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We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
A facile hydrothermal method was used to synthesize molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) microspheres. The effect of hydrothermal reaction time on morphology and electrochemical properties of MoS2 microspheres was evaluated. X-ray diffraction showed presence of crystalline MoS2 structure, where content of crystalline phase was observed to increase with hydrothermal reaction time. Electrochemical properties of MoS2 were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge in 3M KOH solution. Specific capacitance of nanostructured MoS2 was observed to be between 68 F/g and 346 F/g at different scan rates along with excellent cyclic stability. High power density (∼1200 W/kg) and energy density (∼5 Wh/kg) was observed for MoS2 sample synthesized for 24 hours of hydrothermal reaction time. Overall optimal electrocapactive performance was observed for sample prepared for 24 hours of reaction time. It is demonstrated that the obtained MoS2 microspheres with three-dimensional architecture has excellent electrochemical performances as electrode materials for supercapacitor applications.
1.1.1 The Faculty of Actuaries' Marketing Research Group was set up in May 1988 to research areas of interest to that new breed of Fellow, the “Marketing Actuary”.
In the initial meetings two general areas of interest were identified—namely the marketing of the actuarial profession, and the marketing of financial services products.
Whilst the group has spent time on both subjects this first paper is concerned with the marketing of the actuarial profession.
1.1.2 We felt that the starting point for a marketing audit of the profession was to conduct research amongst the members. In addition we have investigated the coverage achieved by the profession in the media, and looked into developments in North America, including a survey which ranked the actuarial profession against other forms of employment.
Bidirectional reflectance of a surface is defined as the ratio of the scattered radiation at the detector to the incident irradiance as a function of geometry. Accurate knowledge of the bidirectional reflection function for layers composed of discrete, randomly positioned scattering particles is essential for many remote sensing, engineering, and biophysical applications, as well as for different areas of astrophysics. Computations of bidirectional reflection functions for plane parallel particulate layers are usually reduced to solving the radiative transfer equation by the existing techniques. In this work we present our laboratory data on bidirectional reflectance versus phase angle for two sample sizes of alumina, 0.3 and 1 μm, for the He–Ne laser at wavelengths of 632.8 nm (red) and 543.5 nm (green). The nature of the phase curves of the asteroids depends on the parameters like particle size, composition, porosity, roughness, etc. In the present study we analyze data which are being generated using a single scattering phase function, that is, Mie theory of treating particles as a compact sphere. The well-known Hapke formula, along with different particle phase functions such as Mie and Henyey–Greenstein, will be used to model the laboratory data obtained at the asteroid laboratory of Assam University.
We have studied the effect of pentacene purity and evaporation rate on low-voltage organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) prepared solely by dry fabrication techniques. The maximum field-effect mobility of 0.07 cm2/Vs was achieved for the highest pentacene evaporation rate of 0.32 Å/s and four-time purified pentacene. Four-time purified pentacene also led to the lowest threshold voltage of -1.1 V and inverse subthreshold slope of ∼100 mV/decade. In addition, pentacene surface was imaged using atomic force microscopy, and the transistor channel and contact resistances for various pentacene evaporation rates were extracted and compared to field-effect mobilities.
This paper presents the results of research into the marketing of the actuarial profession including a SWOT analysis, public awareness and image of the profession amongst target groups (general public, undergraduates, journalists, company directors, pension scheme trustees and insurance intermediaries), and the desire to allocate more resources to the profession's public awareness and image. The paper also contains an analysis of the national press coverage achieved by the profession and reports on developments in North America where a task force on strengthening the actuarial profession has been set up.
Structural and dynamical properties of intercalated solids in general , and layered silicates of the type AxB1−x -Vermiculite in particular, are of both fundamental and practical interest. In these systems, two types of ions A and B with different ionic radii occupy the space between two silicate layers. On the fundamental side, one is interested in studying the average interlayer spacing as a function of (1) the concentration x of the large ion, (2) sizes and compressibilities of the intercalated ions and (3) the transverse rigidity of the silicate layers. In addition, one is interested in the dynamic properties of these solids. On the practical side, when the size difference between the two intercalants is large, one obtains pillared clays which are characterized by widely spaced silicate layers that are propped apart by sparsely distributed larger interlayer cations (sometimes referred to as pillars) . The enormous free volume of accessible interior space that is derived from such an open structure has significent practical application in the field of catalysis and sieving.
We have measured the infrared (IR) reflectance and Raman spectra of electron doped and undoped Nd2CuO4 and Pr2CuO4. Utilizing the results from doped ceramics and undoped ab plane oriented single crystals, we observe and assign all the IR active phonons (3A2u + 4Eu) predicted by group theory. We have also observed the Raman active modes involving atom motion along the c axis. We compare our results to those found in the related hole superconductors based upon La2CuO4.
The kinetics of the initial oxidation of silicon surfaces by O2 were studied using laser-induced thermal desorption (LITD), temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The LITD results showed that the oxidation of Si(111)7×7 by O2 was characterized by two kinetic processes: an initial rapid oxygen uptake followed by a slower growth that asymptotically approached an apparent saturation oxygen coverage. The initial reactive sticking coefficient of O2 on Si(111)7×7 decreased with surface temperature. In contrast, TPD experiments on Si(111)7×7 and FTIR studies on porous silicon demonstrated that the apparent saturation oxygen coverage increased as a function of surface temperature. Experiments with preadsorbed hydrogen also revealed that silicon oxidation was inhibited as a function of increasing hydrogen coverage on the Si(111)7×7 surface.
Micro-Raman spectra of relaxor ferroelectric (RFE) in the (1-x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 :xTiO3 solid solution series have been measured as a function of temperature (70-580K) and composition (x = 0.02, 0.085, and 0.11). Micro-Raman spectra have been recorded in frequency range of 30-1000cm-1 and have been analyzed for all the Raman modes observed in terms of integrated intensity, phonon width and phonon frequency position. No soft mode like behavior is observed in the measured frequency range. We do observe two multiple phase transitions at 67°C (340K) and 147°C (420K) for the composition ≤ 0.91PZN:09PT, but both the transitions are slightly diffused in nature.
This work examines the extent of the deposition of iron on the wafer from (iron) contaminated SC-1 solutions on silicon wafer surfaces, models this effect, and also predicts the chemical state of the iron thus deposited on the wafer surface. The deposition of iron from SC-1 on three different wafer surface terminations was studied. The surfaces were characterized by: (i) the presence of ∼10 Å of native oxide, (ii) by relatively little native oxide and (iii) by a thick thermal oxide. Experiments were performed at room temperature using a 1:1:5 SC-1 (NH4 OH-H2O2-H2O) solution, and also at 80°C with a more dilute composition (0.25:0.5:5). We found that irrespective of the initial surface termination, the amount of iron deposited on the silicon surface from SC-1 exhibited remarkably little deviation over a wide range of spiking levels, leading to the conclusion that in all cases an initial rapid oxidation of the silicon took place, followed by the preferential oxidation of the iron and its inclusion as the oxide into the oxide film. Finally, the model developed predicts that lower temperatures and more concentrated chemistries are more effective in keeping the iron in solution.
This paper reviews the interdisciplinary work performed in our group in recent years to develop micro-integrated devices to characterize biological entities. We present the use of electrical and mechanically based phenomena to perform characterization and various functions needed for integrated biochips. One sub-system takes advantage of the dielectrophoretic effect to sort and concentrate cells within a micro-fluidic biochip. Another sub-system measures impedance changes produced by the metabolic activity of cells to determine their viability. A third sub-system is used to detect the mass of bacteria as they bind to micro-mechanical silicon cantilevers. These devices with an electronic signal output can be very useful in producing practical systems for rapid detection and characterization of cells for a wide variety of applications in the food safety and health diagnostics industries.