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Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder associated with disrupted connectivity within the thalamic-cortico-cerebellar network. Resting-state functional connectivity studies have reported thalamic hypoconnectivity with the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex as well as thalamic hyperconnectivity with sensory cortical regions in SZ patients compared with healthy comparison participants (HCs). However, fundamental questions remain regarding the clinical significance of these connectivity abnormalities.
Resting state seed-based functional connectivity was used to investigate thalamus to whole brain connectivity using multi-site data including 183 SZ patients and 178 matched HCs. Statistical significance was based on a voxel-level FWE-corrected height threshold of p < 0.001. The relationships between positive and negative symptoms of SZ and regions of the brain demonstrating group differences in thalamic connectivity were examined.
HC and SZ participants both demonstrated widespread positive connectivity between the thalamus and cortical regions. Compared with HCs, SZ patients had reduced thalamic connectivity with bilateral cerebellum and anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, SZ patients had greater thalamic connectivity with multiple sensory-motor regions, including bilateral pre- and post-central gyrus, middle/inferior occipital gyrus, and middle/superior temporal gyrus. Thalamus to middle temporal gyrus connectivity was positively correlated with hallucinations and delusions, while thalamus to cerebellar connectivity was negatively correlated with delusions and bizarre behavior.
Thalamic hyperconnectivity with sensory regions and hypoconnectivity with cerebellar regions in combination with their relationship to clinical features of SZ suggest that thalamic dysconnectivity may be a core neurobiological feature of SZ that underpins positive symptoms.
We used a sequence of velocity-modulated photographs to find and measure the radial velocities of faint planetary nebulae in the center of M31. The photographs were made with a Velocity Modulating Camera (VMC) which consists of a temperature-tuned 2.1 Å (FWHM) (O III) λ 5007 interference filter, a cooled, two-stage image intensifier, and a calibrating photomultiplier. The camera was mounted at the Cassegrain focus of the Shane 3 m telescope at Lick Observatory. We identified 19 new planetary nebulae, bringing the total number of known planetaries within 250 pc of M31's nucleus to 45. From the plate series, we derived radial velocities and relative brightnesses from 32 of the nebulae and placed radial velocity limits on the remaining nebulae in the field. By applying the method of maximum likelihood to the observed radial velocity distribution, we derive a mean heliocentric velocity of −309 (±25) km s−1 and a velocity dispersion of 155 (±22) km s−1 for the planetary nebulae.
This is a study of the Lyman edge region in the spectra of eleven high redshift quasars. We present large aperture, low resolution data designed to detect broadened Lyman edge absorption predicted by thermal models of the Big Blue Bump continuum component. We also present high resolution data on the edge regions and the Lyman alpha emission line for nine of the objects. We show some partial absorption edges and discuss whether or not they can be interpreted as support for the accretion disk model.
We have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Planetary Camera (PC) images of a number of Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae. The objects, except for SMP 83 were observed as part of the Cycle I GO program. The observations were made in the [O III] λ5007Å line. The object SMP 83, was observed as part of the GTO program, and in this case observations were also made in the Hα line using the F650N filter. In order to characterise the point spread function, a star was placed at the same point on the chip as the PN. This allowed us to determine the diameters of barely resolved PN in an accurate manner, by convolving the PSF with a function until it matched the appearance of the PN image. The results are given in Table 1.
Redshifts of clusters of galaxies have been obtained in four regions of the sky selected as suspected rich superclusters at intermediate redshift (0.1 < z < 0.3). Measurements to date have detected the existence of several superclusters with dimensions up to 50 h−1 Mpc (h = H0/100 k/s/Mpc), irregular shapes, and containing as many as seven rich clusters in the richest supercluster. The velocity dispersions suggest some slowing of the Hubble flow internal to the superclusters. However, the inferred mass densities are low enough to prefer an open universe if the mass-to-luminosity ratios within the best-studied superclusters are comparable to the universal ratio.
The ready availability of full-field velocity measurements in present-day experiments has kindled interest in using such data for force estimation, especially in situations where direct measurements are difficult. Among the methods proposed, a formulation based on impulse is attractive, for both practical and physical reasons. However, evaluation of the impulse requires a complete description of the vorticity field, and this is particularly hard to achieve in the important region close to a body surface. This paper presents a solution to the problem. The incomplete experimental-vorticity field is augmented by a vortex sheet on the body, with strength determined by the no-slip boundary condition. The impulse is then found from the sum of vortex-sheet and experimental contributions. Components of physical interest can straightforwardly be recognised; for example, the classical ‘added mass’ associated with fluid inertia is represented by an explicit term in the formulation for the vortex sheet. The method is implemented in the context of two-dimensional flat-plate flow, and tested on velocity-field data from a translating wing experiment. The results show that the vortex-sheet contribution is significant for the test data set. Furthermore, when it is included, good agreement with force-balance measurements is found. It is thus recommended that any impulse-based force calculation should correct for (likely) data incompleteness in this way.
Planetary nebulae can be used to estimate the distances to galaxies and to measure stellar dynamics in faint halos. We discuss surveys which have netted a total of 665 candidate planetary nebulae in NGC 5128 (Cen A), NGC 5102, NGC 3031 (M81), NGC 3115, three galaxies in the Leo Group (NGC 3379, NGC 3384, NGC 3377), NGC 5866, and finally, in NGC 4486 (M87). Radial velocities of planetaries in M32 have shown that its halo velocity dispersion is most likely isotropic. Radial velocities of planetaries in M31 show that ∼ 2/3 of the nebulae with projected radii between 15 and 30 kpc are members of a rotating thick disk with slight asymmetric drift, while ∼ 1/3 belong to a slowly rotating halo. Velocities of 116 nebulae in NGC 5128 reveal pronounced rotation and a slowly declining velocity dispersion in the halo out to 20 kpc. The [O III] λ5007 luminosity functions (PNLFs) in NGC 5128, M81, and the three Leo Galaxies have the same shape over the first magnitude. The highly consistent distances derived from the brightnesses of the jth nebula and the median nebula in different fields in the same galaxy and from different galaxies in the same group lend strong support to the suggestion that planetaries are an accurate standard candle in old stellar populations. Comparison of theoretical luminosity functions to the observed PNLFs shows that there is a very small dispersion in the central star masses.
New evolutionary correlations have been discovered to apply to the population of Planetary Nebulae (FN) in the Magellanic Clouds. Firstly, the age of the nebular shell is found to follow a relationship τ = 890[(Mneb/M⊙) (Vexp/km s−1)]0,6 yr, which is shown to be consistent with a model in which the total energy of the ionised and swept up gas drives the expansion down the density gradient in the precursor AGE wind. Secondly, a tight correlation is found between the expansion velocity and a combination of the Excitation Class and the Hβ flux. This appears to be determined by the mass of the planetary nebula nuclear star. These correlations provide strong observational support for the idea that the PN shells are ejected at low velocity during the Asymptotic Giant Branch phase of evolution, and that they are continually accelerated during their nebular lifetimes.
We present the results of our major HST study of the evolution of PN in the Magellanic Clouds. This consists of imaging studies in [O III] and FOS UV spectroscopy. These data are then used in theoretical photoionisation models in conjuction with ground-based spectrophotometry, absolute flux and expansion velocity and density to derive self consistent diameters, ages, masses, and nebular abundances and to accurately place the central stars on the H-R Diagram. We find that observed sizes and ages can be reconciled with evolutionary theory provided that the He-burners outnumber the H-burners in the approximate ratio 2:1. For the LMC observed abundance patterns are qualitatively consistent with the (mass-dependent) operation of the various chemical dredge-up processes as predicted by theory. However, the observed dredge-up efficiencies do not agree with current theory. Finally, since core masses are determined with adequate precision, we are able to derive, for the first time, the metallicity age relation for of the LMC. We find that the base metallicity of the LMC rapidly increased ∼ 2 Gyr ago, consistent with the age of the burst of star formation inferred from field stars and clusters.
Estimates of the proportion of illness transmitted by food for different enteric pathogens are essential for foodborne burden-of-disease studies. Owing to insufficient scientific data, a formal synthesis of expert opinion, an expert elicitation, is commonly used to produce such estimates. Eleven experts participated in an elicitation to estimate the proportion of illnesses due to food in Australia for nine pathogens over three rounds: first, based on their own knowledge alone; second, after being provided with systematic reviews of the literature and Australian data; and finally, at a workshop where experts reflected on the evidence. Estimates changed significantly across the three rounds (P = 0·002) as measured by analysis of variance. Following the workshop in round 3, estimates showed smoother distributions with significantly less variation for several pathogens. When estimates were combined to provide combined distributions for each pathogen, the width of these combined distributions reflected experts’ perceptions of the availability of evidence, with narrower intervals for pathogens for which evidence was judged to be strongest. Our findings show that the choice of expert elicitation process can significantly influence final estimates. Our structured process – and the workshop in particular – produced robust estimates and distributions appropriate for inclusion in burden-of-disease studies.
Flapping wings often feature a leading-edge vortex (LEV) that is thought to enhance the lift generated by the wing. Here the lift on a wing featuring a leading-edge vortex is considered by performing experiments on a translating flat-plate aerofoil that is accelerated from rest in a water towing tank at a fixed angle of attack of 15°. The unsteady flow is investigated with dye flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV) and force measurements. Leading- and trailing-edge vortex circulation and position are calculated directly from the velocity vectors obtained using PIV. In order to determine the most appropriate value of bound circulation, a two-dimensional potential flow model is employed and flow fields are calculated for a range of values of bound circulation. In this way, the value of bound circulation is selected to give the best fit between the experimental velocity field and the potential flow field. Early in the trajectory, the value of bound circulation calculated using this potential flow method is in accordance with Kelvin’s circulation theorem, but differs from the values predicted by Wagner’s growth of bound circulation and the Kutta condition. Later the Kutta condition is established but the bound circulation remains small; most of the circulation is contained instead in the LEVs. The growth of wake circulation can be approximated by Wagner’s circulation curve. Superimposing the non-circulatory lift, approximated from the potential flow model, and Wagner’s lift curve gives a first-order approximation of the measured lift. Lift is generated by inertial effects and the slow buildup of circulation, which is contained in shed vortices rather than bound circulation.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
A pilot production Zone-melting Recrystallization system was designed and built with a capability to handle 25 wafer batches of 4“, 5“and 6“wafers. The design addresses several production requirements including high throughput, batch processing and automation. Measurements on product wafers indicate that material quality was not sacrificed to achieve production throughput levels. Exceptional structural quality and good electrical properties have been obtained on SOI wafers produced within this system. Specifically, defect densities as low as 5 X 104 /cm2 a level an order of magnitude lower than previously reported, have been achieved while the minority carrier lifetime of up to 30 microseconds, intrinsic dopant level < 2 X 1015 /cm3 and junction leakage below 1 X 1016 amperes/cm2 are either as good as or better than previously reported values. We believe that defect free ZMR material will become a reality.
Dihydrogen, copper, platinum, and lead octakis(2-ethylhexyloxy)phthalocyanines (Pc's) were studied in polystyrene films at 532 nm and in chloroform solutions at 1064 nm by picosecond degenerate four wave mixing. Resonant χ(3) values of Pc's at 532 nm (a local minimum in the absorption spectrum) at a time coincident with the 20 psec pump pulses were as high as 104 times that of CS2 by extrapolation of the response from 1 wt % PtPc in polystyrene film to a value for pure PtPc. Delay of the probe pulse as long as 3 nsec revealed acoustic responses stronger than the fast electronic responses. The films showed the expected quadratic dependence of the instantaneous reflectivity on incident intensity only for a decade of magnitude of intensity, 100–1000 MW/cm2, with the output saturating at higher intensities. Excited state absorption at 532 nm was detected in the film samples by pulse-probe spectroscopy and was shown to be a factor in the saturation observed in the NLO signals. Nonresonant χ(3) values at 1064 nm were as high as 120 times that of CS2 from measured responses of 1 wt % chloroform solutions of Pc's. Time delay of the probe revealed both fast electronic and slower acoustic responses at 1064 nm too.
Carbon monoxide chemisorption on the (111) and (110) surfaces of a single-crystal NiAI alloy has been studied using several surface sensitive techniques, including work function change measurements, ultra-violet photoelectron, thermal desorption and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Results from these experiments indicate that the reactivity of these NiAI surfaces toward CO is distinctly different and that although the CO/NiAI (111) surface behaves more like CO adsorbed on pure nickel surfaces, the CO/NiAI (110) surface is neither like CO adsorbed on pure nickel nor aluminum surfaces. The local CO bonding sites, as probed with photoemission and electron energy loss spectroscopy, are similar on both NiAI surfaces.
Thin, polycrystalline silicon solar cells have the potential for the realization of a 15%, lowcost photovoltaic product. As a photovoltaic material, polycrystalline material is abundant, benign, and electrically stable. The thin-film polycrystalline silicon solar cell design achieves high efficiency by incorporating techniques to enhance optical absorption, ensure electrical confinement, and minimize bulk recombination currents. AstroPower's approach to a thin-film polycrystalline silicon solar cell technology is based on the Silicon-Film™ process, a continuous sheet manufacturing process for the growth of thin films of polycrystalline silicon on low-cost substrates. A new barrier layer and substrate have been developed for advanced solar cell designs. External gettering with phosphorus has been employed to effect significant improvements leading to effective minority carrier diffusion lengths greater than 250 micrometers in the active silicon layer. Light trapping has been observed in 60-micrometer thick films of silicon grown on the new barrier-coated substrate. An efficiency of 12.2% in a 0.659 cm2 solar cell has been achieved with the advanced structure.