffusing cells scatters light upward into the photoreceptors. The arhabdomeral segments of the five to seven photoreceptors of each ommatidium are mere strands of cytoplasm that expand to accommodate the photoreceptor nuclei. The rhabdom is comprised of well-organized arrays of microvilli, each with a cytoskeletal core. The rhabdomeral segment cytoplasm contains mitochondria, but little else. The perikaryon contains a band of mitochondria, but has only small amounts of endoplasmic reticulum. There is no ultrastructural indication of photosensitive membrane cycling in these photoreceptors. Vestigial screening pigment cells and screening pigment granules within the photoreceptors are both restricted to the inner surface of the layer of the white diffusing cells. Below the retina, photoreceptor axons converge in a fan-shaped array to enter the dorsal surface of the brain. The eye's size and structure are consistent with a role for vision in shrimp living at abyssal hydrothermal vents.
Examination of the Limulus median optic nerve with low-magnification light microscopy allows clear visualization of an ultraviolet-sensitive mini-ommatidium enshrouded by pigment cells, glial cells, and guanophores. Serial 1-μm sections of median optic nerves containing mini-ommatidia revealed the presence of a single, heavily pigmented photoreceptor (retinular) cell and a single, unpigmented arhabdomeric cell. Computer-assisted serial reconstructions from 1-μm sections confirmed the presence of two cells, each bearing a nucleus, and two axons leaving the mini-ommatidium. The retinular cell is morphologically similar to retinular cells from the median and lateral eyes. Its rhabdomere appears to be a continuous sheet of microvilli with much infolding. The structure of the arhabdomeric cell is nearly identical to those found in the median ocellus. As in other photoreceptors in Limulus, the retinular cell of the mini-ommatidium is innervated by efferent fibers from the brain. Each mini-ommatidium generates a single train of nerve impulses in response to light, presumably from the arhabdomeric cell. Measurement of the spectral sensitivity of the mini-ommatidium based upon a constant-response criterion indicated that the retinular cell is maximally sensitive to near ultraviolet light with λmax = 380 nm. Comparison of intensity-response functions revealed that those of the mini-ommatidium are significantly steeper than those of the ocellus almost certainly as the result of neural processing in the ocellus which is absent in the mini-ommatidium.
The crystalline quality of a diamond film with two different preferential orientations (100) and (111), obtained in the same run by hot filament chemical deposition, has been studied. The quality of the film determined by Raman spectroscopy measurements was found to be nearly the same for both orientations. The second order Raman spectrum for diamond film was observed by using an infrared excitation.
There are now a range of new breeding technologies which are actually or potentially available for use in commercial dairy cows. In order to give a socioeconomic evaluation of these new technologies the effects of the achievable genetic lift and gain must be estimated and their effect upon milk production. This paper has evaluated these effects from both artificial insemination and embryo transfer based technologies.
A simulation model was constructed to estimate the consequences of adopting either A.I. or embryo based technologies on milk production. The model simulated a 100 cow herd over a period of fifteen years, to allow the delayed benefits of using such technologies to reach maturity. The initial herd structure was calculated using a range of estimates of technology success rates (probability of successfully conceiving after one service) and culling rate (14%).
Enzymatic treatments that facilitated whole-cell electrophysiological recordings were used on Limulus ventral photoreceptor cells. Ventral optic nerves were treated with either collagenase or collagenase, papain, and trypsin. Either treatment greatly increased the ease of making whole-cell recordings of transmembrane potentials. Light responses obtained from enzyme-treated photoreceptor cells were nearly identical to results obtained without enzyme treatment and compared favorably to in vivo recordings of light responses from the compound lateral eye. Enzyme-treated cells also responded to applied octopamine, as do untreated cells, with an increased phosphorylation of a 122-kD protein. This suggests that the external receptors and internal biochemical machinery required for at least one second-messenger cascade are present after enzyme treatment. The morphological integrity of enzyme-treated photoreceptor cells was examined with light microscopy as well as with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In general, we found that each enzyme treatment greatly reduced the integrity of the layers of glial cells that surround the photoreceptor cells thereby making these cells easily accessible for whole-cell recordings of transmembrane potentials. The morphology of the rhabdomere was normal after enzymatic degradation of the adjacent glial covering.
Isolated photoreceptors are desirable for whole-cell and patch-clamp studies of functional properties of visual processes that cannot be clearly analyzed when the photoreceptors are coupled. The retina of the compound lateral eye of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, was dissociated into individual retinular cells using an enzyme pretreatment consisting of collagenase, papain, and trypsin, and a two-stage mechanical dissociation. These photoreceptors are functionally viable in an organ culture medium for up to 1 week and possess naked arhabdomeral and rhabdomeral segment membranes which are easily accessible for whole-cell recordings. A dissection technique was also developed whereby the retinal epidermis and neural plexus, as well as the second-order eccentric cells, could be separated from the ommatidia of the compound lateral eye in one simple step, providing viable isolated ommatidia attached to the cornea. The enzyme pretreatment used for dissociating the retina was then used to remove the individual ommatidia from the corneal cones.
Hoffman modulation contrast microscopy was used to develop a reliable method for sorting and collecting viable isolated retinular cells for morphological and electrophysiological studies. Morphological analysis using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that isolated retinular cells are morphologically nearly identical to retinular cells in situ. Isolated retinular cells possess a normal rhabdomere with no apparent loss of microvillar membrane as a result of the isolation process. Ommatidia can presently be isolated with up to six retinular cells possessing essentially normal structure and ultrastructure including thick rays of rhabdom. Isolated ommatidia possess naked A-segment membranes which are also well suited for whole-cell recording techniques.