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Rice with enhanced tolerance to herbicides that inhibit acetyl coA carboxylase (ACCase) allows POST applications of quizalofop, an ACCase-inhibiting herbicide. Two concurrent field studies were conducted in 2017 and 2018 at Stoneville, MS, to evaluate control of grass (Grass Study) and broadleaf (Broadleaf Study) weeds with sequential applications of quizalofop alone and in mixtures with auxinic herbicides applied in the first or second application. Sequential treatments of quizalofop were applied at 119 g ai ha-1 alone and in mixtures with labeled rates of auxinic herbicides to rice at the two- to three-leaf (EPOST) or four-leaf to one-tiller (LPOST) growth stages. In the Grass Study, no differences in rice injury or control of volunteer rice (‘CL151’ and ‘Rex’) were detected 14 and 28 d after last application (DA-LPOST). Barnyardgrass control at 14 and 28 DA-LPOST with quizalofop applied alone or with auxinic herbicides EPOST was ≥93% for all auxinic herbicide treatments except penoxsulam plus triclopyr. Barnyardgrass control was ≥96% with quizalofop applied alone and with auxinic herbicides LPOST. In the Broadleaf Study, quizalofop plus florpyrauxifen-benzyl controlled more Palmer amaranth 14 DA-LPOST than other mixtures with auxinic herbicides, and control with this treatment was greater EPOST compared with LPOST. Hemp sesbania control 14 DA-LPOST was ≤90% with quizalofop plus quinclorac LPOST, orthosulfamuron plus quinclorac LPOST, and triclopyr EPOST or LPOST. All mixtures controlled ivyleaf morningglory ≥ 91% 14 DA-LPOST except quinclorac and orthosulfamuron plus quinclorac LPOST. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl or triclopyr were required for volunteer soybean control >63% 14 DA-LPOST. To optimize barnyardgrass control and rice yield, penoxsulam plus triclopyr and orthosulfamuron plus quinclorac should not be mixed with quizalofop. Quizalofop mixtures with auxinic herbicides are safe and effective for control of barnyardgrass, volunteer rice, and broadleaf weeds in ACCase-resistant rice, and the choice of herbicide mixture could be adjusted based on weed spectrum in the treated field.
Research was conducted from 2013 to 2015 across three sites in Mississippi to evaluate corn response to sublethal paraquat or fomesafen (105 and 35 g ai ha−1, respectively) applied PRE, or to corn at the V1, V3, V5, V7, or V9 growth stages. Fomesafen injury to corn at three d after treatment (DAT) ranged from 0% to 38%, and declined over time. Compared with the nontreated control (NTC), corn height 14 DAT was reduced approximately 15% due to fomesafen exposure at V5 or V7. Exposure at V1 or V7 resulted in 1,220 and 1,110 kg ha−1 yield losses, respectively, compared with the NTC, but yield losses were not observed at any other growth stage. Fomesafen exposure at any growth stage did not affect corn ear length or number of kernel rows relative to the NTC. Paraquat injury to corn ranged from 26% to 65%, depending on growth stage and evaluation interval. Corn exposure to paraquat at V3 or V5 consistently caused greater injury across evaluation intervals, compared with other growth stages. POST timings of paraquat exposure resulted in corn height reductions of 13% to 50%, except at V7, which was most likely due to rapid internode elongation at that stage. Likewise, yield loss occurred after all exposure times of paraquat except PRE, compared with the NTC. Corn yield was reduced 1,740 to 5,120 kg ha−1 compared with the NTC, generally worsening as exposure time was delayed. Paraquat exposure did not reduce corn ear length, compared with the NTC, at any growth stage. However, paraquat exposure at V3 or V5 was associated with reduction of kernel rows by 1.1 and 1.7, respectively, relative to the NTC. Paraquat and fomesafen applications near corn should be avoided if conditions are conducive for off-target movement, because significant injury and yield loss can result.
Excavations at the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B ritual site of Naḥal Roded 110 in the Southern Negev, Israel, have revealed evidence—unique to this region—for on-site flint knapping and abundant raptor remains.
Understanding control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth with multiple herbicide sites of action, including synthetic auxins, is crucial for growers to minimize GR Palmer amaranth interference with crops. Field studies in 2013 and 2014 and a greenhouse study in 2014 were conducted in Stoneville, MS, to evaluate POST control of GR Palmer amaranth with 2,4-D alone and in mixtures with glyphosate and/or glufosinate. In the greenhouse study, control of 5- and 10-cm GR Palmer amaranth was 87% with 2,4-D at 0.84 kg ae ha−1. Dry weight reduction of GR Palmer amaranth was ≥81% with 2,4-D at 0.84 kg ha−1. In field studies, mixtures of glufosinate at 0.59 kg ai ha−1 and 2,4-D at 0.56 or 1.12 kg ae ha−1 controlled 5- to 10-cm GR Palmer amaranth 87% at 28 d after treatment (DAT). Averaged across glyphosate treatments, glufosinate applied alone applied to 5- to 10-cm GR Palmer amaranth reduced dry weight at 28 DAT to 20 g m−2 from 82 g m−2 and was comparable with that following 2,4-D applied alone at 1.12 kg ae ha−1 and mixtures of glufosinate plus 2,4-D at 0.56 and 1.12 kg ae ha−1. Mixtures of 2,4-D plus glufosinate provided ≥92% control of 15- to 20-cm GR Palmer amaranth at 28 DAT. When applied to 15- to 20-cm plants, mixtures of 2,4-D plus glufosinate reduced GR Palmer amaranth density to ≤5 plants m−2 compared with 65 plants m−2 where no 2,4-D or glufosinate was applied. Glufosinate and 2,4-D are viable control options for 5- to 10-cm or 15- to 20-cm GR Palmer amaranth. However, 2,4-D did not improve GR Palmer amaranth control when added to any herbicide mixture except glyphosate and glufosinate applied to 15- to 20-cm plants at the 28 DAT evaluation.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Italian ryegrass is one of the most troublesome weeds in Mississippi row crop production. Fall-applied residual herbicide applications are recommended for control of GR Italian ryegrass. However, carryover of residual herbicides applied in fields for rice production can have a negative impact on rice performance. Field studies were conducted in Stoneville, MS, to determine the effects of fall-applied residual herbicides on rice growth and yield. Herbicide treatments included suggested use rates (1×) of clomazone at 840 g ai ha–1, pyroxasulfone 170 g ai ha–1, S-metolachlor 1,420 g ai ha–1, and trifluralin 1,680 g ai ha–1, and two times (2×) the suggested use rates in the fall before rice seeding. Pooled across application rate, pyroxasulfone, S-metolachlor, and trifluralin injured rice to an extent 28% to 36% greater than clomazone 14 d after emergence (DAE). Rice seedling density and height 14 DAE and rice maturity were negatively affected by all fall-applied herbicides except clomazone. Applications at 2× rates reduced rough rice yields in plots treated with pyroxasulfone, S-metolachlor, and trifluralin compared with clomazone. Pyroxasulfone applied at the 2× rate reduced rough rice yield 22% compared with the 1× rate. Rough rice yield was 90% or greater of the nontreated control in plots treated with either rate of S-metolachlor, and these were comparable with rough rice yields from plots treated with both rates of trifluralin and the 1× rate of pyroxasulfone. Early-season injury and reductions in seedling density and height 14 DAE, would preclude even 1× applications of pyroxasulfone, S-metolachlor, and trifluralin from being viable options for residual herbicide treatments targeting GR Italian ryegrass in the fall before rice seeding. Of the herbicides evaluated, only clomazone should be utilized as a fall-applied residual herbicide treatment targeting GR Italian ryegrass before seeding rice.
Piglet mortality in outdoor production systems varies across the year, and a reason for this variation could be fluctuations in hut climate, as ambient temperature might influence piglet survival, both directly and indirectly. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of farrowing hut climate and year variation on stillbirth and liveborn mortality. A large-scale observational study was conducted at five commercial organic pig-producing herds in Denmark from June 2015 to August 2016. Both year variation (F3,635=4.40, P=0.004) and farrowing hut temperature (F2,511=6.46, P=0.002) affected the rate of stillbirths. The risk of stillborn piglets was lowest in winter and during this season larger changes in hut temperature between day 1 prepartum and the day of farrowing increased the risk of stillbirths (F1,99=6.39, P=0.013). In addition, during the warm part of the year stillbirth rate increased at temperatures ⩾27°C. Year variation also affected liveborn mortality (F3,561=3.86, P=0.009) with a lower rate of liveborn deaths in spring. However, the hut climate did not influence liveborn deaths. Consequently, other factors than hut climate may explain the influence of year variation on liveborn mortality. These could be light differences causing seasonality in reproduction and lactation.
This project evaluated the effectiveness of screening brief intervention and referral for treatment (SBIRT) in primary care in Abu Dhabi to manage patients with problematic substance use. This study aimed to determine whether: (i) training primary care physicians on the SBIRT model increased the identification of patients using substances at a harmful, hazardous or dependent level; (ii) training improved physicians’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs in self-efficacy in managing substance use.
Substance use is increasing in the United Arab Emirates yet there has been no formal primary care intervention. SBIRT was considered an appropriate model given its endorsement by the WHO.
A controlled trial (two intervention and two matched control clinics) was undertaken. Intervention physicians (n=17) were trained in SBIRT. Physicians’ attitudes were measured before and after training and eight months after implementation. Target recruitment was 900 patients. Inclusion criteria were: consenting UAE national, ⩾18 years, using the ‘walk-in’ primary care clinic. Patient data was collected by physician-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of drug use was measured through electronic patient records.
A total of 906 patients were screened, aged 18–82 years and 496 (55%) were female. Of these, 5.7% reported use of amphetamine, 3.9% alcohol, 3.3%, sedatives, 1.7% opioids and 1.1% cannabis. In all, 21 people had a moderate/high ASSIST score and received a brief intervention, but did not attend follow-up; three high-risk people were referred for specialist treatment. Physicians’ attitudes towards patients with problematic substance use and providing treatment improved after training, but returned to pre-training levels after eight months. Including the 21 individuals identified from intervention screening, the prevalence of substance use increased to 0.208% (95% CI 0.154–0.274), significantly higher than in control clinics (P<0.001).
In conclusion, physicians were generally positive towards SBIRT and SBIRT increased recorded drug related conditions at a practice level. However, poor patient attendance at follow-up requires investigation.
In 2015 and 2016, the Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine (CJEM) Social Media (SoMe) Team collaborated with established medical websites to promote CJEM articles using podcasts and infographics while tracking dissemination and readership.
CJEM publications in the “Original Research” and “State of the Art” sections were selected by the SoMe Team for podcast and infographic promotion based on their perceived interest to emergency physicians. A control group was composed retrospectively of articles from the 2015 and 2016 issues with the highest Altmetric score that received standard Facebook and Twitter promotions. Studies on SoMe topics were excluded. Dissemination was quantified by January 1, 2017 Altmetric scores. Readership was measured by abstract and full-text views over a 3-month period. The number needed to view (NNV) was calculated by dividing abstract views by full-text views.
Twenty-nine of 88 articles that met inclusion were included in the podcast (6), infographic (11), and control (12) groups. Descriptive statistics (mean, 95% confidence interval) were calculated for podcast (Altmetric: 61, 42-80; Abstract: 1795, 1135-2455; Full-text: 431, 0-1031), infographic (Altmetric: 31.5, 19-43; Abstract: 590, 361-819; Full-text: 65, 33-98), and control (Altmetric: 12, 8-15; Abstract: 257, 159-354; Full-Text: 73, 38-109) articles. The NNV was 4.2 for podcast, 9.0 for infographic, and 3.5 for control articles.
Limitations included selection bias, the influence of SoMe promotion on the Altmetric scores, and a lack of generalizability to other journals.
Collaboration with established SoMe websites using podcasts and infographics was associated with increased Altmetric scores and abstract views but not full-text article views.
Field experiments were conducted in Louisiana and Mississippi from 2011 through 2013 to evaluate crop injury, weed control, and yield in field corn following pyroxasulfone applied PRE and POST. Pyroxasulfone PRE or POST did not injure corn at any evaluation. Barnyardgrass control was not improved with the addition of any POST treatment to pyroxasulfone alone or atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE; however, all POST treatments increased barnyardgrass control to at least 95% at all evaluations following atrazine PRE. All treatments that contained a PRE followed by POST application controlled browntop millet ≥90% at all evaluations. All POST treatments increased ivyleaf morningglory control to ≥92% following atrazine or pyroxasulfone alone PRE. However, control with atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE was similar or greater 28 d after POST than all treatments that received a POST application. In the absence of a POST treatment, pyroxasulfone or atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE controlled Palmer amaranth 93 to 96% at all evaluations, but atrazine alone PRE provided 84, 82, and 66% control 7, 14, and 28 d after POST, respectively. All programs that contained a PRE followed by POST herbicide treatment controlled Palmer amaranth >90% at all evaluations. Corn yield following all treatments except atrazine alone PRE and the nontreated were similar and ranged from 10990 to 12330 kg ha−1. This research demonstrated that pyroxasulfone can be a valuable tool for weed management in a corn weed management program.
Introduction: The CJEM Social Media Team was created in 2014 to assist the journal with the dissemination of its research online. It consists of two Social Media Editors (Junior and Senior) and a team of volunteer medical students and residents to assist their work. Collaborative promotional agreements were developed to promote CJEM articles on the Skeptics’ Guide to Emergency Medicine (SGEM) podcast through the ‘Hot off the Press’ (HOP) series and the CanadiEM blog through an infographic series. Methods:CJEM papers were selected for promotion by the Team based on their perceived interest to the online community of emergency physicians. Altmetric scores, which are a measure of online dissemination derived from a weighted algorithm of social media metrics, were collated for articles promoted using the SGEM HOP or CanadiEM blogs. A control group was created using the articles with the top two Altmetric scores in each CJEM issue in 2015 and 2016. Erratum, Letters, and articles written by the social media editors were excluded from the control groups. The success of the social media promotion was quantified through the measurement of Altmetric scores as of January 1, 2017. Unpaired two-tailed t-tests with unequal variance were used to test for significant differences. Results: 106 and 82 eligible articles were published in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Four articles in 2015 and two articles in 2016 were excluded from the control groups because they were written by the social media editors. SGEM HOP podcasts promoted one article in 2015 and five articles in 2016. CanadiEM infographics promoted three articles in 2015 and eight articles in 2016. No articles were promoted in both series. The average Altmetric score was higher for SGEM HOP (61.0) than CanadiEM Infographics (31.5, p<0.04), 2015 controls (15.8, p<0.01), and 2016 controls (13.6, p<0.01). The average Altmetric score for CanadiEM Infographics was higher than 2015 controls (p<0.04) and 2016 controls (p<0.02). There was no significant difference between the control groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that collaborating with established social media websites to promote CJEM articles using podcasts and infographics increases their social media dissemination. Given the nonrandomized design of these results, causative conclusions cannot be drawn. A randomized study of the impact of social media promotion on readership is underway.
Cultivar and/or application of early-season (starter) nitrogen (N) fertilizer may influence rice tolerance to clomazone. Field studies were conducted to compare the response of hybrid and inbred rice cultivars to applications of clomazone and starter N fertilizer treatments. The inbred cultivar ‘Cocodrie’ and the hybrid cultivar ‘XL723’ were treated with clomazone at 0, 420, or 672 g ai ha−1 immediately after seeding, and starter N fertilizer was applied at 0 or 24 kg N ha−1 when rice reached the two-leaf growth stage. Pooled across clomazone rates and starter N fertilizer treatments, height of Cocodrie 1 week after emergence (WAE) was greater than that of XL723 in 1 of 3 yr. The difference in height between Cocodrie and XL723 resulted from greater clomazone injury 1 WAE on XL723 compared with Cocodrie. No differences in rice height 3 WAE were detected between Cocodrie and XL723 in 2 of 3 yr. when data were pooled across clomazone rates and starter N fertilizer treatments. Injury 3 WAE was similar for Cocodrie across the 3 yr., but injury on XL723 was greater in 1 of 3 yr. Rough rice yield was lower in plots treated with either rate of clomazone where no starter N fertilizer treatment was applied; however, in plots receiving a starter N fertilizer treatment, no effect of clomazone rate on rough rice yield was observed. Clomazone rate did not influence rough rice yield of Cocodrie in any single yr., but rough rice yields of XL723 were lower in plots receiving clomazone compared with plots that received no clomazone in 1 of 3 yr. Therefore, differential susceptibility to clomazone between Cocodrie and XL723 exists based on early-season response and rough rice yield. Starter N fertilizer treatments were beneficial for overcoming yield reductions due to clomazone injury.
The aim was to explore the extent to which a Danish prevention centre catered to marginalised groups within the catchment area. We determined whether the district’s socio-economic vulnerability status and distance from the citizens’ residential sector to the centre influenced referrals of citizens to the centre, their attendance at initial appointment, and completion of planned activities at the centre.
Disparities in access to health care services is one among many aspects of inequality in health. There are multiple determinants within populations (socio-economic status, ethnicity, and education) as well as the health care systems (resource availability and cultural acceptability).
A total of 347 participants referred to the centre during a 10-month period were included. For each of 44 districts within the catchment area, the degree of socio-economic vulnerability was estimated based on the citizens’ educational level, ethnicity, income, and unemployment rate. A socio-economic vulnerability score (SE-score) was calculated. Logistic regression was used to calculate the probability that a person was referred to the centre, attended the initial appointment, and completed the planned activities, depending on sex, age, SE-score of district of residence, and distance to the centre.
Citizens from locations with a high socio-economic vulnerability had increased probability of being referred by general practitioners, hospitals, and job centres. Citizens living further away from the prevention centre had a reduced probability of being referred by their general practitioners. After referral, there was no difference in probability of attendance or completion as a function of SE-score or distance between the citizens’ district and the centre. In conclusion, the centre is capable of attracting referrals from districts where the need is likely to be relatively high in terms of socio-economic vulnerability, whereas distance reduced the probability of referral. No differences were found in attendance or completion.
Numerous studies describe the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters, but less is known about the risk of major depression.
To review the risk of depressive disorder in people surviving disasters and in soldiers returning from military deployment.
A systematic literature search combined with reference screening identified 23 controlled epidemiological studies. We used random effects models to compute pooled odds ratios (ORs).
The average OR was significantly elevated following all types of exposures: natural disaster OR = 2.28 (95% CI 1.30–3.98), technological disaster OR = 1.44 (95% CI 1.21–1.70), terrorist acts OR = 1.80 (95% CI 1.38–2.34) and military combat OR = 1.60 (95% CI 1.09–2.35). In a subset of ten high-quality studies OR was 1.41 (95% CI 1.06–1.87).
Disasters and combat experience substantially increase the risk of depression. Whether psychological trauma per se or bereavement is on the causal path is unresolved.
Influenza vaccination is the most practical means available for preventing influenza virus infection and is widely used in many countries. Because vaccine components and circulating strains frequently change, it is important to continually monitor vaccine effectiveness (VE). The test-negative design is frequently used to estimate VE. In this design, patients meeting the same clinical case definition are recruited and tested for influenza; those who test positive are the cases and those who test negative form the comparison group. When determining VE in these studies, the typical approach has been to use logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Because vaccine coverage and influenza incidence change throughout the season, time is included among these confounders. While most studies use unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for time, an alternative approach is to use conditional logistic regression, matching on time. Here, we used simulation data to examine the potential for both regression approaches to permit accurate and robust estimates of VE. In situations where vaccine coverage changed during the influenza season, the conditional model and unconditional models adjusting for categorical week and using a spline function for week provided more accurate estimates. We illustrated the two approaches on data from a test-negative study of influenza VE against hospitalization in children in Hong Kong which resulted in the conditional logistic regression model providing the best fit to the data.
Four field experiments were conducted in Louisiana and Mississippi in 2009 and 2010 to evaluate POST herbicides treatments with tembotrione applied alone or as a prepackaged mixture with thiencarbazone for weed control in corn. Treatments included tembotrione at 92 g ai ha−1, thiencarbazone : tembotrione at 15 : 76 g ai ha−1, atrazine at 2,240 g ai ha−1, glufosinate at 450 g ai ha−1, glyphosate at 860 g ae ha−1, and coapplications of tembotrione or thiencarbazone : tembotrione with atrazine, glufosinate, or glyphosate. All treatments were applied to 26-cm corn in the V4 growth stage. Treatments containing thiencarbazone : tembotrione and those with tembotrione controlled barnyardgrass, browntop millet, entireleaf morningglory, hophornbeam copperleaf, johnsongrass, Palmer amaranth, and velvetleaf 85 to 96% and 43 to 97% 28 d after treatment and at corn harvest, respectively. Corn yield ranged from 9,200 to 10,420 kg ha−1 and was greater than the nontreated control following all herbicide treatments, except atrazine alone. Results indicated that thiencarbazone : tembotrione or tembotrione POST is an option for weed management in corn, and applications of thiencarbazone : tembotrione would be strongly encouraged where rhizomatous johnsongrass is problematic.
Research was conducted in Mississippi in 2012 and 2013 to compare the efficacy of saflufenacil to other broadleaf herbicides applied in mixtures with imazethapyr in a Clearfield rice system. Saflufenacil at 50 g ai ha−1, carfentrazone at 35 g ai ha−1, a prepackaged mixture of halosulfuron plus thifensulfuron at 35 plus 4 g ai ha−1, and a prepackaged mixture of propanil plus thiobencarb at 2,240 plus 2,240 g ai ha−1 were applied in mixture with imazethapyr at 70 g ai ha−1 early-POST (EPOST) to rice in the one- to two-leaf stage or late-POST (LPOST) to rice in the four-leaf to one-tiller stage. No differences in injury among the broadleaf herbicides or between application timings were detected at any evaluation. Imazethapyr combined with propanil plus thiobencarb or saflufenacil provided the greatest control of barnyardgrass 7 and 14 d after treatment (DAT). Hemp sesbania, ivyleaf morningglory, and Palmer amaranth control was greatest and similar for imazethapyr combined with carfentrazone, propanil plus thiobencarb, and saflufenacil; however, rough rice yield was greatest for imazethapyr combined with propanil plus thiobencarb or saflufenacil. Propanil plus thiobencarb or saflufenacil can be used in a Clearfield rice system to achieve optimum weed control and highest rice yields.
How does living in a battleground state during a presidential election affect an individual’s political engagement? We utilize a unique collection of 113 million Facebook status updates to compare users’ political discussion during the 2008 election. “Battleground” state users are significantly more likely to discuss politics in the campaign season than are users in uncompetitive “blackout” states. Posting a political status update—a form of day-to-day engagement with politics—mediates ∼20 percent of the relationship between exposure to political competition and self-reported voter turnout. This paper is among the first to use a massive quantity of social media data to explain the microfoundations of how people think, feel, and act on a daily basis in response to their political environment.
Research was conducted in 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the response of the rice cultivars ‘Cheniere', ‘CL151′, ‘Caffey', ‘CL261′, and ‘CLXL745′ response to POST applications of saflufenacil. Treatments included a nontreated control, saflufenacil at 50 g ai ha−1, and carfentrazone at 35 g ai ha−1 applied mid-POST (MPOST) to rice in the three- to four-leaf stage. Pooled across cultivars, injury was greatest at 3 and 7 d after treatment (DAT), 21 and 17%, respectively. Rice injury was only 5% at 14 DAT and 1% at 28 DAT. Hybrid long-grain cultivar CLXL745 was injured more than inbred long-grain cultivars CL151 and Cheniere. Cheniere was more tolerant than inbred medium-grain cultivars CL261 and Caffey. All cultivars exhibited tolerance to saflufenacil as evidenced by similar normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI), maturity, mature plant height, and rice yield (rough, whole, and total milled rice).