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Previous cross-sectional studies revealed inconsistent results regarding mental health treatment preferences among the general population. In particular, it is unclear to what extent specific age groups approve psychotherapy or psychotropic medication for the treatment of mental disorders. We explore whether treatment recommendations of either psychotherapy or psychiatric medication change over the lifespan which includes age-related effects due to increasing age of a person, cohort effects that reflect specific opinions during the time a person was born and period effects that reflect societal changes.
Using data from three identical population surveys in Germany from 1990, 2001 and 2011 (combined n = 9046), we performed age-period-cohort analyses to determine the pure age, birth cohort and time period effects associated with the specific treatment recommendations for a person with either depression or schizophrenia, using logistic Partial Least-Squares regression models.
For both disorders, approval of both psychotherapy and medication for a person with mental illness increases with age. At the same time, younger cohorts showed stronger recommendations particularly for psychotherapy (OR around 1.07 per decade). The strongest effects could be observed for time period with an increase in recommendation between 1990 and 2001 with odds ratio of 2.36 in depression and 2.97 in schizophrenia, respectively. In general, the treatment option that showed the strongest increase in recommendation was medication for schizophrenia and psychotherapy for depression.
Underutilisation of psychotherapy in old age seems not to reflect treatment preferences of older persons. Thus, special treatment approaches need to be offered for this group that seems to be willing for psychotherapy but do not yet use it. Cohort patterns suggest that approval of psychotherapy among older persons will likely further increase in the coming years as these people get older. Finally, strong period effects underpin the importance of changing attitudes in the society. These could reflect reporting changes about psychiatric topics in the media or a general increase in the perception of treatment options. Nevertheless, more treatment offers especially for older people are needed.
Substantial healthcare resources are devoted to panic disorder (PD) and coronary heart disease (CHD); however, the association between these conditions remains controversial. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of studies assessing the association between PD, related syndromes, and incident CHD.
Relevant studies were retrieved from Medline, EMBASE, SCOPUS and PsycINFO without restrictions from inception to January 2015 supplemented with hand-searching. We included studies that reported hazard ratios (HR) or sufficient data to calculate the risk ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) which were pooled using a random-effects model. Studies utilizing self-reported CHD were ineligible. Twelve studies were included comprising 1 131 612 persons and 58 111 incident CHD cases.
PD was associated with the primary incident CHD endpoint [adjusted HR (aHR) 1.47, 95% CI 1.24–1.74, p < 0.00001] even after excluding angina (aHR 1.49, 95% CI 1.22–1.81, p < 0.00001). High to moderate quality evidence suggested an association with incident major adverse cardiac events (MACE; aHR 1.40, 95% CI 1.16–1.69, p = 0.0004) and myocardial infarction (aHR 1.36, 95% CI 1.12–1.66, p = 0.002). The risk for CHD was significant after excluding depression (aHR 1.64, 95% CI 1.45–1.85) and after depression adjustment (aHR 1.38, 95% CI 1.03–1.87). Age, sex, length of follow-up, socioeconomic status and diabetes were sources of heterogeneity in the primary endpoint.
Meta-analysis showed that PD was independently associated with incident CHD, myocardial infarction and MACE; however, reverse causality cannot be ruled out and there was evidence of heterogeneity.
During earlier investigations conducted at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Materials Research (IFAM), concentrating on the metal foaming technology using the powder metallurgy process, it was shown that some steel alloys are foamable with Fraunhofer's patented powder technology approach. To further investigate the foamability of steel alloys, suitable foaming agents need to be identified and characterized. This article reports the finding of two metallic compounds used for steel foaming. The foaming behaviors of the selected foaming agents in the steel powder compacts are also evaluated in terms of different alloying elements.
Order-picking, i.e. arranging work-pieces of different types on a pallet, which is nowadays often carried out manually, will in future be more and more automated for economic reasons. The industrial robot in combination with an intelligent gripper, a supporting palletizing and order-picking software and a suitably designed periphery will permit fully automated order-picking. The Fraunhofer-Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation (F.R.G.) has developed such a system which takes advantage of the arrangement of the work-pieces in the compartment stack and simultaneously grips the work-pieces that are then arranged in a pattern on a pallet.
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