To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Recently, an epoch-making printing technology called “SuPR-NaP (Surface Photo-Reactive Nanometal Printing)” that allows easy, high-speed, and large-area manufacturing of ultrafine silver wiring patterns has been developed. Here we demonstrate low-voltage operation of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) composed of printed source/drain electrodes that are produced by the SuPR-NaP technique. We utilize an ultrathin layer of perfluoropolymer, Cytop, that functions not only as a base layer for producing patterned reactive surface in the SuPR-NaP technique but also as an ultrathin gate dielectric layer of OTFTs. By the use of 22 nm-thick Cytop gate dielectric layer, we successfully operate polycrystalline pentacene OTFTs below 2 V with negligible hysteresis. We also observe the improvement of carrier injection by the surface modification of printed silver electrodes. We discuss that the SuPR-NaP technique allows the production of high-capacitance gate dielectric layers as well as high-resolution printed silver electrodes, which provides promising bases for producing practical active-matrix OTFT backplanes.
Here we discuss requirements for high performance and solution processable organic semiconductors, by presenting a systematic investigation of 7-alkyl-2-phenylbenzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophenes (Ph-BTBT-Cn’s). We found that the solubility and thermal properties of Ph-BTBT-Cn’s depend systematically on the substituted alkyl-chain length n. The observed features are well understood in terms of the change of molecular packing motif with n: The compounds with n ≤ 4 do not form independent alkyl chain layers, whereas those with n ≥ 5 form isolated alkyl chain layers. The latter compounds afford a series of isomorphous bilayer-type crystal structures that form two-dimensional carrier transport layers within the crystals. We also show that the Ph-BTBT-C10 afford high performance single-crystalline field-effect transistors the mobility of which reaches as high as 15.9 cm2/Vs. These results demonstrate a crucial role of the substituted alkyl chain length for obtaining high performance organic semiconductors and field-effect transistors.
Ions that are moved by electric fields in gases follow quite exactly the electric field lines since these ions have substantially lost their kinetic energies in collisions with gas atoms or molecules and so carry no momenta. Shaping the electric fields appropriately the phase space such ion beams occupy can be reduced and correspondingly the ion density of beams be increased.
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are promising candidates for use in alternative energy technologies. A full understanding of the reaction mechanisms in these dynamic material systems is required to optimize device performance and overcome present limitations. Here, we show that in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be used to study redox reactions and ionic conductivity in SOFCs in a gas environment at elevated temperature. We examine model ultrathin half and complete cells in two environmental TEMs using off-axis electron holography and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Our results from the model cells provide insight into the essential phenomena that are important for the operation of commercial devices. Changes in the activities of dopant cations in the solid electrolyte are detected during oxygen anion conduction, demonstrating the key role of dopants in electrolyte architecture in SOFCs.
It is difficult to get a real scale image of the solar system through lecture. A scale model is a classical and one of good solutions (e.g. Handa et al.2003, Handa et al.2008). Through this model, people living in or visiting to the city can physically understand the scale of the solar system. This scale gives 1 cm for Earth's diameter and 115 m for 1 AU. However, some gadget is required to make it attractive for public citizens.
To report a case of multifocal fibrosclerosis with a nine-year follow up, and to discuss this disease's radiological appearance and management. The disease is a rare systemic disorder of unknown cause characterised by fibrous proliferation involving multiple anatomical sites.
A 50-year-old woman presented with histological findings characterised by similar inflammatory processes involving the meninges, pituitary gland, peritoneum, retroperitoneum and orbits, prompting a search for a common pathophysiology. A diagnosis of multifocal fibrosclerosis was postulated. Symptom improvement was noted after treatment with prednisone and azathioprine.
This is the first documented case of involvement of the cochleovestibular nerve in a patient with multifocal fibrosclerosis. The rare association between fibrotic diseases and masses showing various clinical patterns should be kept in mind by otolaryngologists, and imaging performed to investigate for multifocal fibrosclerosis. However, diagnosis can only be confirmed with tissue biopsy and histopathological examination.
Engineering and manufacturing of thick and bio-functional tissue products is one of the big issues in tissue engineering. To produce such tissues, we need some innovative technologies, which enable us to build up thick, three-dimensional structures and to arrange multiple types of cells to make complicated tissue structures. Based on such considerations, we have developed a custom-made inkjet 3D bioprinter, which realized both of direct cell printing and 3D laminating printing with cells and hydrogel. Recently, it has been improved, and here we report recent progresses and our achievements with new version 3D bioprinter.
Image based printing mode and active Z-axis control system were added. As a useful structure, an image of multi-honeycomb pattern was designed in computer and next it was copied and finally in total 100 image data were prepared. Using those digital data, 3D image of thick multi-honeycomb structure was reconstructed in computer, and then, laminating printing was carried out using our new version 3D bioprinter with alginate hydrogel. The new version printer showed good performance of 3D laminating printing and finally complicated 3D multi-honeycomb hydrogel structures could be successfully fabricated. It is indicated that fabrication of cell containing 3D structures based on the computer aided designs is feasible and that such biofabrication technologies must contribute to further innovative advancement of tissue engineering.
Optical and near-infrared observations of novae give us useful information for understanding the diversity of nova eruptions. Classical nova V1723 Aql was discovered by F. Kabashima and K. Nishiyama on 2010 September 11. We have conducted photometric and spectroscopic observations of V1723 Aql in both optical and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength regions since its discovery. The V-band decline time by 2 mag after the maximum, t2, was ~12 d. The apparent Fe II emission lines were also seen in the optical spectra. The Rc- and Ic-band light curves exhibited rapid declines (0.16 mag d−1 in Rc) 20 days after the visual maximum, while the NIR (J, H, and Ks) showed slow decline rates (~0.07 mag d−1). This rapid reddening suggests that dust particles formed during the very early phase of the expansion in V1723 Aql.
The attachment mechanism of inclusions to bubbles has
been studied with water model experiments under turbulent
condition. Change in particle-number concentration indicates
that the removal rate follows first order kinetics. It increases
with particle diameters and particle contact angles.
Growth of bismuth oxide (most probably Bi2O3) was observed in situ in a transmission electron microscope. Bi liquid particles were dispersed on the substrates of diamond or SiO2. Introduction of oxygen up to ∼5 × 10−4 Pa resulted in formation of bismuth oxide (most probably Bi2O3) whiskers. The growth mechanism of the whisker was discussed in terms of a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. It is suggested that the liquid droplet of Bi acts as a physical catalyst for growth of bismuth oxide (most probably Bi2O3) whiskers.
Chemical modification of chromian spinel at low-T alteration was examined in detail for a podiform chromitite from a Tethyan ophiolitic mélange belt at Rayat, northeastern Iraq. The chromitite is highly brecciated and the matrix has been completely altered, producing chlorite and carbonate (dolomite and calcite). High-Cr, low-Fe3+ spinel has formed along the margins and cracks of chromian spinel grains throughout the alteration, associated with unaltered primary spinel and magnetite without ferritchromite. In associated harzburgites, only ferritchromite is found instead of the high-Cr, low-Fe3+ spinel. The high-Cr, low-Fe3+ secondary spinel apparently has chemical properties of mantle origin, plotted at the extension of ordinary mantle spinels on compositional spaces. The character is due to subtraction of Al as chlorite with the addition of an amount of magnetite component from the silicate matrix, which is small in volume relative to peridotite and composed of highly magnesian olivine (up to Fo97). We should treat high-Cr chromian spinels with caution in highly altered mantle-derived rocks, especially chromitite and other rocks with highly magnesian olivine, as well as in detrital particles for provenance study.
The method of analytic tableaux is employed in many introductory texts and has also been used quite extensively as a basis for automated theorem proving. In this paper, we discuss the complexity of the system as a method for refuting contradictory sets of clauses, and resolve several open questions. We discuss the three forms of analytic tableaux: clausal tableaux, generalized clausal tableaux, and binary tableaux. We resolve the relative complexity of these three forms of tableaux proofs and also resolve the relative complexity of analytic tableaux versus resolution. We show that there is a quasi-polynomial simulation of tree resolution by analytic tableaux; this simulation is close to optimal, since we give a matching lower bound that is tight to within a polynomial.
Forearc peridotite is generally characterized by low Mg# (= Mg/[Mg + Fe2+] atomic ratio) at a given Cr# (= Cr/[Cr + Al] atomic ratio) of chromian spinel compared to common abyssal peridotite. This may be due to (1) smaller modal abundance of spinel and/or (2) lower equilibrium temperature, for the forearc peridotite. Forearc peridotite has the same amount of spinel as abyssal peridotite, eliminating the first possibility. Spinel in harzburgite and dunite from the Hahajima Seamount at the Izu-Bonin forearc, has a large Cr#, >0.57, and the Mg# is slightly variable towards low values at a given Cr#. The Mg# of spinel cores decreases strongly with a decrease in size. This is due to cooling along with hydration, which gave rise to a compositional variation of Ca-amphibole, from edenitic hornblende (high-temperature) to tremolite (low-temperature) in the Hahajima peridotite. The average two- pyroxene temperature of the Hahajima peridotite, 921°C, is less than that of the abyssal peridotite (1138°C), which is not consistent with a size-dependent Mg# of spinel for the latter. Forearc peridotite has been cooled effectively by H2O released from the subducted slab, causing a small Mg# of their spinels.