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Pharmacological treatments targeting the neuroendocrine stress response may hold special promise in secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, findings from clinical trials have been inconsistent and the efficacy of specific drugs, their temporal window of efficacy, effective doses and the characteristics of likely treatment responders remain unclear.
Using an experimental human model of distressing involuntary memory formation, we compare the effects of two drugs that have theoretical or empirical support as secondary preventive agents in PTSD. Eighty-eight healthy women (average age: 23.5 years) received oral propranolol (80 mg), hydrocortisone (30 mg), or matched placebo immediately after viewing a ‘trauma film’. They then completed daily, time-stamped intrusion diaries for 1 week, at the end of which, voluntary memory was tested.
While neither drug affected voluntary memory for the trauma narrative, propranolol treatment was associated with 42% fewer, and hydrocortisone with 55% fewer intrusions across the week, relative to placebo. Additionally, propranolol reduced general trauma-like symptoms, and post-drug cortisol levels were negatively correlated with intrusion frequency in the hydrocortisone group.
Overall, this study shows substantial reductions in intrusive memories and preserved voluntary narrative-declarative memory following either propranolol or hydrocortisone in an experimental model of psychological trauma. As such, despite some inconsistencies in clinical trials, our findings support continued investigation of propranolol and hydrocortisone as secondary preventive agents for re-experiencing symptoms of PTSD. The findings also suggest that it is critical for future research to identify the conditions governing the preventive efficacy of these drugs in PTSD.
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most complex, diverse and leading cause of death in women worldwide. The present investigation aims to explore genes panel associated with BC in different African regions, and compare them to those studied worldwide.
We extracted relevant information from 43 studies performed in Africa using the following criteria: case-control study, association between genetic variations and BC risk. Data were provided on mutations and polymorphisms associated with BC without fixing a specific date. Case-only studies and clinical trials were excluded.
Our study revealed that the majority of African BC genetic studies remain restricted to the investigation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and differences in their mutations spectrum. Therefore, it is necessary to encourage African researchers to characterize more genes involved in BC using methods generating global information such as next-generation sequencing in order to guide specific and more effective therapeutic strategies for the African community.
We used a bivariate animal model to investigate the genetic correlations between yield traits or days open (DO) as characters measured in cows and semen production traits as characters measured in bulls. Lactation records of 305-day milk, fat, and protein yields, and DO, from 386 809 first-lactation Holstein cows in Hokkaido, Japan, that calved between 2008 and 2014 were used. Semen production records were collected between 2005 and 2014 and included volume per ejaculate (VOL), sperm concentration (CON), number of sperm per ejaculate (NUM), progressive motility index of sperm (MOT), and MOT after freeze-thawing (A-MOT). Number of sperm per ejaculate was log-transformed into a NUM score (NUMS). A total of 30 373 semen production records from 1196 bulls were obtained. The pedigree file used for analysing the records was involving 885 345 animals. Heritability was estimated for VOL (0.42), CON (0.12), NUMS (0.37), MOT (0.08), and A-MOT (0.11). Weak and negative genetic correlations were recorded between yield traits measured in cows and VOL, CON or NUMS measured in bulls. Moderate and negative genetic correlations were obtained between DO and MOT (–0.42) or A-MOT (–0.43). Selection focused on MOT or A-MOT measured in bulls may therefore improve DO measured in cows.
We focused on the stellar age-velocity dispersion relation (AVR). We performed the N-body/SPH simulations to investigate the origin of AVR. As a results, we found that AVR is not consistent with simple stellar heating.
A floristic inventory was carried out in an area of palm-dominated creek forest in Jenaro Herrera, in the northeast of Peru. All trees ≥ 10 cm dbh were surveyed in a one-hectare permanent plot using the standard RAINFOR methodology. There were 618 individuals belonging to 230 species, 106 genera and 43 families. The results showed that the total basal area of the trees in the plot was 23.7 m2. The three species with the highest importance value indexes were Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav., Oenocarpus bataua Mart. (Arecaceae) and Carapa procera DC. (Meliaceae). The five most dominant families in order of importance were Arecaceae, Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Sapotaceae. Although the soil of this plot was poorly drained, the number of trees and the diversity of the plot were typical for terra firme forest in the western Amazon.
Patients who awake from sevoflurane anaesthesia with symptoms of agitation may have some underlying functional substrate that is sensitive to the low concentrations of anaesthetic encountered during emergence. One candidate for such a substrate could be neurocircuitry implied in the pathophysiology of both agitation and movement disorders with hyperactivity. We postulated that hyperactive animals would show a further increase in activity in the presence of low concentrations of volatile anaesthetics, such as sevoflurane.
To confirm our hypothesis, we examined the effects of two subanaesthetic concentrations of sevoflurane, isoflurane and halothane (0.1 and 0.2 MAC (minimum alveolar concentration)) on spontaneous activity in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor GluRε1 subunit knockout mice exhibiting locomotor hyperactivity in a novel environment and compared these results with those for wild-type controls. We also compared the effects of anaesthetic concentrations of sevoflurane (1.2 MAC) on mice activity during postanaesthesia recovery.
Out of the three anaesthetics used, only sevoflurane administered at 0.1 MAC caused a significantly different response between the two experimental groups. Exposure to this subanaesthetic concentration of sevoflurane reduced the activity of wild-type mice, whereas mutant animals showed a further increase in hyperactivity. The effects of 1.2 MAC sevoflurane anaesthesia on mice activity during postanaesthesia recovery also differed significantly between the two genotypes. Exposure to anaesthetic concentrations of sevoflurane had a sedative effect on wild-type mice, whereas mutant mice preserved their high levels of activity upon emergence from the anaesthesia.
The presence of an inherent anomaly in mutant mice that becomes more manifest during exposure to 0.1 MAC sevoflurane and is still present after the emergence from sevoflurane anaesthesia suggests the presence of and necessitates a search for some putative substrate that may, by analogy, underlie emergence agitation in the clinical setting.
This paper describes the first silicified Upper Triassic (Early Norian) hypercalcified sponges known from the Alexander terrane, southeast Alaska. Sponges consist of five taxa from the Cornwallis Limestone of Keku Strait, southeast Alaska: Amblysiphonella Steinmann, Parauvanella Senowbari-Daryan and Di Stefano, Nevadathalamia cylindrica (Seilacher), N. minima n. sp., and Stellispongia (S. cf. subsphaerica Dieci, Antonacci, and Zardini). The hypercalcified sponges of the Alexander terrane as described in this paper provide paleogeographic linkage with other far-flung terranes of western North America, namely the Western Great Basin of Nevada, Stikinia of the Yukon, as well as the Antimonio terrane of northwestern Mexico. In addition, Parauvanella cf. ferdowensis is known from the Upper Triassic Nayband Formation, Iran. Finally Stellispongia cf. subsphaerica is known from the Upper Carnian Cassian Formation of the Dolomite Alps.
Sponges (particularly hypercalcified inozoans, sphinctozoans, chaetetids, and sponge-like organisms) are known worldwide from many Upper Triassic reef and nonreef sites. Although Upper Triassic deposits within the Cordilleran terranes and cratonal North America do not typically contain reeflike buildups, hypercalcifying sponge-like organisms were noted as occurring as part of the intricate paleoecological structure within a biostrome along the western shoreline of Gravina Island, southeast Alaska (southern Alexander terrane). This is in contrast to Keku Strait, southeast Alaska (central Alexander terrane), where hypercalcified sponges were identified from limestone beds within nonreef deposits.
Cryptosporidium parvum is an intracellular protozoan parasite belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa, and a major cause of waterborne gastroenteritis throughout the world. Invasive zoites of apicomplexan parasites, including C. parvum, are thought to have characteristic organelles on the apical apex; however, compared with other parasites, the cytoskeletal ultrastructure of C. parvum zoites is poorly understood. Thus, in the present study, we ultrastructurally examined C. parvum sporozoites using electron microscopy to clarify the framework of invasive stages. Consequently, at the apical end of sporozoites, 3 apical rings and an electron-dense collar were seen. Two thick central microtubules were seen further inside sporozoites and extended to the posterior region. Using anti-α and -β tubulin antibodies generated from sea urchin and rat brain, both antibodies cross-reacted at the apical region of sporozoites in immunofluorescent morphology. The molecular mass of C. parvum α tubulin antigen was 50 kDa by Western blotting and the observed apical cytoskeletal structures were shown to be composed of α tubulin by immunoelectron microscopy. These results suggested that C. parvum sporozoites were clearly different in their cytoskeletal structure from those of other apicomplexan parasites.
The prevalence of Salmonella in four layer farms in eastern Japan was investigated between 2004 and 2006 to determine the role of roof rats (Rattus rattus) in the epizootology of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). Persistent S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis contamination of the environment and pooled egg samples were detected in three out of four layer farms. A total of 113 (13·3%) and 158 (18·6%) out of 851 rats examined were positive for S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis, respectively. By pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, only one indistinguishable pulsed-field pattern was yielded by S. Enteritidis strains from rats, eggs and environmental samples from each of the two contaminated layer farms. Although, a variety of pulsed-field patterns were generated by S. Enteritidis isolates from rats, eggs, and the environment of the other contaminated farms, there are, however, some S. Enteritidis strains that are closely related clones. These results suggest that roof rats are carriers of S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis and that persistent S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis infections in a rat population may play an important role in the spread and maintenance of these pathogens inside the layer premises.
Coin-shaped multicrystalline Si1-xGex crystals were grown using a Brigdman method combined with die-casting growth. Si1-xGex alloy is known as a candidate material for producing Auger generation, which creates more than one electron/hole pair per absorbed photon. Since Si1-xGex alloy shows a complete series of solid solutions, precipitating crystals with a certain composition of silicon or germanium by conventional selective growth methods is burdensome. Using die-casting combined with Bridgman growth brought about Si1-xGex precipitation in a form completely different from that predicted by the Si-Ge phase diagram. By combining this growth with subsequent heat treatment of the precipitated Si1-xGex sample, Si1-xGex (x= 0.5 ± 3 %) could be obtained. Indirect band-gap energy was estimated by measuring room-temperature optical absorption coefficient of the grown samples.
We are currently conducting three kinds of IR surveys of star forming regions (SFRs) in order to seek for very low-mass young stellar populations. First is a deep JHKs-bands (simultaneous) survey with the SIRIUS camera on the IRSF 1.4m or the UH 2.2m telescopes. Second is a very deep JHKs survey with the CISCO IR camera on the Subaru 8.2m telescope. Third is a high resolution companion search around nearby YSOs with the CIAO adaptive optics coronagraph IR camera on the Subaru. In this contribution, we describe our SIRIUS camera and present preliminary results of the ongoing surveys with this new instrument.
The results of the development and characterization of a new relaxor ceramic with nominal composition (x)Pb2(In,Nb)O6(1 − x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 solid solution with x = 0.4 are reported. The structural characteristics, including the long-range and short-range order, forbidden reflections, and the existence of mixed ordering, were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The most prominent microstructural feature of this compound, which has composition variations in the micro- and nano-regions, was investigated. The presence of the pyrochlore phase and the complex arrangement of inclusions that originate from processing are illustrated. The electrical characteristics of the compound including pyroelectric, piezoelectric, electrostrictive and hysteresis properties are reported. Notable properties of the compound include a reduced hysteresis loop and nonlinear behavior at high field.
It is well known that hemodynamic factors, such as blood pressure and flow, exert an important influence on native morphology of various animal organs. However, information about the significance of ultrastructures which are revealed by conventional preparation methods has been limited, because routine chemical fixation of cells and tissues takes considerable time, during which their morphology could easily change. Therefore, morphological studies with routine immersion or perfusion fixation have not revealed real ultrastructures of functioning animal organs with normal blood circulation.2 The ultimate goal of morphological study is that all features to be examined should reflect the physiological meaning under investigation. For that purpose, the preservation of cells and tissues in functioning organs is necessary for studies to define their ultrastructures. Most cryotechniques have been based on the use of prior excised tissues. Such small specimens are commonly frozen within several seconds following the excision of the tissues.
It is well known that flowing erythrocytes in blood capillaries were morphologically changing in vivo, as observed by light microscopy. Recently, dynamic morphological changes of flowing mouse erythrocytes in large blood vessels and hepatic sinusoids were demonstrated by scanning (SEM) or transmission (TEM) electron microscopy with our “in vivo cryotechnique”. Moreover, human erythrocyte deformability was already studied under artificially jetting conditions at different pressures by using “in vivo cryotechnique”, followed by freeze-substitution method for SEM. in this study, we have analyzed elemental changes of each human erythrocyte at different jetting pressures by “in vivo cryotechnique” combined with SEM for X-ray microanalysis.
Human blood was collected with heparin-coated syringes, divided into two groups and kept at 4°C and 36°C. They were directly jetted into isopentane-propane cryogen (-193°C) through tubes (21 gauge) at different pressures (0-220mmHg) (Fig.la). The frozen blood samples were freeze-dried (4-6×10-7torr,-95°C,24h) in Eiko FD-3AS apparatus (Eiko Engineering, Japan) (Fig. lb).
Tungsten oxide (WOx) films were fabricated by (i) reactive thermal evaporation (RTE) at room temperature with oxygen ambient pressure PO2 as a parameter, and (ii) reactive magnetron sputtering (RMS) with substrate temperature Ts as a parameter. The film structure revealed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, density measurements, infrared absorption, and atomic force microscopy was correlated with the nanoindentation hardness H. The RTE WOx films deposited at high Po2 were amorphous and porous, while H depended appreciably on normalized penetration depth hD (indentation depth/film thickness) due to the closing of the pores at the point of indentation. Decrease in Po2 from 10 to 2 × 10−3 mtorr led to smaller porosity, weaker hD dependence of H, and higher average H (measured at hD ≈ 0.2 to 0.3, for example). The RMS WOx film deposited at room temperature was amorphous and denser than all RTE films. The rise in substrate temperature Ts first densified the film structure (up to 110 °C) and then induced crystallization with larger grain size for Ts ≥ 300 °C. Correspondingly, the hD dependence of H became weaker. In particular, H of the RMS sample deposited at 110 °C showed a peak at hD slightly above 1 owing to pileup at the contact point of indentation. For higher Ts, pileup occurred at shallower hD and the average H (measured at hD ≈ 0.2 to 0.3, for example) rose, accompanied by the increase of grain size.
It is usually assumed in economic theories that a consumer's utility depends only on his or her own consumption: A person's preference is not affected by other people's behavior. However, this is not always the case; to buy a suit, an antique, or a computer, one may consider how many other people have the same product. If a person's optimal decision depends on the number of those who make the same decision, it is said that there are behavioral dependencies resulting from network externalities. In this chapter we develop a cellular-automata (CA) model to describe the dynamics of markets with network externalities.
Behavioral dependence resulting from network externalities is not a new subject in economics. Not a few theoretical and empirical studies have been done about it among consumers since Liebenstein (1948) introduced the concept of bandwagon and snob effects; among recent related studies are those of Choi (1994), Church and King (1993), Curien and Gensollen (1990), Ducan (1990), Kesteloot (1992), and Liebowitz and Margolis (1994). Unfortunately, the conventional equilibrium analysis of markets with network externalities (Pyndyck and Rubinfeld 1990) seems to inappropriately express the dynamic process of such markets. Recent studies of Bikhchandani et al. (1992), Arthur and Lane (1993), Narduzzio and Warglien (1996), and Lane and Vescovini (1996) are more dynamical and clarify some interesting patterns of diffusion processes.
Nevertheless these mathematical models presume that behavioral dependence is sequential: They assume that the kth person observes all or some of his or her k – 1 preceding persons but not in reverse.
Background. Many studies have suggested a possible aetiological role for obstetric complications
in the development of schizophrenia. We focused on prenatal physical growth in schizophrenia, a
contentious issue in the literature.
Methods. We compared gestational age at birth, birth weight (BW) and birth head circumference
(BHC) between 312 schizophrenics and 517 controls, and between 187 schizophrenics and their
matched healthy siblings. Information on obstetric histories was obtained from the Maternal and
Child Health Handbooks (i.e. contemporaneous records).
Results. Gestational age at birth was significantly earlier in the schizophrenics than in the controls
(P = 0·017). Pre-term birth (gestational age of 36 weeks or less) was more common in schizophrenics
than in controls (8·0% v. 3·4%, P = 0·005, odds ratio 2·5). Low BW (2500 g or less) was more
frequent in schizophrenics than in controls (9·6% v. 4·6%, P = 0·005, odds ratio 2·2). The
schizophrenics had significantly lighter BW (P = 0·0003) and tended to have smaller BHC
(P = 0·081) compared with controls. However, multiple regression analysis showed that there was
no significant difference in BW or BHC between the schizophrenics and controls when gestational
age and maternal weight were controlled. There was no significant difference in BW or BHC
between schizophrenics and their siblings, although the schizophrenics tended to be born at earlier
gestational age than their siblings.
Conclusions. Our results suggest that prematurity at birth is associated with a risk of developing
schizophrenia in adulthood. When gestational age and maternal body weight were allowed for,
there was no evidence that schizophrenics tend to have lower mean BW or smaller BHC.
Restricted maximum likelihood analyses fitting an animal model were conducted to estimate genetic parameters with a pooled-data set of performance tests (growth traits and food intake) on 661 bulls and progeny tests (growth traits and carcass traits) on 535 steers. Traits studied included concentrate intake (CONC), roughage intake (ROU), TDN conversion (TCNV), TDN intake (TINT) of bulls; rib eye area (REA), marbling score (MARB), dressing proportion (DRES) and subcutaneous fat depth (SCF) of steers. Body weight at start (BWS), body weight at finish (BWF) and average daily gain (ADG) of all animals were measured. Estimated heritabilities were 0·18 (CONC), 0·71 (ROU), 0·11 (TCNV) and 0·36 (TINT); 0·02 (REA), 0·49 (MARB), 0·15 (DRES), 0·15 (SCF), and from 0·20 to 0·38 for growth traits. Genetic correlations of ROU were different from those of CONC, probably due to inconsistent restrictions on concentrate intake; those of TINT with the weights, ADG and SCF were high. MARB showed positive genetic correlations with growth traits and low correlations with TINT and SCF. High potentiality for improvement of marbling score was suggested.
We present work on the modification, processing, and analysis of ultrathin films for display devices primarily using the supramolecular assembly strategy. This involves the use of various molecular assembly techniques (organic, polymer, metal) in which layer order and functionality is achieved at defined length scales approaching that of ultrathin films (a few to several hundred nm thicknesses). The use of alternate polyelectrolyte deposition (APD) is primarily investigated in ultrathin films that have significance in the fabrication of display devices. The first application involves modifying a polymer light emitting diode (PLED) device fabricated using the ITO/MEH-PPV/Ca protocol with polyaniline derivatives. The second is the use of the “command layer” amplification concept and photo-induced alignment using polarized light with ultrathin films of azo dye/polyelectrolytes in a hybrid liquid crystal (LC) cell configuration. Both strategies rely on the use of surface sensitive spectroscopic and microscopic techniques to correlate device performance with layer ordering at the molecular level. The concept of functional ultrathin layers for device fabrication and modification is emphasized.