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This study evaluated in a rigorous 18-month randomized controlled trial the efficacy of an enhanced vocational intervention for helping individuals with a recent first schizophrenia episode to return to and remain in competitive work or regular schooling.
Individual Placement and Support (IPS) was adapted to meet the goals of individuals whose goals might involve either employment or schooling. IPS was combined with a Workplace Fundamentals Module (WFM) for an enhanced, outpatient, vocational intervention. Random assignment to the enhanced integrated rehabilitation program (N = 46) was contrasted with equally intensive clinical treatment at UCLA, including social skills training groups, and conventional vocational rehabilitation by state agencies (N = 23). All patients were provided case management and psychiatric services by the same clinical team and received oral atypical antipsychotic medication.
The IPS–WFM combination led to 83% of patients participating in competitive employment or school in the first 6 months of intensive treatment, compared with 41% in the comparison group (p < 0.005). During the subsequent year, IPS–WFM continued to yield higher rates of schooling/employment (92% v. 60%, p < 0.03). Cumulative number of weeks of schooling and/or employment was also substantially greater with the IPS–WFM intervention (45 v. 26 weeks, p < 0.004).
The results clearly support the efficacy of an enhanced intervention focused on recovery of participation in normative work and school settings in the initial phase of schizophrenia, suggesting potential for prevention of disability.
In vitromethods for laboratory estimation of food degradation are important tools for nutritionists.These methods either measure substrate disappearance by quantifying incubation residues or record fermentation products such as microbial biomass, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) or gas volume (Blümmel et al., 1997a). Recently, the surge of interest in the efficient utilization of roughage diets has caused an increase in the use of gas methods because of the possibility of estimating the extent and rate of degradation in one sample by time series measurements of the accumulating gas volume. We combined gas measurements with residue determinations (truly degraded substrate) or microbial mass determination after fermentation to study the effects of natural plant products, in particular tannins and saponins, on the availability and partitioning of nutrients.
The separation of forages into a soluble fraction like cell contents and into an insoluble matrix like cell walls is an initial step in forage evaluation. Further analysis can be applied to study fermentation characteristics of soluble and insoluble fractions. Unfortunately, most laboratory in vitro techniques quantify incubation insoluble residues and are therefore inappropriate for the examination of food solubles. In vitro gas methods (for example Menke et al., 1979) reflect the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and are therefore free of the disadvantages associated with gravimetric methods. However, it was recently pointed out that an inverse relationship may exist between SCFA production and microbial biomass yield (for review see Blümmel et al., 1997a). These authors suggested combining in vitro gas measurements with the quantification of substrate concomitantly degraded to calculate a partitioning factor (PF). This factor reflects the substrate-dependent variation in SCFA production and microbial biomass yield; the factor (PF) was shown to be valuable in voluntary food intake (DMI) predictions (Blümmel et al., 1997b). In the work presented here, the rate and extent of fermentation of whole roughages and extracted neutral-detergent fibres (NDF) of 54 roughages were examined in an in vitro gas test. The dry-matter degradability of extracted NDF was also quantified and the partitioning factor for NDF (PFNDF) was determined. The relevance of these findings for the analysis of extracted NDF and cell solubles is discussed and their implications for the prediction of DMI of roughages by gas tests are addressed.
The calving interval (CI) can potentially impact the economic results of dairy farms. This study highlighted the most profitable CI and innovated by describing this optimum as a function of the feeding system of the farm. On-farm data were used to represent real farm conditions. A total of 1832 accounts of farms recorded from 2007 to 2014 provided economic, technical and feeding information per herd and per year. A multiple correspondence analysis created four feeding groups: extensive, low intensive, intensive and very intensive herds. The gross margin and some of its components were corrected to account for the effect of factors external to the farm, such as the market, biological status, etc. Then the corrected gross margin (cGMc) and its components were modelled by CI parameters in each feeding system by use of GLM. The relationship between cGMc and the proportion of cows with CI<380 days in each feeding group showed that keeping most of the cows in the herd with CI near to 1 year was not profitable for most farms (for the very intensive farms there was no effect of the proportion). Moreover, a low proportion of cows (0% to 20%) with a near-to-1-year CI was not profitable for the extensive and low intensive farms. Extending the proportion of cows with CI beyond 459 days until 635 days (i.e. data limitation) caused no significant economic loss for the extensive and low intensive farms, but was not profitable for the intensive and very intensive farms. Variations of the milk and feeding components explained mainly these significant differences of gross margin. A link between the feeding system and persistency, perceptible in the milk production and CI shown by the herd, could explain the different relationships observed between the extent of CI and the economic results in the feeding groups. This herd-level study tended to show different economic optima of CI as a function of the feeding system. A cow-level study would specify these tendencies to give CI objectives to dairy breeders as a function of their farm characteristics.
How things are perceived from a distance may help better understand their nature. Perceptions at home are likely to shape perceptions abroad. The mutual cross-references between local and distant perspectives on the Italian Mental Health Law 180 may help understand the process which preceded and resulted in the reform. This editorial argues that Law 180 came about at a unique – enabling – time in history. It argues that the run-up to and passing of Law 180 constituted a great accomplishment by professionals, the wider public and politicians/administrators. This editorial goes on to argue that the profession managed to cope with (many) adverse effects of the reform. The attention that Law 180 has received internationally should be devoted to other national (or regional) mental health reform processes as this may help us to understand how mental health care systems evolve and what defines ‘windows of (operative) opportunity’ or ‘moments for (public) action’.
As a part of the multidisciplinary project entitled ‘Archaeological Investigations into the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene of the Lim Channel, Istria’, archaeological research has been conducted at four sites: Romuald's Cave, Abri Kontija 002, Pećina at Rovinjsko Selo and Lim 001 (Figure 1). There is much debate on issues related to biological and behavioural continuity, to patterns of changes and adaptations during this crucial period, and to external factors (e.g. changes in ecology and climate). For example, a clearer insight is needed into how climatic change affects the ecology of specific regions, including changing sea levels. Additionally, there continues to be debate centring on who produced the earliest (Initial) Upper Palaeolithic industries in Europe. To achieve a more precise insight into long-term diachronic changes and cultural relations around the Adriatic, and to document the presence of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic humans in Istria, we concentrated on a single microregion (the Lim Channel in Istria, Croatia). Here we report work on the two sites that to date have yielded Pleistocene material: Romuald's Cave and Abri Kontija 002.
Although we now know of quite a few WR-O star binary systems, only HD 193793 is well studied across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Hence it affords us the best opportunity to test various models for the system against a wealth of observational data. In this paper we present the results of 8 years of monitoring the radio flux density from HD 193793 with the VLA. This database is unique both in terms of its dense coverage of an entire binary cycle and because it extends the radio coverage to 2 cm wavelength, a shorter wavelength than previously available. With this data we are able to simultaneously solve for the time dependent attenuation in the system and the intrinsic radio luminosity. The standard model of spherically symmetric colliding winds faces severe difficulties in explaining the observations. We conclude that the radio data are most readily interpreted in the context of a WR star wind which is confined to a disk. A disk model for the WR wind also provides a natural explanation for the sudden formation of dust just after periastron.
Since some of the earliest evolutionary calculations it has been found that post main sequence stars become red giants (e.g. Sandage and Schwarzschild, 1952). However the exact physical processes that lead to and determine the rate of redward evolution are not completely understood.
On the basis of extensive radio surveys of the galactic plane, approximately 140 sources of diffuse radio emission have been classified as supernova remnants (SNR). Using spectral index and spatial distribution as the primary selection criteria, these have been subdivided into two groups, “shell” and “Crab-like”. In each case, the radio emission is assumed to be of non-thermal origin. The two distinct morphologies arise from two distinct energy sources. For shell remnants, the energy is drawn from the reservoir of kinetic energy in the expanding shock front; in Crab-like remnants, the energy is drawn from the rotational kinetic energy of a central stellar remnant.
These two classes of remnants differ significantly in their x-ray emission. With few exceptions, radio shell remnants emit thermal x-rays from shock heated gas which is itself distributed in a shell. Crab-like sources (as defined by their radio properties) emit synchrotron x-rays in a centrally-peaked spatial distribution. Presumably, the x-ray emission from these objects is an extension of the radio spectrum. Crab-like sources have a high probability of containing a compact (unresolved) source of x-ray emission which in analogy to the Crab Nebula, is identified as the central stellar remnant.
The general absence of either compact x-ray sources or Crab-like diffuse nebulae within shell sources indicates that active pulsars are not usually formed in SN events which eventually form shell sources. However, there are several examples of remnants which share both shell and Crab-like characteristics so we cannot rule out an evolutionary connection between these two classes of SNR.
The large-scale thickness distribution of sea ice was measured during several campaigns in the European Arctic north of Svalbard from 2007 using an airborne electromagnetic induction device. In August 2010 and April-May 2011, this was complemented by extensive on-ice work including measurements of snow thickness and freeboard. Ice thicknesses show a clear difference between the seasons, with thicker ice during spring than in summer. In spring 2011, negative freeboard and flooding were observed as a result of the extensive snow cover. We find that the characteristics of the first-year sea ice allow combining observations from different years. The ice thickness in the marginal ice zone increases with increasing latitude and increasing distance to the ice edge; however, in the inner ice pack from ∼100 km from the ice edge the thickness remains almost constant. Modal ice thickness in spring reaches 2.4 m whereas in summer it is 1.0–1.4 m. Our study provides new insight into ice thickness distributions of a typical ice cover consisting of mainly first- and second-year ice, which may become the dominant ice type in the Arctic in the future.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fear of social and performance situations. The consequence of scrutiny by others for the neural processing of performance feedback in SAD is unknown.
We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activation to positive, negative, and uninformative performance feedback in patients diagnosed with SAD and age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy control subjects who performed a time estimation task during a social observation condition and a non-social control condition: while either being monitored or unmonitored by a body camera, subjects received performance feedback after performing a time estimation that they could not fully evaluate without external feedback.
We found that brain activation in ventral striatum (VS) and midcingulate cortex was modulated by an interaction of social context and feedback type. SAD patients showed a lack of social-context-dependent variation of feedback processing, while control participants showed an enhancement of brain responses specifically to positive feedback in VS during observation.
The present findings emphasize the importance of social-context processing in SAD by showing that scrutiny prevents appropriate reward-processing-related signatures in response to positive performances in SAD.
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) offer the potential to replace conventional light sources such as incandescent bulbs and fluorescent tubes. The question which thin-film technology is most favorable to produce OLED on an industrial scale is still unanswered. The most established technology for the deposition of small-molecule organic layers is vacuum thermal evaporation. A comparably novel technology is organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD), which offers some unique features in terms of adjustable process parameters such as deposition chamber pressure (P) and substrate temperature (TS). The impact of these parameters on the morphology of organic single layers as well as on the performance of OLED is mostly unknown. In this work, phosphorescent red OLED were produced with different TS and a strong influence on the device efficiency was found. Atomic force microscopy measurements were conducted to investigate the morphology of the hole injection and hole transport layers of the devices deposited at different TS. In addition to this, the influence of TS and P on the performance of fluorescent blue OLED and the morphology of organic single layers was tested. By varying TS and P for the emission layer only, current efficiencies in the range from 4.3 to 6.8 cd/A were found despite the fact that all devices had the same structure. Atomic force microscopy measurements conducted on organic single layers which were deposited at the same process conditions showed rms values ranging from 1.4 to 57 nm.
Two Vertisol soil profiles under xeric soil moisture regimes, located at Qedma and Akko, Israel, were investigated and compared to a profile under ustic moisture regime, located in Hyderabad, India. Samples were taken in complete successive 2 cm thin layers down to about 180 cm depth or more. Organic and inorganic carbon were analyzed with regard to 13C and 14C concentrations. While all soils have radiocarbon ages of several thousand years BP, the depth distributions reveal substantial differences between the soil carbon dynamics. 14C and, less pronounced, δ13C clearly reflect the pedoturbation process. Further, its strength is found to be related to mainly soil moisture regime, then clay content and land use. In one soil, a change of growing from C4 to C3 crops in the past can be concluded from the δ13C depth distribution.
This list consists of dates of soil samples from selected soil profiles in Tunisia, Sudan, and Argentina. The profiles from Tunisia were taken to elucidate ages of typic paleosols of paleoclimatic significance. The Sudan profiles increase our understanding of pedogenesis of Sudanese Vertisols. The existence of pedoturbation in these profiles is further explored and questioned. The profiles of Argentina were dated to supplement information from chemical and micromorphological studies.
Radiocarbon measurements made by the La Jolla laboratory on tree-ring samples from South German oak chronologies are presented. Several previously separate tree-ring series have been reduced to one absolutely dendro-dated chronology spanning the period from 4066 BC to the present and one still-floating chronology which spans the approximate period 7225 to 4125 BC. Previous estimates of the dendro-years made by the authors are compared with the dendro-years now assigned.
We determined δ13C and D14C in some agricultural soil profiles of the tropics: Ustalf from the semi-arid tropics (India), a Udult, an Aquoll and an Aquept from the humid tropics (Philippines). We used a thin-layer sampling, resulting in high-resolution depth-distribution patterns of natural 13C and 14C content of organic carbon. Regular plowing or puddling leads to uniform isotope concentrations in the topsoil. Decomposition of organic matter raises the δ13C value, and vertical translocation raises the δ13C value with depth. The change of cultivation from pulses (C3-type metabolism of photosynthesis) to sorghum (C4) results in a decrease of δ13C with depth in the topsoil. Where the clay content in the subsoil is high, δ13C remains constant, due to fixation of organic carbon to clay minerals, and D14C decreases with depth. Below the clay-enriched zone, δ13C declines and D14C rises again, due to a chromatographic-like effect. At some horizon boundaries, inhomogeneities in texture delay percolation locally, thus preventing sorption and causing peak values of D14C.
Soil organic matter sequesters close to three times the carbon existing totally in the living biomass and nearly the same for the total carbon in the atmosphere. Models, such as Jenkinson's or Parton's Century model, help to define soil organic matter fractions of different functions, based on residence time/14C age. Rejuvenation of soil carbon was felt to be the principal impediment to absolute soil dating, in addition to the ambiguity of the initiation point of soil formation and soil age. Recent studies, for example, of Becker-Heidmann (1989), indicate that a soil 14C age of >1000 yr cannot have >0.1% rejuvenation in the total soil organic matter compartments/fractions to be possible and sustainable. Always problematic in earlier observations were age vs. depth increases, in 14C profile curves showing an inflection of reduced age in the deepest samples, i.e., from the rim of the organic matter containing epipedon. We attribute this phenomenon, in mollic horizons, to earthworm casts in the terminal part of the escape tube. Becker-Heidmann (1989) has shown, in thin layer soil profile dating, a highly significant correlation between the highest 14C ages and the highest clay content. Thus, optimization of soil dating is, to a lesser degree, related to the applied extracting solvent system than to soil texture fractions. Such observations allow us to mitigate error ranges inherent in dating dynamic soil systems.
The absolute time of growth of a floating tree-ring series is determined by computer, by first fitting a curve to the 14C ages of tree-ring dated wood and then by matching the 14C ages of the floating tree-ring series to that curve. The results obtained by this matching procedure are given here for five floating European oak chronologies for which 14C dates have been published previously by Suess (1978). Three of these five floating series have been linked together dendrochronologically. There now remain three floating series covering a 4000-year time span from 4820 BC to 830 BC. Their 14C dates, matched by computer to the bristlecone pine chronology, provide a possibility of obtaining precise ages of oak wood series from Neolithic sites in Switzerland and South Germany by dendrochronologically cross-dating with the calibrated master chronologies.