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Pharmacological treatments targeting the neuroendocrine stress response may hold special promise in secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, findings from clinical trials have been inconsistent and the efficacy of specific drugs, their temporal window of efficacy, effective doses and the characteristics of likely treatment responders remain unclear.
Using an experimental human model of distressing involuntary memory formation, we compare the effects of two drugs that have theoretical or empirical support as secondary preventive agents in PTSD. Eighty-eight healthy women (average age: 23.5 years) received oral propranolol (80 mg), hydrocortisone (30 mg), or matched placebo immediately after viewing a ‘trauma film’. They then completed daily, time-stamped intrusion diaries for 1 week, at the end of which, voluntary memory was tested.
While neither drug affected voluntary memory for the trauma narrative, propranolol treatment was associated with 42% fewer, and hydrocortisone with 55% fewer intrusions across the week, relative to placebo. Additionally, propranolol reduced general trauma-like symptoms, and post-drug cortisol levels were negatively correlated with intrusion frequency in the hydrocortisone group.
Overall, this study shows substantial reductions in intrusive memories and preserved voluntary narrative-declarative memory following either propranolol or hydrocortisone in an experimental model of psychological trauma. As such, despite some inconsistencies in clinical trials, our findings support continued investigation of propranolol and hydrocortisone as secondary preventive agents for re-experiencing symptoms of PTSD. The findings also suggest that it is critical for future research to identify the conditions governing the preventive efficacy of these drugs in PTSD.
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most complex, diverse and leading cause of death in women worldwide. The present investigation aims to explore genes panel associated with BC in different African regions, and compare them to those studied worldwide.
We extracted relevant information from 43 studies performed in Africa using the following criteria: case-control study, association between genetic variations and BC risk. Data were provided on mutations and polymorphisms associated with BC without fixing a specific date. Case-only studies and clinical trials were excluded.
Our study revealed that the majority of African BC genetic studies remain restricted to the investigation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and differences in their mutations spectrum. Therefore, it is necessary to encourage African researchers to characterize more genes involved in BC using methods generating global information such as next-generation sequencing in order to guide specific and more effective therapeutic strategies for the African community.
We used a bivariate animal model to investigate the genetic correlations between yield traits or days open (DO) as characters measured in cows and semen production traits as characters measured in bulls. Lactation records of 305-day milk, fat, and protein yields, and DO, from 386 809 first-lactation Holstein cows in Hokkaido, Japan, that calved between 2008 and 2014 were used. Semen production records were collected between 2005 and 2014 and included volume per ejaculate (VOL), sperm concentration (CON), number of sperm per ejaculate (NUM), progressive motility index of sperm (MOT), and MOT after freeze-thawing (A-MOT). Number of sperm per ejaculate was log-transformed into a NUM score (NUMS). A total of 30 373 semen production records from 1196 bulls were obtained. The pedigree file used for analysing the records was involving 885 345 animals. Heritability was estimated for VOL (0.42), CON (0.12), NUMS (0.37), MOT (0.08), and A-MOT (0.11). Weak and negative genetic correlations were recorded between yield traits measured in cows and VOL, CON or NUMS measured in bulls. Moderate and negative genetic correlations were obtained between DO and MOT (–0.42) or A-MOT (–0.43). Selection focused on MOT or A-MOT measured in bulls may therefore improve DO measured in cows.
We are currently conducting three kinds of IR surveys of star forming regions (SFRs) in order to seek for very low-mass young stellar populations. First is a deep JHKs-bands (simultaneous) survey with the SIRIUS camera on the IRSF 1.4m or the UH 2.2m telescopes. Second is a very deep JHKs survey with the CISCO IR camera on the Subaru 8.2m telescope. Third is a high resolution companion search around nearby YSOs with the CIAO adaptive optics coronagraph IR camera on the Subaru. In this contribution, we describe our SIRIUS camera and present preliminary results of the ongoing surveys with this new instrument.
Although presently classified as a SU UMa-type dwarf nova, WZ Sge is well known as one of the most peculiar objects in that it shows only superoutbursts with exceptional duration and amplitude, and no normal outbursts. Furthermore, on its decline from the 1978 outburst, WZ Sge showed a deep temporal dip. All of these characteristics have puzzled both theoreticians and observers.
The dwarf nova AL Com was photometrically observed during the outburst in 1995 April, which occurred for the first time since 1975. The striking similarity of AL Com to WZ Sge, as demonstrated by the present observation (Fig. 1), provides plenty of material in interpreting the enigmatic nature of WZ Sge-type dwarf novae.
A balloon observation of the F-corona in visual and infrared regions was carried out by Japanese and Indonesian teams at the total solar eclipse on June 11, 1983, in Java, Indonesia. For the visual observation, a SIT television camera, with 4 interference filters (5300Å, 6000Å, 7200Å and 8000Å) and a 45°-step rotating polarizer, was used. The camera measured brightness distributions in a sky area of 5°×5° centered at the eclipsed sun at each polarizer position for each filter. In this paper, a part of results, which are the brightness and polarization distributions in a half area of the 6000Å picture, is shown.
We focused on the stellar age-velocity dispersion relation (AVR). We performed the N-body/SPH simulations to investigate the origin of AVR. As a results, we found that AVR is not consistent with simple stellar heating.
There is a gap in the distribution of the orbital periods of cataclysmic variables (CVs) between 2 and 3 hours. The period gap is explained at present by cessation of the mass transfer making CVs fainter and preventing them from being discovered. After restarting the mass transfer, CVs have been believed to evolve with the orbital periods becoming shorter, as angular momentum is released by gravitational wave radiation. In this view, the mass transfer rate depends almost only on the orbital period.
However, reconsideration of these views is urged by a series of recent discoveries of ER UMa stars (a subclass of SU UMa stars having enormous mass-transfer rates), dwarf novae bridging “classical” SU UMa stars and ER UMa stars, and the first in-the-gap dwarf nova, PG 1510+234. These objects suggest two possibilities; 1) (a part of) SU UMa stars undergo large secular changes of the mass-transfer rate, and 2) there exist parameters overlooked but strongly influential in the evolution of CVs.
A floristic inventory was carried out in an area of palm-dominated creek forest in Jenaro Herrera, in the northeast of Peru. All trees ≥ 10 cm dbh were surveyed in a one-hectare permanent plot using the standard RAINFOR methodology. There were 618 individuals belonging to 230 species, 106 genera and 43 families. The results showed that the total basal area of the trees in the plot was 23.7 m2. The three species with the highest importance value indexes were Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav., Oenocarpus bataua Mart. (Arecaceae) and Carapa procera DC. (Meliaceae). The five most dominant families in order of importance were Arecaceae, Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Sapotaceae. Although the soil of this plot was poorly drained, the number of trees and the diversity of the plot were typical for terra firme forest in the western Amazon.
The relationship between the grain size of poly-Si after SPC and the structure of a-Si before SPC was studied. The structure of a-Si was characterized by TA/TO: the Raman intensity ratio of the Transverse Acoustic (TA) like band and the Transverse Optical (TO) like band. A good positive correlation between the grain size and TS/TO was revealed for the first time. The nucleation and growth kinetics were speculated by using a thermodynamic model. The grain size could be enlarged up to 6 μ m by applying textured substrates to a-Si with a large structural disorder. This film was applied to the active layer of solar cells, and a collection efficiency of 51% at 900 nm was obtained.
GaAs etching with Cl2 gas is studied with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Both Cl2 gas and tunnel electron assist etching occur under the tip during scanning and the etching profile is found to depend on the gas flow time. GaAs and Si patterns with nanometer dimensions are fabricated by STM assist etching with a very low voltage (-IV). Also atomic layer etching of GaAs is demonstrated by STM assist-etching using a Cl adlayer.
Fracture process zone in SiCw/Si3N4 ceramic composite was studied by a hybrid experimental-numerical analysis employing moire interferometry and finite element analysis. A chevron-notched, wedge-loaded double cantilever beam specimen was used to obtain a stable crack growth. The relation between crack closure stress and crack opening displacement which govern fracture process zone was obtained.
The effects of specific local environments on DX centers were investigated for two different substitutional-site-donors of Si and Te in selectively-doped ordered-alloy samples. Capacitance transient technique under hydrostatic pressure was utilized for the determination of the DX energy-level structure. Downward movement of the energy levels for both Si- and Te-DX centers was observed when Al occupies the 2nd or 1st nearest neighbor site, respectively. A very large shift of the electron-emission activation-energy with pressure was found for the Te-DX centers surrounded by specific Al and Ga mixed-environments, whereas negligible shift for the Si-DX centers was observed regardless of the environment. These effects were discussed in relation to the lattice relaxation of the relevant DX centers.
High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) of GaAs/AlAs hetero-structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is carried out in the <110> projection. It is shown that GaAs and AlAs are distinguished clearly by the difference in their lattice images at the samples thicknesses of about 15–30 nm under near Scherzer focus condition. Under these imaging conditions, very thin films consist of single monolayer AlAs are observed. Vicinal interfaces of GaAs/AlAs which were grown on (001) substrate misoriented toward  are also examined in the  projection. The interfacial structures are imaged edgeon, so that the fluctuations of terrace width, and the roughness of step-edges at these interfaces are observed on an atomic scale.
The electrical properties have been investigated on boron-doped polycrystalline silicon films with the average grain size of 50 nm and of 370 nm. It is shown that Hall mobility is strongly dependent on the grain size, and the temperature dependence is changed by hydrogenplasma treatment (HPT).
After the treatment in the larger grain film, the mobility of about 40 cm2/V sec is obtained and it shows the boron acceptor level of 0.043 eV, which is almost the same as that of the level in monocrystalline silicon. A kink in the mobility vs temperature curve which is observed in the smaller grain film disappears by HPT.
These phenomena will be discussed in relation to the density of the trapping states at the grain boundary of the films.
Sputtered thin-films of Gd-Bi (4:3 in atomic ratio) were annealed in vacuum under various annealing conditions. The samples annealed at a temperature near 530°C and 4 hours contained 40% of poly-crystalline Gd4Bi3 phase, which is of the anti-Th3P4 structure. The main peak in the x-ray diffraction spectrum due to Gd4Bi3 is of (310). The phase of Gd4Bi3 was not found for a lower annealing temperature; for a higher annealing temperature (above 550°C), this phase could not be observed, because other phases or structures were beginning to grow, e. g. Gd5Bi3 and/or GdBi phases.
The Curie temperature of the Gd4Bi3 thin-films was estimated to be about 330 K; this value is nearly the same as that of bulk Gd4Bi3. The residual resistance of the Gd4Bi3 thin-films was several times as large as that of bulk Gd4Bi3 poly-crystal.
Nanolithography has been studied by using electron beam technology. Ten-nm linewidth PMMA resist patterns have been demonstrated by 50 kV scanning electron beam. The self-developing properties of a AlF3 doped LiF inorganic resist under a scanning electron beam irradiation with energy of 20–50 keV have been studied for sub-10 nm lithography. By optimizing the inorganic resist film quality, 5 nm linewidth patterns with 60 nm periodicity were directly delineated under a 30 keV electron beam. Another approach for nanolithography using electron beam holography has been proposed. Line and dot patterns with 100 nm periodicity were exposed on PMMA resist by electron beam holography with thermal field emitter gun and an electron biprism. Subsequent atomic force microscope observation has confirmed that both patterns are successfully fabricated. This technique allows us to produce nanoscale periodic patterns simultaneously. The selective atomic desorption of Cl atoms adsorbed on a Si (111) 7×7 surface has been studied by field evaporation using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The STM tip is placed on the adsorbed Cl on the surface, and pulse voltage was applied. This results in selective atomic desorption of Cl.
Ultra-thin gold island films with optical anisotropy have been fabricated by stretching ordinary isotropic island films in the high temperature. The origin of optical anisotropy seems to come from an elongated prolate island shape.
We present work on the modification, processing, and analysis of ultrathin films for display devices primarily using the supramolecular assembly strategy. This involves the use of various molecular assembly techniques (organic, polymer, metal) in which layer order and functionality is achieved at defined length scales approaching that of ultrathin films (a few to several hundred nm thicknesses). The use of alternate polyelectrolyte deposition (APD) is primarily investigated in ultrathin films that have significance in the fabrication of display devices. The first application involves modifying a polymer light emitting diode (PLED) device fabricated using the ITO/MEH-PPV/Ca protocol with polyaniline derivatives. The second is the use of the “command layer” amplification concept and photo-induced alignment using polarized light with ultrathin films of azo dye/polyelectrolytes in a hybrid liquid crystal (LC) cell configuration. Both strategies rely on the use of surface sensitive spectroscopic and microscopic techniques to correlate device performance with layer ordering at the molecular level. The concept of functional ultrathin layers for device fabrication and modification is emphasized.
GaN films with good crystalline quality are grown on sapphire by atmospheric pressure vapor phase epitaxy using gallium tri-chloride (GaCl3) and ammonia (NH3). Epitaxial growth is carried out over temperature and V/III-ratio ranges of 800–1000°C and 100–1000, respectively. Typical growth rate obtained is in the range of 5–20 μm/hr. The films grown below 925°C typically show three dimensional (island) growth, while above that temperature, continuous films are obtained. Films grown at 975°C with a V/III ratio > 300 exhibit a smooth surface. XRD analysis shows that the films are single crystal with hexagonal polytype. Strong band-edge photoluminescence is observed with a FWHM of 60 meV at room temperature and 25 meV at 77K. The results indicate that this simple growth technique is effective for growing high quality bulk GaN, which can be used as a substrate for subsequent epitaxy. In order to further improve the surface morphology, a preliminary experiment on GaN growth on a thin GaN buffer layer prepared by gas source MBE is also presented.