To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Radiocarbon (14C) dating has previously been applied to modern paintings on canvas from the 20th century to identify potential modern forgeries, and dates indicate a time lag of several years between the harvesting of plant fibers for making canvas, and completion of a painting. This study investigated both the length of this time lag and the potential of 14C dating to inform about an individual artist’s mode of working (for example long-term storage or reuse of canvases, or extended reworking on a single canvas) and/or to establish a chronology for a corpus of work. Two pre-bomb and 16 post-bomb artworks by 17 mid-20th-century Scandinavian artists were 14C dated. The majority of post-bomb samples indicated a time lag of 2–5 years between the harvesting of the plants and completion of a painting, but some samples recorded lags of up to 10 years, and others produced much earlier results, potentially indicating the use of much older canvases or challenges removing contamination prior to dating. The importance of thorough pre-screening of canvas samples for both synthetic fibers and contaminants prior to dating, and selection of the most suitable calibration curve, are highlighted.
Cirratulid polychaetes are abundant and diverse members of the benthic macrofauna and their particle collection mechanisms may strongly affect particle mixing and sediment grain size distribution in sediments. The feeding morphology differs in having a pair or many feeding tentacles and the ecological importance of both methods of food collection needs to be better investigated to understand their costs and benefits. Particle selection and feeding behaviour of a bitentaculate (Aphelochaeta honouliuli) and a multitentaculate species (Timarete hawaiensis) were comparatively observed. Feeding behaviour observations were done with individuals with or without feeding tentacles and exposed to three different size ranges of glass beads (0–20, 40–70 and 70–110 µm in diameter). Particle selection was tested for coated and uncoated glass beads of three different size ranges in 20 specimens of each species. Feeding behaviour was similar in both species and the methods of particle collection and ingestion are described. Individuals of T. hawaiensis, in which the feeding tentacles were removed, were observed collecting particles with the aid of branchiae. The multitentaculate species studied was more successful in collecting particles from greater foraging radii and at a faster rate than the bitentaculate species but the experimental design may have disfavoured the latter. Two-way ANOVA results showed that both bitentaculate and multitentaculate species significantly selected in favour of smaller particle sizes. Further studies about particle encounter, selection and ingestion are needed and may aid understanding of the phylogenetic relationships between the bitentaculate and multitentaculate cirratulids.
Universal screening for postpartum depression is recommended in many countries. Knowledge of whether the disclosure of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period differs across cultures could improve detection and provide new insights into the pathogenesis. Moreover, it is a necessary step to evaluate the universal use of screening instruments in research and clinical practice. In the current study we sought to assess whether the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the most widely used screening tool for postpartum depression, measures the same underlying construct across cultural groups in a large international dataset.
Ordinal regression and measurement invariance were used to explore the association between culture, operationalized as education, ethnicity/race and continent, and endorsement of depressive symptoms using the EPDS on 8209 new mothers from Europe and the USA.
Education, but not ethnicity/race, influenced the reporting of postpartum depression [difference between robust comparative fit indexes (∆*CFI) < 0.01]. The structure of EPDS responses significantly differed between Europe and the USA (∆*CFI > 0.01), but not between European countries (∆*CFI < 0.01).
Investigators and clinicians should be aware of the potential differences in expression of phenotype of postpartum depression that women of different educational backgrounds may manifest. The increasing cultural heterogeneity of societies together with the tendency towards globalization requires a culturally sensitive approach to patients, research and policies, that takes into account, beyond rhetoric, the context of a person's experiences and the context in which the research is conducted.
The public health threat posed by zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi appears to be growing: it is increasingly reported across South East Asia, and is the leading cause of malaria in Malaysian Borneo. Plasmodium knowlesi threatens progress towards malaria elimination as aspects of its transmission, such as spillover from wildlife reservoirs and reliance on outdoor-biting vectors, may limit the effectiveness of conventional methods of malaria control. The development of new quantitative approaches that address the ecological complexity of P. knowlesi, particularly through a focus on its primary reservoir hosts, will be required to control it. Here, we review what is known about P. knowlesi transmission, identify key knowledge gaps in the context of current approaches to transmission modelling, and discuss the integration of these approaches with clinical parasitology and geostatistical analysis. We highlight the need to incorporate the influences of fine-scale spatial variation, rapid changes to the landscape, and reservoir population and transmission dynamics. The proposed integrated approach would address the unique challenges posed by malaria as a zoonosis, aid the identification of transmission hotspots, provide insight into the mechanistic links between incidence and land use change and support the design of appropriate interventions.
A previously synthesized hyperbranched poly(butylene adipate) (HPBA) polymer was compared with a commercial dendritic polyol (HPOH) as a toughening agent for a commercial one-part epoxy resin. Both modifiers were added in weight percentages of 1, 3, 5, and 10%. The modified epoxies were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), melt rheological tests, and linear elastic fracture mechanics. Blend morphology and matrix–modifier interactions were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, respectively. The toughness-improvement effect was achieved without substantial impairment of thermomechanical properties or degradation of the thermal stability of the epoxy resin. A meaningful decrease in viscosity was achieved with both modifiers, contributing to an easier infusion processability. No evidence of new chemical linking was found although phase separation was observed by SEM, leading to the conclusion that only interfacial linkage occurs between modifiers and epoxy chains. SEM analysis also clearly shows the fracture mode changing from brittle to ductile by addition of modifiers, which was more evident for blends of HPBA.
We introduce a novel approach to the synthesis of high-quality and highly uniform few-layer graphene on silicon wafers, based on solid source growth from epitaxial 3C-SiC films. Using a Ni/Cu catalytic alloy, we obtain a transfer-free bilayer graphene directly on Si(100) wafers, at temperatures potentially compatible with conventional semiconductor processing. The graphene covers uniformly a 2″ silicon wafer, with a Raman ID/IG band ratio as low as 0.5, indicative of a low defectivity material. The sheet resistance of the graphene is as low as 25 Ω/square, and its adhesion energy to the underlying substrate is substantially higher than transferred graphene. This work opens the avenue for the true wafer-level fabrication of microdevices comprising graphene functional layers. Specifically, we suggest that exceptional conduction qualifies this graphene as a metal replacement for MEMS and advanced on-chip interconnects with ultimate scalability.
Polychaetes from the Mariana Islands of Guam and Saipan have been characterized in previous studies but a thorough taxonomic study of the cirratulids has only been possible recently. Here we report on two new records, Caulleriella pacifica and Chaetozone flagellifera, and a new species, Monticellina lueldredgei, sp. nov. The species C. pacifica is newly recorded for the western Pacific while C. flagellifera is reported for the first time since its original description. The new species M. lueldredgei is unique in the genus with respect to the ultrastructure and segmental origin of the modified capillaries as well as for the distinctive methyl green staining pattern.
A new species, Poecilochaetus anterospinus sp. nov., is
described from the east and south shores of Oahu, Hawaii.
Poecilochaetus anterospinus sp. nov. is unique in the
genus by the presence of noto- and neuropodial spines from chaetiger 11 to
posterior segments. Neuropodial spines on anterior chaetigers are absent in
all other Poecilochaetus species while notopodial spines
are limited to segments preceding the pygidium.
Poecilochaetus cf. koshikiensis,
originally described from Japan, is newly recorded from Hawaii and
apparently widely distributed in the western Pacific and South-east Asian
Seas. Poecilochaetus sp. is distinguished from the other
two species by the distribution of the ampullaceous cirri (7–12) and its
The Chauvet-Pont d'Arc Cave is one of the most important sites for the study of the earliest manifestations and development of prehistoric art at the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic. Different dating techniques have been performed thus far (AMS 14C, U/Th TIMS, 36Cl dating) to model the chronological framework of this decorated cave. The cave yielded several large charcoal fragments, which enabled the opportunity for obtaining multiple dates; thus, a First Radiocarbon Intercomparison Program (FIP) was initiated in 2004 using three charcoal pieces. The FIP demonstrated that those cross-dated samples belonged to a time period associated with the first human occupation. One of the statistical interests of an intercomparison program is to reduce the uncertainty on the sample age; thus, to further assess the accuracy of the chronological framework, the Second Intercomparison Program (SIP) involving 10 international 14C laboratories was carried out on two pieces of charcoal found inside two hearth structures of the Galerie des Mégacéros. Each laboratory used its own pretreatment and AMS facilities. In total, 21 and 22 measurements were performed, respectively, which yielded consistent results averaging ∼32 ka BP. Two strategies have currently been developed to identify statistical outliers and to deal with them; both lead to quasi-identical calibrated combined densities. Finally, the new results were compared with those of the FIP, leading to the important conclusion that five different samples from at least three different hearth structures give really tightened temporal densities, associated with one short human occupation in the Galerie des Mégacéros.
Three species of the serpulid genus Hydroides are described and illustrated herein. Hydroides bannerorum and H. albiceps are newly recorded to Guam in the Mariana Islands. Hydroides perezi is also described and illustrated from specimens collected in Pago Bay. We provide notes on the opercular ontogenetic variation of H. albiceps to help clarify possible confusions with opercula of similar taxa.
The varved sediment profile of Lake Suigetsu, central Japan, offers an ideal opportunity from which to derive a terrestrial record of atmospheric radiocarbon across the entire range of the 14C dating method. Previous work by Kitagawa and van der Plicht (1998a,b, 2000) provided such a data set; however, problems with the varve-based age scale of their SG93 sediment core precluded the use of this data set for 14C calibration purposes. Lake Suigetsu was re-cored in summer 2006, with the retrieval of overlapping sediment cores from 4 parallel boreholes enabling complete recovery of the sediment profile for the present “Suigetsu Varves 2006” project (Nakagawa et al. 2012). Over 550 14C determinations have been obtained from terrestrial plant macrofossils picked from the latter SG06 composite sediment core, which, coupled with the core's independent varve chronology, provides the only non-reservoir-corrected 14C calibration data set across the 14C dating range.
Here, physical matching of archive U-channel sediment from SG93 to the continuous SG06 sediment profile is presented. We show the excellent agreement between the respective projects' 14C data sets, allowing the integration of 243 14C determinations from the original SG93 project into a composite Lake Suigetsu 14C calibration data set comprising 808 individual 14C determinations, spanning the last 52,800 cal yr.
The coral reef inhabiting tubeworms from the Marshall Islands have been studied by few authors mainly by samplings in Enewetak Atoll. We report several new records of serpuline and spirorbine tubeworms from Enewetak Atoll as well as from Kwajalein, Utirik and Rongelap Atolls. Twenty-one species of Serpulinae and seven species of Spirorbinae are described and illustrated with line drawings, colour and/or scanning electron microscopy photographs. Neodexiospira turrita nom. nov. is proposed to replace Neodexiospira preacuta. Enewetak Atoll still represents the most species-rich atoll in the Marshall Islands but this is most likely the result of a greater sampling effort in this atoll for the last few decades.
It is becoming increasingly clear that in order to generate accurate radiocarbon dates for bone collagen samples it is important to determine a sample-specific background correction to account for the greater complexity and higher number of steps in the pretreatment chemistry of this material. To provide suitable samples for the 14C community, 7 bone samples were obtained from contexts within British gravel quarries, which according to other dating techniques or stratigraphic information, should be of infinite age with respect to 14C. The bones were analyzed at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU) and the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC) to determine their suitability. In this paper, we show that 6 of the samples were indistinguishable from background. Both institutions measured finite ages for sample 387 from Oxey Mead that were statistically indistinguishable. Further work is required to establish whether this is because the bone was intrusive and of a younger age than expected or whether it is contaminated either postdepositionally or in the laboratory. We favor the former explanation because (1) the 2 chemistry laboratories use very different pretreatment schemes, (2) collagen yields were high, and (3) the laboratories produced ages that are in good agreement. The 6 “greater than” age samples will be made available to 14C laboratories to be used as background standards.
The association between renal cell cancer (RCC) and intake of fruit, vegetables and nutrients was examined in a population-based case–control study of 323 cases and 1827 controls; dietary intake was obtained using a mailed questionnaire. Cancer risks were estimated by OR and 95 % CI, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, obesity, hypertension, proxy status, alcohol consumption and dietary fat intake and energy. Intake of vegetables was associated with a decreased risk of RCC (OR 0·5; 95 % CI 0·3, 0·7; Ptrend = 0·002), (top compared to the bottom quartile of intake). When intake of individual nutrients was investigated, vegetable fibre intake was associated with decreased risks (OR 0·4; 95 % CI 0·2, 0·6; P < 0·001), but this was not the case with fruit fibre (OR 0·7; 95 % CI 0·4, 1·1) or grain fibre (OR 1·0; 95 % CI 0·6, 1·5). β-Cryptoxanthin and lycopene were also associated with decreased risks, but when both were included in a mutually adjusted backwards stepwise regression model, only β-cryptoxanthin remained significant (OR 0·5; 95 % CI 0·3, 0·8). When other micronutrients and types of fibre were investigated together, only vegetable fibre and β-cryptoxanthin had significant trends (P < 0·01) (OR 0·6; 95 % CI 0·3, 0·9) (OR 0·5; 95 % CI 0·3, 0·9), respectively. These findings were stronger in those aged over 65 years (Pinteraction = 0·001). Among non-smokers, low intake of cruciferous vegetables and fruit fibre was also associated with increased risk of RCC (Pinteraction = 0·03); similar inverse associations were found for β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and vitamin C. When nutrients were mutually adjusted by backwards regression in these subgroups, only β-cryptoxanthin remained associated with lower RCC risk. These findings deserve further investigation in ongoing prospective studies when sample size becomes sufficient.
A new species of Acrocirrus is described from shallow waters of Coconut Island in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Acrocirrus bansei sp. nov. is an Acrocirrus whose segment 13 (chaetiger 11) is modified and equipped with a heavy neuropodial acicular hook. This new species is most similar to A. frontifilis based on the presence of notopodial cirri, which have been, up to now, a unique feature of A. frontifilis. The species differ most notably by the absence of the notopodial cirri on the posterior chaetigers. A key to all recognized species of Acrocirrus is presented.
Calibration is a fundamental stage of the radiocarbon (14C) dating process if one is to derive meaningful calendar ages from samples' 14C measurements. For the first time, the IntCal09 calibration curve (Reimer et al. 2009) provided an internationally ratified calibration data set across almost the complete range (0 to 50,000 cal BP) of the 14C timescale. However, only the last 12,550 cal yr of this record are composed of terrestrial data, leaving approximately three quarters of the 14C timescale necessarily calibrated via less secure, marine records (incorporating assumptions pertaining to the temporally variable “marine reservoir effect”). The predominantly annually laminated (varved) sediment profile of Lake Suigetsu, central Japan, offers an ideal opportunity to derive an extended terrestrial record of atmospheric 14C across the entire range of the method, through pairing of 14C measurements of terrestrial plant macrofossil samples (extracted from the sediment) with the independent chronology provided through counting of its annual laminations.
This paper presents new data (182 14C determinations) from the upper (largely non-varved) 15 m of the Lake Suigetsu (SG06) sediment strata. These measurements provide evidence of excellent coherence between the Suigetsu 14C data and the IntCal09 calibration curve across the last ~12,000 cal yr (i.e. the portion of IntCal based entirely on terrestrial data). Such agreement demonstrates that terrestrial plant material picked from the Lake Suigetsu sediment provides a reliable archive of atmospheric 14C, and therefore supports the site as being capable of providing a high-resolution extension to the “wholly terrestrial” (i.e. non-reservoir-corrected) calibration curve beyond its present 12,550 cal BP limit.
Udotea argentea, a broadly distributed Indo-Pacific seaweed, has been collected for the first time on the south coast of Oahu, Hawaii. The habit and anatomical features are illustrated and the possible ecological impact to the native benthic community is discussed.
On 29 April 2009, an imported case of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection was detected in a London school. As further cases, pupils and staff members were identified, school closure and mass prophylaxis were implemented. An observational descriptive study was conducted to provide an insight into the clinical presentation and transmission dynamics in this setting. Between 15 April and 15 May 2009, 91 symptomatic cases were identified: 33 were confirmed positive for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection; 57 were tested negative; in one the results were unavailable. Transmission occurred first within the school, and subsequently outside. Attack rates were 2% in pupils (15% in the 11–12 years age group) and 17% in household contacts. The predominant symptoms were fever (97%), respiratory symptoms (91%), and sore throat (79%). Limited spread in the school may have been due to a combination of school closure and mass prophylaxis. However, transmission continued through household contacts to other schools.